Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

POME Related Abstracts

3 Enhance Biogas Production by Enzymatic Pre-Treatment from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

Authors: M. S. Tajul Islam, Md. Zahangir Alam

Abstract:

To enhance biogas production through anaerobic digestion, the application of various type of pre-treatment method has some limitations in terms of sustainable environmental management. Many studies on pretreatments especially chemical and physical processes are carried out to evaluate the anaerobic digestion for enhanced biogas production. Among the pretreatment methods acid and alkali pre-treatments gained the highest importance. Previous studies have showed that although acid and alkali pretreatment has significant effect on degradation of biomass, these methods have some negative impact on environment due to their hazard in nature while enzymatic pre-treatment is environmentally friendly. One of the constrains to use of enzyme in pretreatment process for biogas production is high cost which is currently focused to reduce cost through fermentation of waste-based media. As such palm oil mill effluent (POME) as an abundant resource generated during palm oil processing at mill is being used a potential fermentation media for enzyme production. This low cost of enzyme could be an alternative to biogas pretreatment process. This review is to focus direct application of enzyme as enzymatic pre-treatment on POME to enhanced production of biogas.

Keywords: Biogas, Lignocellulosic Biomass, Anaerobic Digestion, POME, enzymatic pre-treatment

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2 CI Engine Performance Analysis Using Sunflower and Peanut Bio-Diesel Blends

Authors: M. Manjunath, R. Rakesh, Y. T. Krishne Gowda, G. Panduranga Murthy

Abstract:

The availability of energy resources plays a vital role in the progress of a country. Over the last decades, there is an increase in the consumption of energy worldwide resulting in the depletion of fossil fuels. This necessitates dependency on other countries for energy resources. Therefore, a renewable eco-friendly alternate fuel is replaced in place of fossil fuel which can be vegetable oils as a substitute fuel for diesel. Since oils are more viscous it cannot be used directly in CI engines without any engine modification. Thus, a conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel is done by a Transesterification process. The present paper is restricted to Biofuel substitute for diesel and which can be obtained from a number of edible and non-edible oil resources. The oil from these resources can be Transesterified by a suitable method depending on its FFA content for the production of biodiesel and that can be used to operate CI engine. In this work, an attempt is made to test the performance of CI engine using Transesterified peanut and sunflower oil methyl esters blends with diesel.

Keywords: bsfc, POME, SOME, BMEP, BTE

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1 Application of Entropy Concept for Discharge Estimation: An Experimental Investigation in a Laboratory Flume

Authors: Gurpinder Singh, Manoj K. Jain

Abstract:

River flow measurement is an essential practice in hydraulic engineering for water resources planning and management, water availability analysis, flood forecasting. However, conventional methods (Prandtl-Von Karman law and power-law) of discharge measurement are costly, time-consuming, cumbersome, dangerous during high floods and rough weather. These laws are valid for wide-open channels only. Considering the limitations of traditional methods, Chiu (1987) presented the probability approach for finding velocity distribution at a river section with the help of the principle of maximum entropy, which provides better results in numerous situations like sediment-laden flows. The entropy theory relies on an entropy parameter which remains constant in different conditions of flow. Hence, it can be surmised as an intrinsic parameter. Experimental investigations on laboratory flume under controlled conditions were conducted to collect precise data at different discharge rates to record corresponding velocity distribution data, which was used to apply the concept of entropy theory for estimating the entropy parameter and discharge. Analysis of the collected data depicts that the entropy parameter remains constant with varying discharge rates. Results obtained based on analysis of collected data revealed that the two-dimensional entropy model was a quick and accurate technique for estimation of mean cross-sectional velocity and discharge.

Keywords: Information Theory, Shannon Entropy, POME, river

Procedia PDF Downloads 1