Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

porosity Related Abstracts

40 Development of a Bacterial Resistant Concrete for Use in Low Cost Kitchen Floors

Authors: S. S. Mahlangu, R. K. K. Mbaya, D. D. Delport, H. Van. Zyl


The degrading effect due to bacterial growth on the structural integrity of concrete floor surfaces is predictable; this consequently cause development of surface micro cracks in which organisms penetrate through resulting in surface spalling. Hence, the need to develop mix design meeting the requirement of floor surfaces exposed to aggressive agent to improve certain material properties with good workability, extended lifespan and low cost is essential. In this work, tests were performed to examine the microbial activity on kitchen floor surfaces and the effect of adding admixtures. The biochemical test shows the existence of microorganisms (E.coli, Streptococcus) on newly casted structure. Of up to 6% porosity was reduced and improvement on structural integrity was observed upon adding mineral admixtures from the concrete mortar. The SEM result after 84 days of curing specimens, shows that chemical admixtures have significant role to enable retard bacterial penetration and good quality structure is achieved.

Keywords: Organisms, Strength, admixture, porosity

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39 Strong Microcapsules with Macroporous Polymer Shells

Authors: Eve S. A. Loiseau, Marion Frey, Yves Blickenstorfer, Fabian Niedermair, André R. Studart


Porous microcapsules have a broad range of applications that require a robust shell. We propose a new method to produce macroporous polymer capsules with controlled size, shell thickness, porosity and mechanical properties using co-flow flow-focusing glass capillary devices. The porous structure was investigated through SEM and the permeability through confocal microscopy. Compression tests on single capsules were performed. We obtained microcapsules with tailored permeability from open to close pores structures and able to withstand loads up to 150 g.

Keywords: Micromechanics, Microcapsules, porosity, polymer shells

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38 Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Limestone in the Quarry of Meftah (Algeria)

Authors: Khaled Benyounes


Determination of the rock mechanical properties such as unconfined compressive strength UCS, Young’s modulus E, and tensile strength by the Brazilian test Rtb is considered to be the most important component in drilling and mining engineering project. Research related to establishing correlation between strength and physical parameters of rocks has always been of interest to mining and reservoir engineering. For this, many rock blocks of limestone were collected from the quarry located in Meftah (Algeria), the cores were crafted in the laboratory using a core drill. This work examines the relationships between mechanical properties and some physical properties of limestone. Many empirical equations are established between UCS and physical properties of limestone (such as dry bulk density, velocity of P-waves, dynamic Young’s modulus, alteration index, and total porosity). Other correlations, UCS - tensile strength, dynamic Young’s modulus - static Young’s modulus have been find. Based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, we were able to establish mathematical relationships that will allow estimating the cohesion and internal friction angle from UCS and indirect tensile strength. Results from this study can be useful for mining industry for resolve range of geomechanical problems such as slope stability.

Keywords: Mechanical Strength, porosity, limestone, Young’s modulus

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37 Evaluation of Compressive Mechanical Properties of the Radial Bone Defect Treated with Selected Bone Graft Substitute Materials in Rabbit

Authors: Omid Gholipoor Bashiri, Ghafur Mosavi, Aliasghar Behnamghader, Seyed Mahmood Rabiee


Objective: To determine the effect of selected bone graft on the compression properties of radial bone in rabbit. Design-Experimental in vivo study. Animals: A total of 45 adult male New Zealand white rabbits. Procedures: The rabbits were anesthetized and a one-cm-full thickness piece of radial bone was removed using oscillating saw in the all rabbit. The rabbits were divided into 5 groups on the basis of the material used to fill the bone defect: group 1: the paste of bone cement calcium phosphate; group II: the paste of calcium phosphate mixture with type I collagen; group III: tricalcium phosphate mixed with hydroxyapatite (TCP & HP) with 5% porosity; group IV: the same scaffold as group III with 10% porosity; and group V: the same scaffold as group III and IV with 20% porosity, with 9 rabbits in each group. Subsequently subdivided into 3 subgroups of 3 rabbits each. Results: There was a significant increase in compression properties of radial bone in the group II and V in 2nd and 3rd months as compared with groups I, III and IV. The mean endurable crack-strength in group II and V were slightly higher than that of normal radius (P<0.05). Conclusion and clinical relevance: Application of calcium phosphate paste with type I collagen and scaffold of tricalcium phosphate with hydroxyapatite having 20% porosity indicated to have positive effect in integral formation of qualitative callus at the site of fracture and early re-organization of callus to regain mechanical strength too.

Keywords: porosity, hydroxyapatite, rabbit, calcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, radial bone, compressive properties, type i collagen

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36 Assessment of Petrophysical Parameters Using Well Log and Core Data

Authors: Khulud M. Rahuma, Ibrahim B. Younis


Assessment of petrophysical parameters are very essential for reservoir engineer. Three techniques can be used to predict reservoir properties: well logging, well testing, and core analysis. Cementation factor and saturation exponent are very required for calculation, and their values role a great effect on water saturation estimation. In this study a sensitive analysis was performed to investigate the influence of cementation factor and saturation exponent variation applying logs, and core analysis. Measurements of water saturation resulted in a maximum difference around fifteen percent.

Keywords: porosity, cementation factor, saturation exponent, formation factor, water saturation

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35 Assessment of Some Local Clay Minerals Used for the Production of Floor Tiles: Panacea for Economic Growth

Authors: Ekenyem Stan Chinweike


The suitability of some clay deposits in south eastern Nigeria (Unwana, Ekebedi and Nsu) as materials for the production of floor tiles was investigated. The clay samples were analyzed using wet classical method to determine their chemical composition. Floor tile test specimens were produced using standard method. The test specimens were tested for physical properties such as compressive strength and porosity at 1050◦c and 1150◦c temperature levels. The chemical analysis showed the following results: Unwana (5102 52.24%, AL2o3, 27.20%, Fe2o3 7%, T102 (1.52%), Ekebedi (S102 (58.53%), Al2o3 28.42%, Fe2o3 7%, Ti o2 (1.12%),NSU SIo2 (58.16%), Al2O3 (28.42%), Fe2O3 1.89%, T102 (0.82%) The compressive strength of Unwana, Ekebedi and Nsu clays at 1050◦c are respectively: 15MPa, 13.75MPa and 13.5MPa. At 1150◦c, the values are 16.2MPa and 16.0MPa for Ekebedi and Nsu clays respectively. The porosity of Unwana, Ekebedi and Nsu clays at 1050◦c are respectively31.57%, 23.15% and 24.21%. At 1150◦c, the values are 23.65% and 24.75% for Ekebedi and Nsu respectively. The three clays can be used for production of tiles but Ekebedi has the highest compressive strength which makes it the most suitable clay for the production of floor tiles when compared with floor tiles of the same nominal size stipulated by ASTM standard.

Keywords: Clay Minerals, compressive strength, porosity, feldspar, quartz

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
34 Influence of Physical Properties on Estimation of Mechanical Strength of Limestone

Authors: Khaled Benyounes


Determination of the rock mechanical properties such as unconfined compressive strength UCS, Young’s modulus E, and tensile strength by the Brazilian test Rtb is considered to be the most important component in drilling and mining engineering project. Research related to establishing correlation between strength and physical parameters of rocks has always been of interest to mining and reservoir engineering. For this, many rock blocks of limestone were collected from the quarry located in Meftah(Algeria), the cores were crafted in the laboratory using a core drill. This work examines the relationships between mechanical properties and some physical properties of limestone. Many empirical equations are established between UCS and physical properties of limestone (such as dry bulk density, velocity of P-waves, dynamic Young’s modulus, alteration index, and total porosity). Others correlations UCS-tensile strength, dynamic Young’s modulus-static Young’s modulus have been find. Based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, we were able to establish mathematical relationships that will allow estimating the cohesion and internal friction angle from UCS and indirect tensile strength. Results from this study can be useful for mining industry for resolve range of geomechanical problems such as slope stability.

Keywords: Mechanical Strength, porosity, limestone, Young’s modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
33 The Effect of Particle Porosity in Mixed Matrix Membrane Permeation Models

Authors: Z. Sadeghi, M. R. Omidkhah, M. E. Masoomi


The purpose of this paper is to examine gas transport behavior of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) combined with porous particles. Main existing models are categorized in two main groups; two-phase (ideal contact) and three-phase (non-ideal contact). A new coefficient, J, was obtained to express equations for estimating effect of the particle porosity in two-phase and three-phase models. Modified models evaluates with existing models and experimental data using Matlab software. Comparison of gas permeability of proposed modified models with existing models in different MMMs shows a better prediction of gas permeability in MMMs.

Keywords: porosity, mixed matrix membrane, permeation models, porous particles

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32 Influence of Drying Method in Parts of Alumina Obtained for Rapid Prototyping and Uniaxial Dry Pressing

Authors: Luis Alberto dos Santos, N. O. Muniz, F. A. Vechietti, L. Treccani, K. Rezwan


Developing new technologies in the manufacture of biomaterials is a major challenge for researchers in the tissue engineering area. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed the significance of the porous structure of the biomaterials on the promotion of bone ingrowth. The use of Rapid Prototyping in the manufacture of ceramics in the biomedical area has increased in recent years and few studies are conducted on obtaining alumina pieces. The aim of this work was the study of alumina pieces obtained by 3D printing and uniaxial dry pressing (DP) in order to evaluate porosity achieved by this two different techniques. Also, the influence of the powder drying process was determined. The row alumina powders were drying by freeze drying and oven. Apparent porosity, apparent density, retraction after thermal treatment were evaluated. The porosity values obtained by DP, regardless of method of drying powders, were much lower than those obtained by RP as expected. And for the prototyped samples, the method of powder drying significantly influenced porosities, reached 48% for drying oven versus 65% for freeze-drying. Therefore, the method of 3D printing, using different powder drying, allows a better control over the porosity.

Keywords: Rapid prototyping, porosity, freeze-drying, alumina

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31 Influence of Internal Topologies on Components Produced by Selective Laser Melting: Numerical Analysis

Authors: C. Malça, P. Gonçalves, N. Alves, A. Mateus


Regardless of the manufacturing process used, subtractive or additive, material, purpose and application, produced components are conventionally solid mass with more or less complex shape depending on the production technology selected. Aspects such as reducing the weight of components, associated with the low volume of material required and the almost non-existent material waste, speed and flexibility of production and, primarily, a high mechanical strength combined with high structural performance, are competitive advantages in any industrial sector, from automotive, molds, aviation, aerospace, construction, pharmaceuticals, medicine and more recently in human tissue engineering. Such features, properties and functionalities are attained in metal components produced using the additive technique of Rapid Prototyping from metal powders commonly known as Selective Laser Melting (SLM), with optimized internal topologies and varying densities. In order to produce components with high strength and high structural and functional performance, regardless of the type of application, three different internal topologies were developed and analyzed using numerical computational tools. The developed topologies were numerically submitted to mechanical compression and four point bending testing. Finite Element Analysis results demonstrate how different internal topologies can contribute to improve mechanical properties, even with a high degree of porosity relatively to fully dense components. Results are very promising not only from the point of view of mechanical resistance, but especially through the achievement of considerable variation in density without loss of structural and functional high performance.

Keywords: Rapid prototyping, Additive manufacturing, Selective Laser Melting, porosity, internal topologies

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30 Numerical Modelling of Effective Diffusivity in Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Ayesha Sohail, Khadija Maqbool, Anila Asif, Haroon Ahmad


The field of tissue engineering is an active area of research. Bone tissue engineering helps to resolve the clinical problems of critical size and non-healing defects by the creation of man-made bone tissue. We will design and validate an efficient numerical model, which will simulate the effective diffusivity in bone tissue engineering. Our numerical model will be based on the finite element analysis of the diffusion-reaction equations. It will have the ability to optimize the diffusivity, even at multi-scale, with the variation of time. It will also have a special feature, with which we will not only be able to predict the oxygen, glucose and cell density dynamics, more accurately, but will also sort the issues arising due to anisotropy. We will fix these problems with the help of modifying the governing equations, by selecting appropriate spatio-temporal finite element schemes, by adaptive grid refinement strategy and by transient analysis.

Keywords: Scaffolds, Transient Analysis, porosity, diffusion

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29 The Affect of Water Quality on the Ultrasonic Attenuation of Bone Mimic

Authors: A. Elsariti, T. Evans


The propagation mechanisms in the trabecular bone are poorly understood and have been the subject of extended debate; also, steel wool has been evaluated as a potential bone mimic, Its advantages are ready availability, low cost and a wide range of sizes. In this study, both distilled and tap water were used to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in coarse steel wool. It is clear from the results that the attenuation of coarse steel wool increased as the distance between the transducers decreased, and it is higher in tap water than distilled water. At 9cm distance between the transducers the attenuation was approximately 0.97 and 4.7 dB in distilled and tap water respectively. While it is 6.97 and 12.2 dB in distilled and tap water respectively at distance 4cm. This change in the attenuation between both distilled and tap water is probably due to gas bubbles in the tap water.

Keywords: porosity, distilled water, bone mimic, tap water, ultrasonic attenuation

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28 Determination of Lithology, Porosity and Water Saturation for Mishrif Carbonate Formation

Authors: F. S. Kadhim, A. Samsuri, H. Alwan


Well logging records can help to answer many questions from a wide range of special interested information and basic petrophysical properties to formation evaluation of oil and gas reservoirs. The accurate calculations of porosity in carbonate reservoirs are the most challenging aspects of well log analysis. Many equations have been developed over the years based on known physical principles or on empirically derived relationships, which are used to calculate porosity, estimate lithology and water saturation; however these parameters are calculated from well logs by using modern technique in a current study. Nasiriya (NS) oilfield is one of giant oilfields in the Middle East, and the formation under study is the Mishrif carbonate formation which is the shallowest hydrocarbon bearing zone in the NS oilfield. Neurolog software (V5, 2008) was used to digitize the scanned copies of the available logs. Environmental corrections had been made as per Schlumberger charts 2005, which supplied in the Interactive Petrophysics software (IP, V3.5, 2008). Three saturation models have been used to calculate water saturation of carbonate formations, which are simple Archie equation, Dual water model, and Indonesia model. Results indicate that the Mishrif formation consists mainly of limestone, some dolomite and shale. The porosity interpretation shows that the logging tools have a good quality after making the environmental corrections. The average formation water saturation for Mishrif formation is around 0.4-0.6.This study is provided accurate behavior of petrophysical properties with depth for this formation by using modern software.

Keywords: porosity, water saturation, carbonate formation, lithology, mishrif formation

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27 Evaluation of Limestone as Self-Curing Aggregate for Concretes in the Southeast of Yucatan Peninsula

Authors: J. C. Cruz, D. G. Rejon-Parra, B. Escobar-Morales, Romeli Barbosa


In the southeast of Yucatan Peninsula, sedimentary limestone has different degrees of compaction. Due to its recent geological formation (Quaternary) and weathering effects causing an affordable aggregate for local manufacturers of concrete. It is characterized as lightweight aggregates (average density of 2,50), susceptible to abrasion and varying porosities (water content exceeding 7,50 % of its mass, in saturated condition). In this study, local aggregates with two moisture conditions (saturated and dry), have been examined in order to compare them for optimizing the performance of concrete. It is possible that these aggregates favour a phenomenon of mass transport (self-curing by porous aggregate); influencing the water reactions to form crystalline and gel hydration products. Based on the ACI methodology, a concrete mixture of 250 kg/cm2 was designed, with portland blended cement 30R. The bond between the mortar and the coarse aggregate was characterized as physicochemical based on trials which were carefully observed during time span of 28 days. The BET technique was used to analyse the micro porosity and surface areas of contact of the different crystalline phases of the limestone. Its chemical composition and crystal structures were verified with scanning electron microscopy SEM-EDS. On the third day, the samples with saturated aggregate reached 237 kg/cm2 of resistence, nearly the design strength; while samples with dry aggregate, exceeded the design strength, with a capacity of 308 kg/cm2. Aggregates in dry conditions demand a high quantity of water in the initial mixture, causing high resistance at the early stages. In saturated conditions, the development of resistance is progressive but constant.

Keywords: Concrete, porosity, internal curing, limestone aggregate

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26 Angiopermissive Foamed and Fibrillar Scaffolds for Vascular Graft Applications

Authors: Deon Bezuidenhout


Pre-seeding with autologous endothelial cells improves the long-term patency of synthetic vascular grafts levels obtained with autografts, but is limited to a single centre due to resource, time and other constraints. Spontaneous in vivo endothelialization would obviate the need for pre-seeding, but has been shown to be absent in man due to limited transanastomotic and fallout healing, and the lack of transmural ingrowth due to insufficient porosity. Two types of graft scaffolds with increased interconnected porosity for improved tissue ingrowth and healing are thus proposed and described. Foam-type polyurethane (PU) scaffolds with small, medium and large, interconnected pores were made by phase inversion and spherical porogen extraction, with and without additional surface modification with covalently attached heparin and subsequent loading with and delivery of growth factors. Fibrillar scaffolds were made either by standard electrospinning using degradable PU (Degrapol®), or by dual electrospinning using non-degradable PU. The latter process involves sacrificial fibres that are co-spun with structural fibres and subsequently removed to increased porosity and pore size. Degrapol samples were subjected to in vitro degradation, and all scaffold types were evaluated in vivo for tissue ingrowth and vascularization using rat subcutaneous model. The foam scaffolds were additionally evaluated in a circulatory (rat infrarenal aortic interposition) model that allows for the grafts to be anastomotically and/or ablumenally isolated to discern and determine endothelialization mode. Foam-type grafts with large (150 µm) pores showed improved subcutaneous healing in terms of vascularization and inflammatory response over smaller pore sizes (60 and 90µm), and vascularization of the large porosity scaffolds was significantly increased by more than 70% by heparin modification alone, and by 150% to 400% when combined with growth factors. In the circulatory model, extensive transmural endothelialization (95±10% at 12 w) was achieved. Fallout healing was shown to be sporadic and limited in groups that were ablumenally isolated to prevent transmural ingrowth (16±30% wrapped vs. 80±20% control; p<0.002). Heparinization and GF delivery improved both mural vascularization and lumenal endothelialization. Degrapol electrospun scaffolds showed decrease in molecular mass and corresponding tensile strength over the first 2 weeks, but very little decrease in mass over the 4w test period. Studies on the effect of tissue ingrowth with and without concomitant degradation of the scaffolds, are being used to develop material models for the finite element modelling. In the case of the dual-spun scaffolds, the PU fibre fraction could be controlled shown to vary linearly with porosity (P = −0.18FF +93.5, r2=0.91), which in turn showed inverse linear correlation with tensile strength and elastic modulus (r2 > 0.96). Calculated compliance and burst pressures of the scaffolds increased with fibre fraction, and compliances matching the human popliteal artery (5-10 %/100 mmHg), and high burst pressures (> 2000 mmHg) could be achieved. Increasing porosity (76 to 82 and 90%) resulted in increased tissue ingrowth from 33±7 to 77±20 and 98±1% after 28d. Transmural endothelialization of highly porous foamed grafts is achievable in a circulatory model, and the enhancement of porosity and tissue ingrowth may hold the key the development of spontaneously endothelializing electrospun grafts.

Keywords: Electrospinning, Scaffold, porosity, endothelialization, vascular graft

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25 The Engineering Properties of Jordanian Marble

Authors: Raed Abendeh, Mousa Bani Baker, Hesham Ahmad, Zaidoon Abu Salem


This research paper was commissioned to discuss the Jordanian marble, which is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however, stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphised limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. The marble has many uses; one of them is using the white marble that has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times. This preference has to do with its softness, relative isotropy and homogeneity, and a relative resistance to shattering. Another use of it is the construction marble which is “a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish” Marble Institute of America. This report focuses most about the marble in Jordan and its properties: rock definition, physical properties, the marble occurrences in Jordan, types of Jordanian marble and their prices and test done on this marble.

Keywords: Absorption, compressive strength, modulus of rupture, porosity, abrasion, marble, metamorphic, non-foliated, recrystallized, Moh’s hardness

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24 Effects of the Non-Newtonian Viscosity of Blood on Flow Field in a Constricted Artery with a Porous Plaque

Authors: Maedeh Shojaeizadeh, Amirreza Yeganegi


Nowadays many people lose their lives due to cardiovascular diseases. Inappropriate food habits and lack of exercise expedite deposit process of fatty substances on inner surface of blood arteries. This abnormal lump disturbs uniform blood flow and reduces oxygen delivery to active organs. This work presents a numerical simulation of Non-Newtonian blood flow in a stenosis vessel. The vessel is considered as two dimensional channel and plaque area is modelled as a homogenous porous medium. To simulate blood flow reaction around stenosis region, we use C++ code and solve coupled Cauchy, Darcy, governing continuity and energy equations. The analyses results show that viscosity power (n) plays an important role in flow separation and the size of the eddy at the downstream edge of the plaque. It is also observed that with increasing (n) value, temperature discontinuity and likelihood of vessel rupture declined.

Keywords: porosity, Computational Fluid Dynamic, blood flow, power law fluid

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23 Estimation of Relative Permeabilities and Capillary Pressures in Shale Using Simulation Method

Authors: G. C. Enyi, F. C. Amadi, G. Nasr


Relative permeabilities are practical factors that are used to correct the single phase Darcy’s law for application to multiphase flow. For effective characterisation of large-scale multiphase flow in hydrocarbon recovery, relative permeability and capillary pressures are used. These parameters are acquired via special core flooding experiments. Special core analysis (SCAL) module of reservoir simulation is applied by engineers for the evaluation of these parameters. But, core flooding experiments in shale core sample are expensive and time consuming before various flow assumptions are achieved for instance Darcy’s law. This makes it imperative for the application of coreflooding simulations in which various analysis of relative permeabilities and capillary pressures of multiphase flow can be carried out efficiently and effectively at a relative pace. This paper presents a Sendra software simulation of core flooding to achieve to relative permeabilities and capillary pressures using different correlations. The approach used in this study was three steps. The first step, the basic petrophysical parameters of Marcellus shale sample such as porosity was determined using laboratory techniques. Secondly, core flooding was simulated for particular scenario of injection using different correlations. And thirdly the best fit correlations for the estimation of relative permeability and capillary pressure was obtained. This research approach saves cost and time and very reliable in the computation of relative permeability and capillary pressures at steady or unsteady state, drainage or imbibition processes in oil and gas industry when compared to other methods.

Keywords: porosity, relative permeabilty, capillary pressures

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22 Effect of Powder Shape on Physical Properties of Porous Coatings

Authors: M. Moayeri, A. Kaflou


Decreasing the size of heat exchangers in industries is favorable due to a reduction in the initial costs and maintenance. This can be achieved generally by increasing the heat transfer coefficient, which can be done by increasing tube surface by passive methods named “porous coat”. Since these coatings are often in contact with the fluid, mechanical strength of coatings should be considered as main concept beside permeability and porosity in design, especially in high velocity services. Powder shape affected mechanical property more than other factors. So in this study, the Copper powder with three different shapes (spherical, dendritic and irregular) was coated on Cu-Ni base metal with thickness of ~300µm in a reduction atmosphere (5% H2-N2) and programmable furnace. The morphology and physical properties of coatings, such as porosity, permeability and mechanical strength were investigated. Results show although irregular particle have maximum porosity and permeability but strength level close to spherical powder, in addition, mentioned particle has low production cost, so for creating porous coats in high velocity services these powder recommended.

Keywords: Permeability, Mechanical Strength, porosity, porous coat

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21 Laser-Ultrasonic Method for Measuring the Local Elastic Moduli of Porosity Isotropic Composite Materials

Authors: Elena B. Cherepetskaya, Alexander A. Karabutov, Natalia B. Podymova, Vladimir A. Makarov, Yulia G. Sokolovskaya


The laser-ultrasonic method is realized for quantifying the influence of porosity on the local Young’s modulus of isotropic composite materials. The method is based on a laser generation of ultrasound pulses combined with measurement of the phase velocity of longitudinal and shear acoustic waves in samples. The main advantage of this method compared with traditional ultrasonic research methods is the efficient generation of short and powerful probing acoustic pulses required for reliable testing of ultrasound absorbing and scattering heterogeneous materials. Using as an example samples of a metal matrix composite with reinforcing microparticles of silicon carbide in various concentrations, it is shown that to provide an effective increase in Young’s modulus with increasing concentration of microparticles, the porosity of the final sample should not exceed 2%.

Keywords: Composite, porosity, laser ultrasonic, longitudinal and shear ultrasonic waves, local elastic moduli

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20 Overview of the Various Factors Affecting the Properties of Microwave and Millimeterwave Dielectric Ceramics

Authors: Abdul Manan


Dielectric Resonators (DRs) have revolutionized the microwave wireless communication industry globally. There are three directions for research in ceramics for application in telecommunication industry Three key properties of ceramic dielectrics that determine their functionality at microwave and millimetrewave frequencies include relative permittivity (εr), unloaded quality factor Qu- the inverse of the dielectric loss (tanδ) and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf). Each direction requires specific properties. These dielectric properties are affected by a number of factors. These includes tolerance factor, onset of structural phase transitions, dark core formation, processing conditions, raw materials and impurities, order/disorder behavior, compositional ordering, porosity, humidity, grain size, orientation of the crystallites, and grain boundaries. The data related to these factors is scattered. The main purpose of this review is to bring these together and present the effects of these factors on the microwave dielectric properties. Control of these factors is important for improvement in the microwave properties. This review would be very helpful to the novice researchers and technologists in the field.

Keywords: sintering, porosity, defect, grain boundaries, order disorder

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19 Study on Brick Aggregate Made Pervious Concrete at Zero Fine Level

Authors: Abdus Salam, Monjurul Hasan, Golam Kibria


Pervious concrete is a form of lightweight porous concrete, obtained by eliminating the fine aggregate from the normal concrete mix. The advantages of this type of concrete are lower density, lower cost due to lower cement content, lower thermal conductivity, relatively low drying shrinkage, no segregation and capillary movement of water. In this paper an investigation is made on the mechanical response of the pervious concrete at zero fine level (zero fine concrete) made with local brick aggregate. Effect of aggregate size variation on the strength, void ratio and permeability of the zero fine concrete is studied. Finally, a comparison is also presented between the stone aggregate made pervious concrete and brick aggregate made pervious concrete. In total 75 concrete cylinder were tested for compressive strength, 15 cylinder were tested for void ratio and 15 cylinder were tested for permeability test. Mix proportion (cement: Coarse aggregate) was kept fixed at 1:6 (by weights), where water cement ratio was valued 0.35 for preparing the sample specimens. The brick aggregate size varied among 25mm, 19mm, 12mm. It has been found that the compressive strength decreased with the increment of aggregate size but permeability increases and concrete made with 19mm maximum aggregate size yields the optimum value. No significant differences on the strength and permeability test are observed between the brick aggregate made zero fine concrete and stone aggregate made zero fine concrete.

Keywords: Permeability, porosity, pervious concrete, brick aggregate concrete, zero fine concrete

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18 Comparative Study of Tensile Properties of Cast and Hot Forged Alumina Nanoparticle Reinforced Composites

Authors: S. K. Nath, Subrata Ray, S. Ghanaraja


Particle reinforced Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) succeeds in synergizing the metallic matrix with ceramic particle reinforcements to result in improved strength, particularly at elevated temperatures, but adversely it affects the ductility of the matrix because of agglomeration and porosity. The present study investigates the outcome of tensile properties in a cast and hot forged composite reinforced simultaneously with coarse and fine particles. Nano-sized alumina particles have been generated by milling mixture of aluminum and manganese dioxide powders. Milled particles after drying are added to molten metal and the resulting slurry is cast. The microstructure of the composites shows good distribution of both the size categories of particles without significant clustering. The presence of nanoparticles along with coarser particles in a composite improves both strength and ductility considerably. Delay in debonding of coarser particles to higher stress is due to reduced mismatch in extension caused by increased strain hardening in presence of the nanoparticles. However, higher addition of powder mix beyond a limit results in deterioration of mechanical properties, possibly due to clustering of nanoparticles. The porosity in cast composite generally increases with the increasing addition of powder mix as observed during process and on forging it has got reduced. The base alloy and nanocomposites show improvement in flow stress which could be attributed to lowering of porosity and grain refinement as a consequence of forging.

Keywords: Aluminium, porosity, alumina, nano-particle reinforced composites

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17 Wave Interaction with Single and Twin Vertical and Sloped Porous Walls

Authors: Mohamad Alkhalidi, S. Neelamani, Noor Alanjari


The main purpose of harbors and marinas is to create a calm and safe docking space for marine vessels. Standard rubble mound breakwaters, although widely used, occupy port space and require large amounts of stones or rocks. Kuwait does not have good quality stone, so they are imported at a very high cost. Therefore, there is a need for a new wave energy dissipating structure where stones and rocks are scarce. While permeable slotted vertical walls have been proved to be a suitable alternative to rubble mound breakwaters, the introduction of sloped slotted walls may be more efficient in dissipating wave energy. For example, two slotted barriers with 60degree inclination may be equivalent to three vertical slotted barriers from wave energy dissipation point of view. A detailed physical model study is carried out to determine the effects of slope angle, porosity, and a number of walls on wave energy dissipation for a wide range of random and regular waves. The results of this study can be used to improve and optimize energy dissipation and reduce construction cost.

Keywords: porosity, slope, wave reflection, wave transmission

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16 Effects of Stirring Time and Reinforcement Preheating on the Porosity of Particulate Periwinkle Shell-Aluminium 6063 Metal Matrix Composite (PPS-ALMMC) Produced by Two-Step Casting

Authors: Akinlabi Oyetunji, Reginald Umunakwe, Obinna Chibuzor Okoye, Uzoma Samuel Nwigwe, Damilare John Olaleye


The potential for the development of PPS-AlMMCs as light weight material for industrial applications was investigated. Periwinkle shells were milled and the density of the particles determined. Particulate periwinkle shell of particle size 75µm was used to reinforce aluminium 6063 alloy at 10wt% filler loading using two-step stir casting technique. The composite materials were stirred for five minutes in a semi-solid state and the stirring time varied as 3, 6 and 9 minutes at above the liquidus temperature. A specimen was also produced with pre-heated filler. The effect of variation in stirring time and reinforcement pre-heating on the porosity of the composite materials was investigated. The results of the analysis show that a composition of reinforcement pre-heating and stirring for 3 minutes produced a composite material with the lowest porosity of 1.05%.

Keywords: Composites, porosity, periwinkle shell, two-step casting

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15 Study of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer with Addition of Polymer Admixtures

Authors: Olesia Mikhailova, Pavel Rovnanik


In the present work, metakaolin-based geopolymer including different polymer admixtures was studied. Different types of commercial polymer admixtures VINNAPAS® and polyethylene glycol of different relative molecular weight were used as polymer admixtures. The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of different types of admixtures on the properties of metakaolin-based geopolymer mortars considering their different dosage. Mechanical properties, such as flexural and compressive strength were experimentally determined. Also, study of the microstructure of selected specimens by using a scanning electron microscope was performed. The results showed that the specimen with addition of 1.5% of VINNAPAS® 7016 F and 10% of polyethylene glycol 400 achieved maximum mechanical properties.

Keywords: Microstructure, Geopolymer, Mechanical Properties, porosity, metakaolin, polymer admixtures

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14 Analyzing the Factors Effecting Ceramic Porosity Using Integrated Taguchi-Fuzzy Method

Authors: Halil Ibrahim Demir, Ozer Uygun, Enes Furkan Erkan, Zeynep Demir


Companies require increase in quality perception level of their products due to competitive conditions. As a result, the tendency to quality and researches to develop the quality are increasing day by day. Cost and time constraints are the biggest problems that companies face in their quality improvement efforts. In this study, factors that affect the porosity of ceramic products are determined and analyzed in a factory producing ceramic tiles. Then, Taguchi method is used in the design phase in order to decrease the number of tests to be performed by means of orthogonal sequences. The most important factors affecting the porosity of ceramic tiles are determined using Taguchi and ANOVA analysis. Based on the analyses, the most affecting factors are determined to be used in the fuzzy implementation stage. Then, the fuzzy rules were established with the factors affecting porosity by the experts’ opinion. Thus, porosity result could be obtained not only for the specified factor levels but also for intermediate values. In this way, it has been provided convenience to the factory in terms of cost and quality improvement.

Keywords: Fuzzy, porosity, Taguchi method, Taguchi-Fuzzy

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13 The Effect of Organic Matter Maturation and Porosity Evolution on Methane Storage Potential in Shale-Gas Reservoirs

Authors: T. Topór, A. Derkowski, P. Ziemiański


Formation of organic matter (OM)-hosted nanopores upon thermal maturation are one of the key factor controlling methane storage potential in unconventional shale-gas reservoirs. In this study, the subcritical CO₂ and N₂ gas adsorption measurements combined with scanning electron microscopy and supercritical methane adsorption have been used to characterize pore system and methane storage potential in black shales from the Baltic Basin (Poland). The samples were collected from a virtually equivalent Llandovery strata across the basin and represent a complete digenetic sequence, from thermally immature to overmature. The results demonstrate that the thermal maturation is a dominant mechanism controlling the formation of OM micro- and mesopores in the Baltic Basin shales. The formation of micro- and mesopores occurs in the oil window (vitrinite reflectance; leavedVR; ~0.5-0.9%) as a result of oil expulsion from kerogenleft OM highly porous. The generated hydrocarbons then turn into solid bitumen causing pore blocking and substantial decrease in micro- and mesopore volume in late-mature shales (VR ~0.9-1.2%). Both micro- and mesopores are regenerated in a middle of the catagenesis range (VR 1.4-1.9%) due to secondary cracking of OM and gas formation. The micropore volume in investigated shales is almost exclusively controlled by the OM content. The contribution of clay minerals to micropore volume is insignificant and masked by a strong contribution from OM. Methane adsorption capacity in the Baltic Basin shales is predominantly controlled by microporous OM with pores < 1.5 nm. The mesopore volume (2-50 nm) and mesopore surface area have no effect on methane sorption behavior. The adsorbed methane density equivalent, calculated as absolute methane adsorption divided by micropore volume, reviled a decrease of the methane loading potential in micropores with increasing maturity. The highest methane loading potential in micropores is observed for OM before metagenesis (VR < 2%), where the adsorbed methane density equivalent is greater than the density of liquid methane. This implies that, in addition to physical adsorption, absorption of methane in OM may occur before metagenesis. After OM content reduction using NaOCl solution methane adoption capacity substantially decreases, suggesting significantly greater adsorption potential for OM microstructure than for the clay minerals matrix.

Keywords: Organic Matter, Maturation, Shales, porosity, methane sorption

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12 The Influence of Different Technologies on the Infiltration Properties and Soil Surface Crusting Processing in the North Bohemia Region

Authors: Miroslav Dumbrovsky, Lucie Larisova


The infiltration characteristic of the soil surface is one of the major factors that determines the potential soil degradation risk. The physical, chemical and biological characteristic of soil is changed by the processing of soil. The infiltration soil ability has an important role in soil and water conservation. The subject of the contribution is the evaluation of the influence of the conventional tillage and reduced tillage technology on soil surface crusting processing and infiltration properties of the soil in the North Bohemia region. Field experimental work at the area was carried out in the years 2013-2016 on Cambisol district medium-heavy clayey soil. The research was conducted on sloping erosion-endangered blocks of compacted arable land. The areas were chosen each year in the way that one of the experimental areas was handled by conventional tillage technologies and the other by reduced tillage technologies. Intact soil samples were taken into Kopecký´s cylinders in the three landscape positions, at a depth of 10 cm (representing topsoil) and 30 cm (representing subsoil). The cumulative infiltration was measured using a mini-disc infiltrometer near the consumption points. The Zhang method (1997), which provides an estimate of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K(h), was used for the evaluation of the infiltration tests of the mini-disc infiltrometer. The soil profile processed by conventional tillage showed a higher degree of compaction and soil crusting processing. The bulk density was between 1.10–1.67⁻³, compared to the land processed by the reduced tillage technology, where the values were between 0.80–1.29⁻³. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity values were about one-third higher within the reduced tillage technology soil processing.

Keywords: porosity, bulk density, soil crusting processing, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, cumulative infiltration

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11 Investigating the Impact of the Laundry and Sterilization Process on the Performance of Reusable Surgical Gowns

Authors: M. Latifi, N. Khomarloo, F. Mousazadegan, N. Hemmatinejad


Recently, the utilization of reusable surgical gowns in order to decrease costs, environmental protection and enhance surgeon’s comfort is considered. One of the concerns in applying this kind of medical protective clothing is reduction of their resistance to bacterial penetration especially in wet state, after repeated laundering and sterilizing process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the laundering and sterilizing process on the reusable surgical gown’s resistance against bacterial wet penetration. To this end, penetration of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in wet state after 70 washing and sterilizing cycles was evaluated on the two single-layer and three-layer reusable gowns. The outcomes reveal that up to 20 laundering and sterilizing cycles, protective property of samples improves due to fabric shrinkage, after that because of the fabric’s construction opening, the bacterial penetration increase. However, the three-layer gown presents higher protective performance comparing to the single-layer one.

Keywords: porosity, sterilization, laundry, reusable surgical gown, wet bacterial penetration

Procedia PDF Downloads 143