Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

population growth Related Abstracts

8 The Importance of Sustainable Urban Development and Its Impacts on Turkey’s Urban Environmental Laws

Authors: Azadeh Rezafar, Sevkiye Sence Turk

Abstract:

Rapid population growth in urban areas and extinction danger of natural resources in order to meet the food needs of these population, has revealed the need for sustainability. It did not last long that city planners realized the importance of an equal access to natural resources with protecting and managing them in cities, in accordance with the concept of sustainable development. Like in other countries The Turkish Government is aware of the importance of the sustainable development in their cities. The government issued new laws for protection of environmental assets and so that the preservation of natural ecology. The main objective of this article is to emphasis the importance of the sustainable development in the context of the developing world by giving special information about the method of the Turkish Government for protecting nature with approval of difference laws in this area.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Turkey, population growth, Turkish Urban Environmental Laws

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7 A Review of the Environmental Impact of Physical Expansion of Shandiz City

Authors: Foruzan Taheri, Seyedeh Negar Hosseinian, Katayoon Alizadeh

Abstract:

The small countryside city of Shandiz, with a population of about 13.297 is located 35 km to the west of the Mashhad metropolitan. Due to Shandiz’s natural beauty, suitable climate, and its close proximity to Mashhad which is the largest city in the eastern half of the country, many people own second houses in this area. In addition to this, Shandiz hosts millions of visitors annually. Its economic role, which is parallel and complementary to Mashhad, has caused population growth, the increase of activities, and physical expansion, all of which exceed the city’s capacity. The aim of this descriptive and analytical study was to evaluate the impact of city expansion on the environment and aid in preventing further harm to the natural environment of this perimeter. Data were collected from population and housing statistics during a different period of time-based on GIS. Results show that the existence of an integrated environmental management system in order to coordinate development projects and the expansion of tourism programs that meet environmental conditions are necessary and achieving sustainable development with quality of life in this area without considering environmental limitations and capabilities cannot be sustained.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Tourism, Physical Development, population growth, Shandiz City

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6 Iran’s Sexual and Reproductive Rights Roll-Back: An Overview of Iran’s New Population Policies

Authors: Raha Bahreini

Abstract:

This paper discusses the roll-back of women’s sexual and reproductive rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran, which has come in the wake of a striking shift in the country’s official population policies. Since the late 1980s, Iran has won worldwide praise for its sexual and reproductive health and services, which have contributed to a steady decline in the country’s fertility rate–from 7.0 births per women in 1980 to 5.5 in 1988, 2.8 in 1996 and 1.85 in 2014. This is owed to a significant increase in the voluntary use of modern contraception in both rural and urban areas. In 1976, only 37 per cent of women were using at least one method of contraception; by 2014 this figure had reportedly risen to a high of nearly 79 per cent for married girls and women living in urban areas and 73.78 per cent for those living in rural areas. Such progress may soon be halted. In July 2012, Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Sayed Ali Khamenei denounced Iran’s family planning policies as an imitation of Western lifestyle. He exhorted the authorities to increase Iran’s population to 150 to 200 million (from around 78.5 million), including by cutting subsidies for contraceptive methods and dismantling the state’s Family and Population Planning Programme. Shortly thereafter, Iran’s Minister of Health and Medical Education announced the scrapping of the budget for the state-funded Family and Population Planning Programme. Iran’s Parliament subsequently introduced two bills; the Comprehensive Population and Exaltation of Family Bill (Bill 315), and the Bill to Increase Fertility Rates and Prevent Population Decline (Bill 446). Bill 446 outlaws voluntary tubectomies, which are believed to be the second most common method of modern contraception in Iran, and blocks access to information about contraception, denying women the opportunity to make informed decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Coupled with the elimination of state funding for Iran’s Family and Population Programme, the move would undoubtedly result in greater numbers of unwanted pregnancies, forcing more women to seek illegal and unsafe abortions. Bill 315 proposes various discriminatory measures in the areas of employment, divorce, and protection from domestic violence in order to promote a culture wherein wifedom and child-bearing is seen as women’s primary duty. The Bill, for example, instructs private and public entities to prioritize, in sequence, men with children, married men without children and married women with children when hiring for certain jobs. It also bans the recruitment of single individuals as family law lawyers, public and private school teachers and members of the academic boards of universities and higher education institutes. The paper discusses the consequences of these initiatives which would, if continued, set the human rights of women and girls in Iran back by decades, leaving them with a future shaped by increased inequality, discrimination, poor health, limited choices and restricted freedoms, in breach of Iran’s international human rights obligations.

Keywords: Human Rights, population growth, family planning and reproductive health, gender equality and empowerment of women

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5 Assessment of Environmental Implications of Rapid Population Growth on Land Use Dynamics: A Case Study of Eleme Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria

Authors: Moses Obenade, Francis I. Okpiliya, Henry U. Okeke, Eugene J. Aniah

Abstract:

Population growth in Eleme has been rapid over the past 75 years with its attendant pressure on the natural resources of the area. Between 1937 and 2006 the population of Eleme grew from 2,528 to 190,194 and is projected to be above 265,707 in 2016 based on an annual growth rate of 3.4%. Using the combined technologies of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing (RS) and Demography techniques as its methodology, this paper examines the environmental implications of rapid population growth on land use dynamics in Eleme between 1986 and 2015. The study reveals that between 1986 and 2006, Built-up area and Farmland increased by 72.67 and 12.77% respectively, while light and thick vegetation recorded a decrease of -6.92 and -61.64% respectively. Water body remains fairly constant with minimal changes. Also, between 2006 and 2015 covering a period of 9 years, Built-up area further increased by 53% with an annual growth rate of 2.32 km2 gaining more land area on the detriment of other land uses. Built-up area has an annual growth rate of 2.32km2 and is expected to increase from 18.67km2 in 2006 to 41.87km2 in 2016.The observed Land used/Land cover dynamics is derived by the demographic characteristics of the Study area. Eleme has a total area of 138km2 out of which the Federal Government of Nigeria compulsorily acquired an estimated area of 59.34km2 for industrial purposes excluding acquisitions by the Rivers State Government. It is evident from the findings of this study that the carrying capacity of Eleme ecosystem is under threat due to the current population growth and land consumption rates. Therefore, measures such as use of appropriate technologies in farming techniques, waste management; investment in family planning and female empowerment, maternal health and education, afforestation programs; and amendment of Land Use Act of 1978 are recommended.

Keywords: GIS and Remote Sensing, Land Use, population growth, Eleme

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4 Food Security from a Spatial Perspective; The Situation in Advanced and Less Advanced Economies

Authors: Kristina Thorell

Abstract:

Food security has been one of the most important policy issues on the global arena after the Second World War. The overall aim of this presentation is to describe preconditions for a sustainable food supply from a spatial perspective. Special attention is paid to the differences between advanced and less advanced economies around the world. The theoretical framework is based upon models which are explaining complex systems of factors that affect the preconditions for agricultural productions. In additions to this, theories about how population and environmental pollution change through different stages of societal development are explained. The results are based upon data of agricultural practices, population growth, hunger and nutrition levels from different countries around the world. The analysis shows that factors which affect preconditions for agricultural production are dynamic. Factors which support the food security in the near future are a decreasing population growth, technological development and innovation but the environmental crisis is associated to high risks. It is, therefore, important to develop environmental policies and improved methods for organic farming. A final conclusion is that the spatial pattern is clear; the food supply is sufficient within advanced economies but rather complicated in development countries.

Keywords: Food Security, Demography, population growth, Agricultural Practices, agricultural geography, advanced economies

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3 Reduction in Population Growth under Various Contraceptive Strategies in Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Anjali Singh, Prashant Verma, K. K. Singh, Ujjaval Srivastava

Abstract:

Contraceptive policies have been derived to achieve desired reductions in the growth rate and also, applied to the data of Uttar-Pradesh, India for illustration. Using the Lotka’s integral equation for the stable population, expressions for the proportion of contraceptive users at different ages have been obtained. At the age of 20 years, 42% of contraceptive users is imperative to reduce the present annual growth rate of 0.036 to 0.02, assuming that 40% of the contraceptive users discontinue at the age of 25 years and 30% again continue contraceptive use at age 30 years. Further, presuming that 75% of women start using contraceptives at the age of 23 years, and 50% of the remaining women start using contraceptives at the age of 28 years, while the rest of them start using it at the age of 32 years. If we set a minimum age of marriage as 20 years, a reduction of 0.019 in growth rate will be obtained. This study describes how the level of contraceptive use at different age groups of women reduces the growth rate in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The article also promotes delayed marriage in the region.

Keywords: population growth, child bearing, contraceptive devices, contraceptive policies, stable population

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2 Slum Dwellers Residential Location Choices Decision: A Determinant of Slum Growth in Lagos Mega City

Authors: Klaus Greve, Daniel Callo-Concha, Olabisi Badmos, Babatunde Agbola, Andreas Rienow, Carsten Jurgens

Abstract:

Slums are important components of city development planning, especially in Africa where slum growth is on par with urban growth. Purposefully, our knowledge on the residential choice of slum dwellers, which contributes to population growth in slums, is limited. This is the case in Lagos, a megacity reportedly dominated by slum dwellers. Thus, this study aims to disclose the factors influencing the residential choices and causes of people to remain in Lagos slums. Data was collected through questionnaire administration and focus group discussions. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and describe the factors influencing residential location choice; logistic regression was utilized to determine the extent to which the neighborhood and household attributes, influence slum dwellers decisions to remain in the slums. Results showed that movement to Lagos was the main cause of population growth in slums; most of the migrants were from closer geopolitical zones (in Nigeria). Further, the movement patterns observed support two theories of human mobility in slums: slum as a sink, and as a final destination. Also, the factors that brought most of the slum dwellers to the slums (cheap housing, proximity to work etc.) differs from the ones that made them stay (Gender, employment status, housing status etc.). This study concludes that residential choice and intention to stay are the major contributors to population growth in a slum. It is therefore important for Lagos state Government to incorporate these elements of residential choices of slum dwellers in their slum management policies if the city aims to be free of slums by 2030

Keywords: population growth, slum, Lagos, residential decision choices

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1 Long Run Estimates of Population, Consumption and Economic Development of India: An ARDL Bounds Testing Approach of Cointegration

Authors: Sanjay Kumar, Arumugam Sankaran, Arjun K., Mousumi Das

Abstract:

The amount of domestic consumption and population growth is having a positive impact on economic growth and development as observed by the Harrod-Domar and endogenous growth models. The paper negates the Solow growth model which argues the population growth has a detrimental impact on per capita and steady-state growth. Unlike the Solow model, the paper observes, the per capita income growth never falls zero, and it sustains as positive. Hence, our goal here is to investigate the relationship among population, domestic consumption and economic growth of India. For this estimation, annual data from 1980-2016 has been collected from World Development Indicator and Reserve Bank of India. To know the long run as well as short-run dynamics among the variables, we have employed the ARDL bounds testing approach of cointegration followed by modified Wald causality test to know the direction of causality. The conclusion from cointegration and ARDL estimates reveal that there is a long run positive and statistically significant relationship among the variables under study. At the same time, the causality test shows that there is a causal relationship that exists among the variables. Hence, this calls for policies which have a long run perspective in strengthening the capabilities and entitlements of people and stabilizing domestic demand so as to serve long run and short run growth and stability of the economy.

Keywords: Economic Development, consumption, population growth, cointegration

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