Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

polysaccharide Related Abstracts

6 Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Polysaccharides from Plant Waste Materials: Selected Model Material is Hazelnut Skin

Authors: T. Yılmaz, Ş. Tavman


In this study, optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) of hemicellulose based polysaccharides from plant waste material has been studied. Selected material is hazelnut skin. Extraction variables for the operation are extraction time, amplitude and application temperature. Optimum conditions have been evaluated depending on responses such as amount of wet crude polysaccharide, total carbohydrate content and dried sample. Pretreated hazelnut skin powders were used for the experiments. 10 grams of samples were suspended in 100 ml water in a jacketed vessel with additional magnetic stirring. Mixture was sonicated by immersing ultrasonic probe processor. After the extraction procedures, ethanol soluble and insoluble sides were separated for further examinations. The obtained experimental data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second order polynomial models were developed using multiple regression analysis. The individual and interactive effects of applied variables were evaluated by Box Behnken Design. The models developed from the experimental design were predictive and good fit with the experimental data with high correlation coefficient value (R2 more than 0.95). Extracted polysaccharides from hazelnut skin are assumed to be pectic polysaccharides according to the literature survey of Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTIR) analysis results. No more change can be observed between spectrums of different sonication times. Application of UAE at optimized condition has an important effect on extraction of hemicellulose from plant material by satisfying partial hydrolysis to break the bounds with other components in plant cell wall material. This effect can be summarized by varied intensity of microjets and microstreaming at varied sonication conditions.

Keywords: Optimization, hazelnut skin, polysaccharide, ultrasound assisted extraction

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5 Modified Polysaccharide as Emulsifier in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

Authors: Tatiana Marques Pessanha, Aurora Perez-Gramatges, Regina Sandra Veiga Nascimento


Emulsions are commonly used in applications involving oil/water dispersions, where handling of interfaces becomes a crucial aspect. The use of emulsion technology has greatly evolved in the last decades to suit the most diverse uses, ranging from cosmetic products and biomedical adjuvants to complex industrial fluids. The stability of these emulsions is influenced by factors such as the amount of oil, size of droplets and emulsifiers used. While commercial surfactants are typically used as emulsifiers to reduce interfacial tension, and therefore increase emulsion stability, these organic amphiphilic compounds are often toxic and expensive. A suitable alternative for emulsifiers can be obtained from the chemical modification of polysaccharides. Our group has been working on modification of polysaccharides to be used as additives in a variety of fluid formulations. In particular, we have obtained promising results using chitosan, a natural and biodegradable polymer that can be easily modified due to the presence of amine groups in its chemical structure. In this way, it is possible to increase both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic character, which renders a water-soluble, amphiphilic polymer that can behave as an emulsifier. The aim of this work was the synthesis of chitosan derivatives structurally modified to act as surfactants in stable oil-in-water. The synthesis of chitosan derivatives occurred in two steps, the first being the hydrophobic modification with the insertion of long hydrocarbon chains, while the second step consisted in the cationization of the amino groups. All products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and carbon magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) to evaluate the cationization and hydrofobization degrees. These modified polysaccharides were used to formulate oil-in water (O:W) emulsions with different oil/water ratios (i.e 25:75, 35:65, 60:40) using mineral paraffinic oil. The formulations were characterized according to the type of emulsion, density and rheology measurements, as well as emulsion stability at high temperatures. All emulsion formulations were stable for at least 30 days, at room temperature (25°C), and in the case of the high oil content emulsion (60:40), the formulation was also stable at temperatures up to 100°C. Emulsion density was in the range of 0.90-0.87 s.g. The rheological study showed a viscoelastic behaviour in all formulations at room temperature, which is in agreement with the high stability showed by the emulsions, since the polymer acts not only reducing interfacial tension, but also forming an elastic membrane at the oil/water interface that guarantees its integrity. The results obtained in this work are a strong evidence of the possibility of using chemically modified polysaccharides as environmentally friendly alternatives to commercial surfactants in the stabilization of oil-in water formulations.

Keywords: Stability, Polymer, Chemical Modification, emulsion, polysaccharide

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4 Rheological Characterization of Polysaccharide Extracted from Camelina Meal as a New Source of Thickening Agent

Authors: Mohammad Anvari, Helen S. Joyner (Melito)


Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an oilseed crop currently used for the production of biofuels. However, the low price of diesel and gasoline has made camelina an unprofitable crop for farmers, leading to declining camelina production in the US. Hence, the ability to utilize camelina byproduct (defatted meal) after oil extraction would be a pivotal factor for promoting the economic value of the plant. Camelina defatted meal is rich in proteins and polysaccharides. The great diversity in the polysaccharide structural features provides a unique opportunity for use in food formulations as thickeners, gelling agents, emulsifiers, and stabilizers. There is currently a great degree of interest in the study of novel plant polysaccharides, as they can be derived from readily accessible sources and have potential application in a wide range of food formulations. However, there are no published studies on the polysaccharide extracted from camelina meal, and its potential industrial applications remain largely underexploited. Rheological properties are a key functional feature of polysaccharides and are highly dependent on the material composition and molecular structure. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the rheological properties of the polysaccharide extracted from camelina meal at different conditions to obtain insight on the molecular characteristics of the polysaccharide. Flow and dynamic mechanical behaviors were determined under different temperatures (5-50°C) and concentrations (1-6% w/v). Additionally, the zeta potential of the polysaccharide dispersion was measured at different pHs (2-11) and a biopolymer concentration of 0.05% (w/v). Shear rate sweep data revealed that the camelina polysaccharide displayed shear thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior, which is typical of polymer systems. The polysaccharide dispersion (1% w/v) showed no significant changes in viscosity with temperature, which makes it a promising ingredient in products requiring texture stability over a range of temperatures. However, the viscosity increased significantly with increased concentration, indicating that camelina polysaccharide can be used in food products at different concentrations to produce a range of textures. Dynamic mechanical spectra showed similar trends. The temperature had little effect on viscoelastic moduli. However, moduli were strongly affected by concentration: samples exhibited concentrated solution behavior at low concentrations (1-2% w/v) and weak gel behavior at higher concentrations (4-6% w/v). These rheological properties can be used for designing and modeling of liquid and semisolid products. Zeta potential affects the intensity of molecular interactions and molecular conformation and can alter solubility, stability, and eventually, the functionality of the materials as their environment changes. In this study, the zeta potential value significantly decreased from 0.0 to -62.5 as pH increased from 2 to 11, indicating that pH may affect the functional properties of the polysaccharide. The results obtained in the current study showed that camelina polysaccharide has significant potential for application in various food systems and can be introduced as a novel anionic thickening agent with unique properties.

Keywords: Rheology, zeta potential, polysaccharide, Camelina meal

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3 The Influence of Polysaccharide Isolated from Morinda citrifolia Fruit to the Growth of Vero, He-La and T47D Cell Lines against Doxorubicin in vitro

Authors: Ediati Budi Cahyono, Triana Hertiani, Nauval Arrazy Asawimanda, Wahyu Puji Pratomo


Background: Doxorubicin is widely used as a chemotherapeutic drug despite having many side effects. It may cause macrophage dysfunction and decreasing proliferation of lymphocyte. Noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit which has rich of polysaccharide content has potential as antitumor and immunostimulant effect. The isolation of polysaccharide from Noni fruit has been optimized according to four different methods based on macrophage and lymphocyte activities. We found the highest polysaccharide content from one of the four methods isolation. A method of polysaccharide isolation which has the highest immunostimulant effect was used for further observation as co-chemotherapy. The aim of the study: was to evaluate the isolated polysaccharide from the method of choice as co-chemotherapy of doxorubicin for the growth of Vero, He-La, and T47D cell lines in vitro. The method: in vitro growth assay of Vero, He-La, and T47D cell lines was done using MTT-reduction method, and apoptosis test was done by double staining method to evaluate the induction apoptotic effect of the combination. Every group was treated with doxorubicin and isolated polysaccharide from method of choice with 4 variances of concentrations (25 µg/ml, 50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml and 200 µg/ml) a long with negative control (doxorubicin only) and normal control (without doxorubicin or polysaccharide administration). Results: The combination of polysaccharide fraction in the concentration of 100μg/ml with 2μmol of doxorubicin against He-La and T47D cell lines influenced the highest cytotoxic effect by suppressing cell viability comparing with doxorubicin only. The combination of polysaccharide fraction in the concentration of 100μg/ml with 2μmol of doxorubicin-induced apoptotic effect the He-La cell line comparing with doxorubicin only. The result of the study: it can be concluded that the combination of polysaccharide fraction and doxorubicin effect more selective toward He-La and T47D cell lines than to Vero cell line. It can be suggested isolated polysaccharide from the method of choice has co-chemotherapy activity against doxorubicin.

Keywords: doxorubicin, noni fruit, polysaccharide, cancer cell lines, vero cell line

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2 Optimization of a Method of Total RNA Extraction from Mentha piperita

Authors: Soheila Afkar


Mentha piperita is a medicinal plant that contains a large amount of secondary metabolite that has adverse effect on RNA extraction. Since high quality of RNA is the first step to real time-PCR, in this study optimization of total RNA isolation from leaf tissues of Mentha piperita was evaluated. From this point of view, we researched two different total RNA extraction methods on leaves of Mentha piperita to find the best one that contributes the high quality. The methods tested are RNX-plus, modified RNX-plus (1-5 numbers). RNA quality was analyzed by agarose gel 1.5%. The RNA integrity was also assessed by visualization of ribosomal RNA bands on 1.5% agarose gels. In the modified RNX-plus method (number 2), the integrity of 28S and 18S rRNA was highly satisfactory when analyzed in agarose denaturing gel, so this method is suitable for RNA isolation from Mentha piperita.

Keywords: polyphenol, mentha piperita, polysaccharide, RNA extraction

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1 Chemically Modified Chitosan Derivatives with Ameliorated Properties Appropriate for Drug Delivery

Authors: Georgia M. Michailidou, Nina-Maria S. Ainali, Eleftheria C. Xanthopoulou, Dimitrios N. Bikiaris


Polysaccharides are polymeric materials derived from nature. They are extensively used in pharmaceutical technology due to their low cost, their ready availability and their low toxicity. Chitosan is the product derived from the deacetylation of chitin usually obtained from arthropods. It is a linear polysaccharide which is composed of repeated units of N-deacetylated amino groups and some N-acetylated groups residues. Due to its excellent biological properties, it is an attractive natural polymer. It is biocompatible with low toxicity and complete biodegradability. Although it has excellent properties, the chemical modification of its structure results in new derivatives with ameliorated and more improved properties compared to the initial polymer. This is the exact purpose of the present study in which chitosan was modified with three different monomers, namely trans-aconitic acid, succinic anhydride and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. In chitosan’s modification with trans aconitic acid, EDC was utilized as an activator of the carboxylic groups of the monomer, and then a coupling reaction with the amino groups took place. Succinic anhydride reacted with chitosan through a ring opening reaction while 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate reacted through the addition of chitosan’s amino group to the double bond of the monomer. Through FTIR and NMR measurements the success of each reaction was confirmed, and the new structures of the derivatives were verified. X-ray diffraction was utilized in order to examine the effect of the modifications in chitosan’s crystallinity. Finally, swelling tests were conducted in order to assess the improved ability of the new polymeric materials to absorb water. Our results support the successful modification of chitosan’s macromolecular chains in all three reactions. Furthermore, the new derivatives appear to be amorphous concerning their crystallinity and have great ability in absorbing water.

Keywords: Modification, Derivatives, chitosan, polysaccharide

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