Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Porous Media Related Abstracts

30 Entropy Production in Mixed Convection in a Horizontal Porous Channel Using Darcy-Brinkman Formulation

Authors: Amel Tayari, Atef Eljerry, Mourad Magherbi

Abstract:

The paper reports a numerical investigation of the entropy generation analysis due to mixed convection in laminar flow through a channel filled with porous media. The second law of thermodynamics is applied to investigate the entropy generation rate. The Darcy-Brinkman Model is employed. The entropy generation due to heat transfer and friction dissipations has been determined in mixed convection by solving numerically the continuity, momentum and energy equations, using a control volume finite element method. The effects of Darcy number, modified Brinkman number and the Rayleigh number on averaged entropy generation and averaged Nusselt number are investigated. The Rayleigh number varied between 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 105 and the modified Brinkman number ranges between 10-5 ≤ Br≤ 10-1 with fixed values of porosity and Reynolds number at 0.5 and 10 respectively. The Darcy number varied between 10-6 ≤ Da ≤10.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Numerical Methods, Porous Media, entropy generation, mixed convection, darcy, brinkman

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29 On the Influence of Thermal Radiation Upon Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Porous Media Under Local Thermal Non-Equilibrium Condition

Authors: Yasser Mahmoudi, Nader Karimi

Abstract:

The present work investigates numerically the effect of thermal radiation from the solid phase on the rate of heat transfer inside a porous medium. Forced convection heat transfer process within a pipe filled with a porous media is considered. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model is utilized to represent the fluid transport within the porous medium. A local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE), two-equation model is used to represent the energy transport for the solid and fluid phases. The radiative heat transfer equation is solved by discrete ordinate method (DOM) to compute the radiative heat flux in the porous medium. Two primary approaches (models A and B) are used to represent the boundary conditions for constant wall heat flux. The effects of radiative heat transfer on the Nusselt numbers of the two phases are examined by comparing the results obtained by the application of models A and B. The fluid Nusselt numbers calculated by the application of models A and B show that the Nusselt number obtained by model A for the radiative case is higher than those predicted for the non-radiative case. However, for model B the fluid Nusselt numbers obtained for the radiative and non-radiative cases are similar.

Keywords: Thermal radiation, Porous Media, local thermal non-equilibrium, forced convection heat transfer, Discrete Ordinate Method (DOM)

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28 Temperature Fields in a Channel Partially-Filled by Porous Material with Internal Heat Generations: On Exact Solution

Authors: Yasser Mahmoudi, Nader Karimi

Abstract:

The present work examines analytically the effect internal heat generation on temperature fields in a channel partially-filled with a porous under local thermal non-equilibrium condition. The Darcy-Brinkman model is used to represent the fluid transport through the porous material. Two fundamental models (models A and B) represent the thermal boundary conditions at the interface between the porous medium and the clear region. The governing equations of the problem are manipulated, and for each interface model, exact solutions for the solid and fluid temperature fields are developed. These solutions incorporate the porous material thickness, Biot number, fluid to solid thermal conductivity ratio Darcy number, as the non-dimensional energy terms in fluid and solid as parameters. Results show that considering any of the two models and under zero or negative heat generation (heat sink) and for any Darcy number, an increase in the porous thickness increases the amount of heat flux transferred to the porous region. The obtained results are applicable to the analysis of complex porous media incorporating internal heat generation, such as heat transfer enhancement (THE), tumor ablation in biological tissues and porous radiant burners (PRBs).

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Porous Media, forced convection, local thermal non-equilibrium, exact solution, internal heat generation

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27 Forced Heat Transfer Convection in a Porous Channel with an Oriented Confined Jet

Authors: Azzedine Abdedou, Khedidja Bouhadef

Abstract:

The present study is an analysis of the forced convection heat transfer in porous channel with an oriented jet at the inlet with uniform velocity and temperature distributions. The upper wall is insulated when the bottom one is kept at constant temperature higher than that of the fluid at the entrance. The dynamic field is analysed by the Brinkman-Forchheimer extended Darcy model and the thermal field is traduced by the energy one equation model. The numerical solution of the governing equations is obtained by using the finite volume method. The results mainly concern the effect of Reynolds number, jet angle and thermal conductivity ratio on the flow structure and local and average Nusselt numbers evolutions.

Keywords: Fluid Mechanics, Porous Media, forced convection, oriented confined jet

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26 Three Dimensional Simulation of the Transient Modeling and Simulation of Different Gas Flows Velocity and Flow Distribution in Catalytic Converter with Porous Media

Authors: Amir Reza Radmanesh, Sina Farajzadeh Khosroshahi, Hani Sadr

Abstract:

The transient catalytic converter performance is governed by complex interactions between exhaust gas flow and the monolithic structure of the catalytic converter. Stringent emission regulations around the world necessitate the use of highly-efficient catalytic converters in vehicle exhaust systems. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool for calculating the flow field inside the catalytic converter. Radial velocity profiles, obtained by a commercial CFD code, present very good agreement with respective experimental results published in the literature. However the applicability of CFD for transient simulations is limited by the high CPU demands. In the present work, Geometric modeling ceramic monolith substrate is done with square shaped channel type of Catalytic converter and it is coated platinum and palladium. This example illustrates the effect of flow distribution on thermal response of a catalytic converter and different gas flow velocities, during the critical phase of catalytic converter warm up.

Keywords: Porous Media, Computational Fluid Dynamic, catalytic converter, velocity distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
25 Soret and Dufour's Effects on Mixed Convection Unsteady MHD Boundary Layer Flow over a Stretching Sheet Embedded in a Porous Medium with Chemically Reactive Spices

Authors: Deva Kanta Phukan

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An investigation is made to carry out to study the thermal-diffusion and diffusion thermo-effects in hydro-magnetic unsteady flow by a mixed convection boundary layer past an impermeable vertical stretching sheet embedded in a conducting fluid-saturated porous medium in the presence of a chemical reaction effect. The velocity of stretching surface, the surface temperature and the concentration are assumed to vary linearly with the distance along the surface. The governing partial differential equations are transformed in to self similar unsteady equations using similarity transformations and solved numerically by the Runge kutta fourth order scheme in association with the shooting method for the whole transient domain from the initial state to the final steady state flow. Numerical results for the velocity, temperature, the concentration, the skin friction , and the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are shown graphically for various flow parameters. The results reveal that there is a smooth transition of flow from unsteady state to the final steady state. A special case of our results is in good agreement with an earlier published work.

Keywords: Heat and Mass Transfer, Porous Media, Magnetic Field, boundary layer flow, Soret number, Dufour’s number

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24 Generalized Correlation for the Condensation and Evaporation Heat Transfer Coefficients of Propane (R290), Butane (R600), R134a, and R407c in Porous Horizontal Tubes: Experimental Investigation

Authors: M. Tarawneh

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This work is an experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of different refrigerants during the condensation and evaporation processes in porous media. Four different refrigerants (R134a, R407C, 600a, R290), with different porosities were used to reach a real understanding of the actual heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop when using porous material inside the condenser and evaporator. Steel balls were used as porous media with different porosities (38%, 43%, 48%). The main goal of this project is to enhance the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation and evaporation processes when using different refrigerants and different porosities. Different correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop of the different refrigerants were developed. Also a generalized empirical correlation was developed for the different refrigerants. The experimental and predicted heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops were compared. It was found that, the Absolute standard deviation for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop not exceeded values of 15% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: Porous Media, Condensation, heat transfer coefficient, evaporation, horizontal tubes, propane, butane

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23 Numerical Solution to Coupled Heat and Moisture Diffusion in Bio-Sourced Composite Materials

Authors: Mnasri Faiza, El Ganaoui Mohammed, Khelifa Mourad, Gabsi Slimane

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to describe the hydrothermal behavior through porous material of construction due to temperature gradient. The construction proposed a bi-layer structure which composed of two different materials. The first is a bio-sourced panel named IBS-AKU (inertia system building), the second is the Neopor material. This system (IBS-AKU Neopor) is developed by a Belgium company (Isohabitat). The study suggests a multi-layer structure of the IBS-AKU panel in one dimension. A numerical method was proposed afterwards, by using the finite element method and a refined mesh area to strong gradients. The evolution of temperature fields and the moisture content has been processed.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Simulation, Porous Media, moisture diffusion, composite IBS-AKU

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22 Thermal Performance of Fully Immersed Server into Saturated Fluid Porous Medium

Authors: Yaser Al-Anii, Abdulmajeed Almaneea, Jonathan L. Summers, Harvey M. Thompson, Nikil Kapur

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The natural convection cooling system of a fully immersed server in dielectric liquid is studied numerically. In present case study, the dielectric liquid represents working fluid and it is in contact with server inside capsule. The capsule includes electronic component and fluid, which can be modelled as saturated porous media. This medium follow Darcy flow regime and assumed to be in balance between its components. The study focus is on role of spatial parameters on thermal behavior of convective heat transfer. Based on server known unit, which is 1U, two parameters Ly and S are changed to test their effect. Meanwhile, wide range of modified Rayleigh number, which is 0.5 to 300, are covered to better understand thermal performance. Navier-Stokes equations are used to model physical domain. Furthermore, successive over relaxation and time marching techniques are used to solve momentum and energy equation. From obtained correlation, the in-between distance S is more effective on Nusselt number than distance to edge Ly by approximately 14%. In addition, as S increase, the average Nusselt number of the upper unit is increased sharply, whereas the lower one keeps on same level.

Keywords: Porous Media, convective cooling of server, darcy flow, liquid-immersed server

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
21 Thermal Performance of Fully Immersed Naturally Cooled Server

Authors: Yaser Al-Anii, Abdulmajeed Almaneea, Jonathan L. Summers, Harvey M. Thompson, Nikil Kapur

Abstract:

The natural convection cooling system of a fully immersed server in a dielectric liquid is studied numerically. In the present case study, the dielectric liquid represents working fluid and it is in contact with server inside capsule. The capsule includes electronic component and fluid which can be modeled as saturated porous media. This medium follow Darcy flow regime and assumed to be in balance between its components. The study focus is on role of spatial parameters on thermal behavior of convective heat transfer. Based on server known unit, which is 1U, two parameters Ly and S are changed to test their effect. Meanwhile, wide-range of modified Rayleigh number, which is 0.5 to 300, are covered to better understand thermal performance. Navier-Stokes equations are used to model physical domain. Furthermore, successive over-relaxation and time marching techniques are used to solve momentum and energy equation. From obtained correlation, the in-between distance S is more effective on Nusselt number than distance to edge Ly by approximately 14%. In addition, as S increases, the average Nusselt number of the upper unit increases sharply, whereas the lower one keeps on the same level.

Keywords: Porous Media, convective cooling of server, darcy flow, liquid-immersed server

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
20 Effect of Different Porous Media Models on Drug Delivery to Solid Tumors: Mathematical Approach

Authors: Mostafa Sefidgar, Sohrab Zendehboudi, Hossein Bazmara, Madjid Soltani

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Based on findings from clinical applications, most drug treatments fail to eliminate malignant tumors completely even though drug delivery through systemic administration may inhibit their growth. Therefore, better understanding of tumor formation is crucial in developing more effective therapeutics. For this purpose, nowadays, solid tumor modeling and simulation results are used to predict how therapeutic drugs are transported to tumor cells by blood flow through capillaries and tissues. A solid tumor is investigated as a porous media for fluid flow simulation. Most of the studies use Darcy model for porous media. In Darcy model, the fluid friction is neglected and a few simplified assumptions are implemented. In this study, the effect of these assumptions is studied by considering Brinkman model. A multi scale mathematical method which calculates fluid flow to a solid tumor is used in this study to investigate how neglecting fluid friction affects the solid tumor simulation. In this work, the mathematical model in our previous studies is developed by considering two model of momentum equation for porous media: Darcy and Brinkman. The mathematical method involves processes such as fluid flow through solid tumor as porous media, extravasation of blood flow from vessels, blood flow through vessels and solute diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network and then fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network. Finally, the two models of porous media are used for modeling fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues in three different shapes of tumors. Simulations of interstitial fluid transport in a solid tumor demonstrate that the simplifications used in Darcy model affect the interstitial velocity and Brinkman model predicts a lower value for interstitial velocity than the values that Darcy model does.

Keywords: drug delivery, Porous Media, Darcy model, brinkman model, solid Tumor

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19 Double Diffusive Natural Convection in Horizontal Elliptical Annulus Containing a Fluid-Saturated Porous Medium: Effects of Lewis Number

Authors: Hichem Boulechfar, Mahfoud Djezzar

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Two-dimensional double diffusive natural convection in an annular elliptical space filled with fluid-saturated porous medium, is analyzed by solving numerically the mass balance, momentum, energy and concentration equations, using Darcy's law and Boussinesq approximation. Both walls delimiting the annular space are maintained at two uniform different temperatures and concentrations. The external parameter considered is the Lewis number. For the present work, the heat and mass transfer for natural convection is studied for the case of aiding buoyancies, where the flow is generated in a cooperative mode by both temperature and solutal gradients. The local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented in term of the external parameter.

Keywords: Porous Media, natural convection, double diffusive, elliptical annulus

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18 Experimental Approach and Numerical Modeling of Thermal Properties of Porous Materials: Application to Construction Materials

Authors: Nassima Sotehi

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This article presents experimental and numerical results concerning the thermal properties of the porous materials used as heat insulator in the buildings sector. Initially, the thermal conductivity of three types of studied walls (classic concrete, concrete with cork aggregate and polystyrene concrete) was measured in experiments by the method of the boxes. Then a numerical modeling of the heat and mass transfers which occur within porous materials was applied to these walls. This work shows the influence of the presence of water in building materials on their thermophysical properties, as well as influence of the nature of materials and dosage of fibers introduced within these materials on the thermal and mass transfers.

Keywords: Modeling, Porous Media, Thermal Properties, thermal materials

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17 A New Computational Method for the Solution of Nonlinear Burgers' Equation Arising in Longitudinal Dispersion Phenomena in Fluid Flow through Porous Media

Authors: Olayiwola Moruf Oyedunsi

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This paper discusses the Modified Variational Iteration Method (MVIM) for the solution of nonlinear Burgers’ equation arising in longitudinal dispersion phenomena in fluid flow through porous media. The method is an elegant combination of Taylor’s series and the variational iteration method (VIM). Using Maple 18 for implementation, it is observed that the procedure provides rapidly convergent approximation with less computational efforts. The result shows that the concentration C(x,t) of the contaminated water decreases as distance x increases for the given time t.

Keywords: Porous Media, modified variational iteration method, partial differential equation, Burger’s equation

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16 Investigation of the Cooling and Uniformity Effectiveness in a Sinter Packed Bed

Authors: Uzu-Kuei Hsu, Chang-Hsien Tai, Kai-Wun Jin

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When sinters are filled into the cooler from the sintering machine, and the non-uniform distribution of the sinters leads to uneven cooling. This causes the temperature difference of the sinters leaving the cooler to be so large that it results in the conveyors being deformed by the heat. The present work applies CFD method to investigate the thermo flowfield phenomena in a sinter cooler by the Porous Media Model. Using the obtained experimental data to simulate porosity (Ε), permeability (κ), inertial coefficient (F), specific heat (Cp) and effective thermal conductivity (keff) of the sinter packed beds. The physical model is a similar geometry whose Darcy numbers (Da) are similar to the sinter cooler. Using the Cooling Index (CI) and Uniformity Index (UI) to analyze the thermo flowfield in the sinter packed bed obtains the cooling performance of the sinter cooler.

Keywords: CFD, Porous Media, sinter, cooling index (CI), uniformity index (UI)

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15 Limitation of Parallel Flow in Three-Dimensional Elongated Porous Domain Subjected to Cross Heat and Mass Flux

Authors: Najwa Mimouni, Omar Rahli, Rachid Bennacer, Salah Chikh

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In the present work 2D and 3D numerical simulations of double diffusion natural convection in an elongated enclosure filled with a binary fluid saturating a porous medium are carried out. In the formulation of the problem, the Boussinesq approximation is considered and cross Neumann boundary conditions are specified for heat and mass walls conditions. The numerical method is based on the control volume approach with the third order QUICK scheme. Full approximation storage (FAS) with full multigrid (FMG) method is used to solve the problem. For the explored large range of the controlling parameters, we clearly evidenced that the increase in the depth of the cavity i.e. the lateral aspect ratio has an important effect on the flow patterns. The 2D perfect parallel flows obtained for a small lateral aspect ratio are drastically destabilized by increasing the cavity lateral dimension. This yields a 3D fluid motion with a much more complicated flow pattern and the classically studied 2D parallel flows are impossible.

Keywords: Heat and Mass Transfer, Porous Media, natural convection, bifurcation, parallel flow

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14 Transmission Loss Analysis for Panels Laminated with Felt and Film

Authors: Yoshio Kurosawa

Abstract:

To reduce the interior noise of cars in high-frequency region, sound proof materials are laminated with the body panels and the interior trims. Therefore, sound proof properties of the laminates play an important role for the efficient acoustical design. A program code which predicts both sound absorption properties and sound insulation properties of the laminates are developed. This program code is used for transfer matrix method by Biot theory. This report described the outline of this program code, and the calculation results almost agreed with the experimental results.

Keywords: Porous Media, transfer matrix method, transmission loss, biot theory

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13 Numerical Study of Heat Transfer in Silica Aerogel

Authors: Amal Maazoun, Abderrazak Mezghani, Ali Ben Moussa

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Aerogel consists of a ramified and inter-connected solid skeleton enclosing a very important number of nano-sized pores filled with air that occupies most of the volume and makes very low density. The thermal conductivity of this material can reach lower values than those of any other material, and it changes with the type of the aerogel and its composition. So, in order to explain the causes of the super-insulation of our material and to determine the factors in which depends on its conductivity we used a numerical simulation. We have developed a numerical code that generates random fractal structure of silica aerogel with pre-defined concentration, properties of the backbone and the gas in the pores as well as the size of the particles. The calculation of the conductivity at any point of domain shows that it is not constant and that it depends on the pore size and the location in the pore. A numerical method based on resolution by inversion of block tridiagonal matrices is used to calculate the equivalent thermal conductivity of the whole fractal structure. The average conductivity calculated for each concentration is in good agreement with those of typical aerogels. And we found that the equivalent thermal conductivity of a silica aerogel depends strongly not only on the porosity but also on the tortuosity of the solid backbone.

Keywords: Porous Media, Thermal Conductivity, Aerogel, numerical study, fractal structure

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12 On the Well-Posedness of Darcy–Forchheimer Power Model Equation

Authors: Johnson Audu, Faisal Fairag

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In a bounded subset of R^d, d=2 or 3, we consider the Darcy-Forchheimer power model with the exponent 1 < m ≤ 2 for a single-phase strong-inertia fluid flow in a porous medium. Under necessary compatibility condition, and some mild regularity assumptions on the interior and the boundary data, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solution (u, p) in L^(m+1 ) (Ω)^d X (W^(1,(m+1)/m) (Ω)^d ⋂L_0^2 (Ω)^d) and its stability.

Keywords: Nonlinear, Porous Media, power law, strong inertia, monotone type

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11 Numerical Analysis of a Strainer Using Porous Media Technique

Authors: Ji-Hoon Byeon, Kwon-Hee Lee

Abstract:

Strainer filter serves to block the inflow of impurities while mixed fluid is entering or exiting the piping. The filter of the strainer has a perforated structure, so that the pressure drop and the velocity change necessarily occur when the mixed fluid passes through the filter. It is possible to predict the pressure drop and velocity change of the strainer by numerical analysis by implementing all the perforated plates. However, if the size of the perforated plate exceeds a certain size, it is difficult to perform the numerical analysis, and sometimes we cannot guarantee its accuracy. In this study, we tried to predict the pressure drop and velocity change by using the porous media technique to obtain the equivalent resistance without actual implementation of the perforation shape of the strainer. Ansys-CFX, a commercial software, is used to perform the numerical analysis. The analysis procedure is as follows. Firstly, the unit pattern of the perforated plate is modeled, and the pressure drop is analyzed by varying the velocity by symmetry of the wall surface. Secondly, since the equation for obtaining resistance is a quadratic equation of pressure having unknown velocity, the viscous resistance and the inertia resistance of the perforated plate are obtained from the relationship between pressure and speed. Thirdly, by using the calculated resistance values, the values are substituted into the flat plate implemented as a two-dimensional porous media, and the accuracy is verified by comparing the pressure drop and the velocity change. Fourthly, the pressure drop and velocity change in the whole strainer are analyzed by using the resistance values obtained on the perforated plate in the actual whole strainer model. Using the porous media technique, it is found that pressure drop and velocity change can be predicted in relatively short time without modeling the overall shape of the filter. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Valve Center from the Regional Innovation Center(RIC) Program of Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE).

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, CFD, Porous Media, strainer

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10 3D Numerical Modelling of a Pulsed Pumping Process of a Large Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Pool: In situ Pilot-Scale Case Study of Hexachlorobutadiene in a Keyed Enclosure

Authors: Q. Giraud, J. Gonçalvès, B. Paris

Abstract:

Remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) represents a challenging issue because of their persistent behaviour in the environment. This pilot-scale study investigates, by means of in situ experiments and numerical modelling, the feasibility of the pulsed pumping process of a large amount of a DNAPL in an alluvial aquifer. The main compound of the DNAPL is hexachlorobutadiene, an emerging organic pollutant. A low-permeability keyed enclosure was built at the location of the DNAPL source zone in order to isolate a finite undisturbed volume of soil, and a 3-month pulsed pumping process was applied inside the enclosure to exclusively extract the DNAPL. The water/DNAPL interface elevation at both the pumping and observation wells and the cumulated pumped volume of DNAPL were also recorded. A total volume of about 20m³ of purely DNAPL was recovered since no water was extracted during the process. The three-dimensional and multiphase flow simulator TMVOC was used, and a conceptual model was elaborated and generated with the pre/post-processing tool mView. Numerical model consisted of 10 layers of variable thickness and 5060 grid cells. Numerical simulations reproduce the pulsed pumping process and show an excellent match between simulated, and field data of DNAPL cumulated pumped volume and a reasonable agreement between modelled and observed data for the evolution of the water/DNAPL interface elevations at the two wells. This study offers a new perspective in remediation since DNAPL pumping system optimisation may be performed where a large amount of DNAPL is encountered.

Keywords: Multiphase Flow, Porous Media, Numerical Modelling, dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), hexachlorobutadiene, in situ pulsed pumping

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
9 Wind Load Reduction Effect of Exterior Porous Skin on Facade Performance

Authors: Ying-Chang Yu, Yuan-Lung Lo

Abstract:

Building envelope design is one of the most popular design fields of architectural profession in nowadays. The main design trend of such system is to highlight the designer's aesthetic intention from the outlook of building project. Due to the trend of current façade design, the building envelope contains more and more layers of components, such as double skin façade, photovoltaic panels, solar control system, or even ornamental components. These exterior components are designed for various functional purposes. Most researchers focus on how these exterior elements should be structurally sound secured. However, not many researchers consider these elements would help to improve the performance of façade system. When the exterior elements are deployed in large scale, it creates an additional layer outside of original façade system and acts like a porous interface which would interfere with the aerodynamic of façade surface in micro-scale. A standard façade performance consists with 'water penetration, air infiltration rate, operation force, and component deflection ratio', and these key performances are majorly driven by the 'Design Wind Load' coded in local regulation. A design wind load is usually determined by the maximum wind pressure which occurs on the surface due to the geometry or location of building in extreme conditions. This research was designed to identify the air damping phenomenon of micro turbulence caused by porous exterior layer leading to surface wind load reduction for improvement of façade system performance. A series of wind tunnel test on dynamic pressure sensor array covered by various scale of porous exterior skin was conducted to verify the effect of wind pressure reduction. The testing specimens were designed to simulate the typical building with two-meter extension offsetting from building surface. Multiple porous exterior skins were prepared to replicate various opening ratio of surface which may cause different level of damping effect. This research adopted 'Pitot static tube', 'Thermal anemometers', and 'Hot film probe' to collect the data of surface dynamic pressure behind porous skin. Turbulence and distributed resistance are the two main factors of aerodynamic which would reduce the actual wind pressure. From initiative observation, the reading of surface wind pressure was effectively reduced behind porous media. In such case, an actual building envelope system may be benefited by porous skin from the reduction of surface wind pressure, which may improve the performance of envelope system consequently.

Keywords: Porous Media, wind tunnel test, multi-layer facade, facade performance, turbulence and distributed resistance

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8 Temporal and Spatio-Temporal Stability Analyses in Mixed Convection of a Viscoelastic Fluid in a Porous Medium

Authors: P. Naderi, M. N. Ouarzazi, S. C. Hirata, H. Ben Hamed, H. Beji

Abstract:

The stability of mixed convection in a Newtonian fluid medium heated from below and cooled from above, also known as the Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard problem, has been extensively investigated in the past decades. To our knowledge, mixed convection in porous media has received much less attention in the published literature. The present paper extends the mixed convection problem in porous media for the case of a viscoelastic fluid flow owing to its numerous environmental and industrial applications such as the extrusion of polymer fluids, solidification of liquid crystals, suspension solutions and petroleum activities. Without a superimposed through-flow, the natural convection problem of a viscoelastic fluid in a saturated porous medium has already been treated. The effects of the viscoelastic properties of the fluid on the linear and nonlinear dynamics of the thermoconvective instabilities have also been treated in this work. Consequently, the elasticity of the fluid can lead either to a Hopf bifurcation, giving rise to oscillatory structures in the strongly elastic regime, or to a stationary bifurcation in the weakly elastic regime. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of the main horizontal flow on the linear and characteristics of these two types of instabilities. Under the Boussinesq approximation and Darcy's law extended to a viscoelastic fluid, a temporal stability approach shows that the conditions for the appearance of longitudinal rolls are identical to those found in the absence of through-flow. For the general three-dimensional (3D) perturbations, a Squire transformation allows the deduction of the complex frequencies associated with the 3D problem using those obtained by solving the two-dimensional one. The numerical resolution of the eigenvalue problem concludes that the through-flow has a destabilizing effect and selects a convective configuration organized in purely transversal rolls which oscillate in time and propagate in the direction of the main flow. In addition, by using the mathematical formalism of absolute and convective instabilities, we study the nature of unstable three-dimensional disturbances. It is shown that for a non-vanishing through-flow, general three-dimensional instabilities are convectively unstable which means that in the absence of a continuous noise source these instabilities are drifted outside the porous medium, and no long-term pattern is observed. In contrast, purely transversal rolls may exhibit a transition to absolute instability regime and therefore affect the porous medium everywhere including in the absence of a noise source. The absolute instability threshold, the frequency and the wave number associated with purely transversal rolls are determined as a function of the Péclet number and the viscoelastic parameters. Results are discussed and compared to those obtained from laboratory experiments in the case of Newtonian fluids.

Keywords: Instability, Porous Media, mixed convection, and viscoelastic fluid

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7 Compressible Flow Modeling in Pipes and Porous Media during Blowdown Experiment

Authors: Thomas Paris, Vincent Bruyere, Patrick Namy

Abstract:

A numerical model is developed to simulate gas blowdowns through a thin tube and a filter (porous media), separating a high pressure gas filled reservoir to low pressure ones. Based on a previous work, a one-dimensional approach is developed by using the finite element method to solve the transient compressible flow and to predict the pressure and temperature evolution in space and time. Mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations are solved in a fully coupled way in the reservoirs, the pipes and the porous media. Numerical results, such as pressure and temperature evolutions, are firstly compared with experimental data to validate the model for different configurations. Couplings between porous media and pipe flow are then validated by checking mass balance. The influence of the porous media and the nature of the gas is then studied for different initial high pressure values.

Keywords: Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, Porous Media, compressible flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
6 Topology Enhancement of a Straight Fin Using a Porous Media Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Approach

Authors: S. Wakim, M. Nemer, B. Zeghondy, B. Ghannam, C. Bouallou

Abstract:

Designing the optimal heat exchanger is still an essential objective to be achieved. Parametrical optimization involves the evaluation of the heat exchanger dimensions to find those that best satisfy certain objectives. This method contributes to an enhanced design rather than an optimized one. On the contrary, topology optimization finds the optimal structure that satisfies the design objectives. The huge development in metal additive manufacturing allowed topology optimization to find its way into engineering applications especially in the aerospace field to optimize metal structures. Using topology optimization in 3d heat and mass transfer problems requires huge computational time, therefore coupling it with CFD simulations can reduce this it. However, existed CFD models cannot be coupled with topology optimization. The CFD model must allow creating a uniform mesh despite the initial geometry complexity and also to swap the cells from fluid to solid and vice versa. In this paper, a porous media approach compatible with topology optimization criteria is developed. It consists of modeling the fluid region of the heat exchanger as porous media having high porosity and similarly the solid region is modeled as porous media having low porosity. The switching from fluid to solid cells required by topology optimization is simply done by changing each cell porosity using a user defined function. This model is tested on a plate and fin heat exchanger and validated by comparing its results to experimental data and simulations results. Furthermore, this model is used to perform a material reallocation based on local criteria to optimize a plate and fin heat exchanger under a constant heat duty constraint. The optimized fin uses 20% fewer materials than the first while the pressure drop is reduced by about 13%.

Keywords: Computational Methods, Porous Media, Finite Element Method, heat exchanger, topology optimization

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5 Development of Academic Software for Medial Axis Determination of Porous Media from High-Resolution X-Ray Microtomography Data

Authors: S. Jurado, E. Pazmino

Abstract:

Determination of the medial axis of a porous media sample is a non-trivial problem of interest for several disciplines, e.g., hydrology, fluid dynamics, contaminant transport, filtration, oil extraction, etc. However, the computational tools available for researchers are limited and restricted. The primary aim of this work was to develop a series of algorithms to extract porosity, medial axis structure, and pore-throat size distributions from porous media domains. A complementary objective was to provide the algorithms as free computational software available to the academic community comprising researchers and students interested in 3D data processing. The burn algorithm was tested on porous media data obtained from High-Resolution X-Ray Microtomography (HRXMT) and idealized computer-generated domains. The real data and idealized domains were discretized in voxels domains of 550³ elements and binarized to denote solid and void regions to determine porosity. Subsequently, the algorithm identifies the layer of void voxels next to the solid boundaries. An iterative process removes or 'burns' void voxels in sequence of layer by layer until all the void space is characterized. Multiples strategies were tested to optimize the execution time and use of computer memory, i.e., segmentation of the overall domain in subdomains, vectorization of operations, and extraction of single burn layer data during the iterative process. The medial axis determination was conducted identifying regions where burnt layers collide. The final medial axis structure was refined to avoid concave-grain effects and utilized to determine the pore throat size distribution. A graphic user interface software was developed to encompass all these algorithms, including the generation of idealized porous media domains. The software allows input of HRXMT data to calculate porosity, medial axis, and pore-throat size distribution and provide output in tabular and graphical formats. Preliminary tests of the software developed during this study achieved medial axis, pore-throat size distribution and porosity determination of 100³, 320³ and 550³ voxel porous media domains in 2, 22, and 45 minutes, respectively in a personal computer (Intel i7 processor, 16Gb RAM). These results indicate that the software is a practical and accessible tool in postprocessing HRXMT data for the academic community.

Keywords: Porous Media, porosity, medial axis, pore-throat distribution

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4 Controlling the Fluid Flow in Hydrogen Fuel Cells through Material Porosity Designs

Authors: Jamal Hussain Al-Smail

Abstract:

Hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs) are environmentally friendly, energy converter devices that convert the chemical energy of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen) to electricity through electrochemical reactions. The level of the electricity production of HFCs mainly increases depending on the oxygen distribution in the HFC’s cathode gas diffusion layer (GDL). With a constant porosity of the GDL, the electrochemical reaction can have a great variation that reduces the cell’s productivity and stability. Our findings bring a methodology in finding porosity designs of the diffusion layer to improve the oxygen distribution such that it results in a stable oxygen-hydrogen reaction. We first introduce a mathematical model involving the mass and momentum transport equations, in which a porosity function of the GDL is incorporated as a control for the fluid flow. We then derive numerical methods for solving the mathematical model. In conclusion, we present our numerical results to show how to design the GDL porosity to result in a uniform oxygen distribution.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, Fuel Cells, Porous Media, material porosity design

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3 Application of Waterflooding to the Kashkari Oil Field in Northern Afghanistan

Authors: Zabihullah Mahdi, Mahdi Nayab, Sadaf Jalal, Navid Seddiqi

Abstract:

Hydrocarbons represent an important natural resource for the rehabilitation and sustainable development of Afghanistan. In this paper, the use of waterflooding is demonstrated for the petroleum reservoirs of the Kashkari oil field in northern Afghanistan. The technique is based on the Buckley–Leverett frontal-displacement theory, which enables computation of the progress of the waterfront in the reservoir. The relative permeabilities of oil and water, the residual oil saturation, and the irreducible water saturation are obtained from a laboratory experiment. The technique is applied to the laboratory plane-reservoir model to investigate the displacement mechanism and is then compared with the theoretical calculation. Lastly, the technique is applied to the Kashkari oil field to predict the feasible amount of oil that could be produced from this reservoir.

Keywords: Porous Media, two-phase flow, relative permeability, immiscible displacement, petroleum reservoir engineering, waterflooding, Buckley–Leverett

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2 Analytical Solution for Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Analysis of Unsaturated Porous Media Using AG Method

Authors: Davood Yazdani Cherati, Hussein Hashemi Senejani

Abstract:

In this paper, a convenient analytical solution for a system of coupled differential equations, derived from thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of three-phase porous media such as unsaturated soils is developed. This kind of analysis can be used in various fields such as geothermal energy systems and seepage of leachate from buried municipal and domestic waste in geomaterials. Initially, a system of coupled differential equations, including energy, mass, and momentum conservation equations is considered, and an analytical method called AGM is employed to solve the problem. The method is straightforward and comprehensible and can be used to solve various nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). Results indicate the accuracy of the applied method for solving nonlinear partial differential equations.

Keywords: Porous Media, Unsaturated Soils, analytical solution, AGM, thermo-hydro-mechanical

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1 Effect of Porous Multi-Layer Envelope System on Effective Wind Pressure of Building Ventilation

Authors: Ying-Chang Yu, Yuan-Lung Lo

Abstract:

Building ventilation performance is an important indicator of indoor comfort. However, in addition to the geometry of the building or the proportion of the opening, the ventilation performance is also very much related to the actual wind pressure of the building. There are more and more contemporary building designs built with multi-layer exterior envelope. Due to ventilation and view observatory requirement, the porous outer layer of the building is commonly adopted and has a significant wind damping effect, causing the phenomenon of actual wind pressure loss. However, the relationship between the wind damping effect and the actual wind pressure is not linear. This effect can make the indoor ventilation of the building rationalized to reasonable range under the condition of high wind pressure, and also maintain a good amount of ventilation performance under the condition of low wind pressure. In this study, wind tunnel experiments were carried out to simulate the different wind pressures flow through the porous outer layer, and observe the actual wind pressure strength engage with the window layer to find the decreasing relationship between the damping effect of the porous shell and the wind pressure. Experiment specimen scale was designed to be 1:50 for testing real-world building conditions; the study found that the porous enclosure has protective shielding without affecting low-pressure ventilation. Current study observed the porous skin may damp more wind energy to ease the wind pressure under high-speed wind. Differential wind speed may drop the pressure into similar pressure level by using porous skin. The actual mechanism and value of this phenomenon will need further study in the future.

Keywords: Porous Media, Building Ventilation, wind tunnel test, multi-layer facade, wind damping

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