Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

polypyrrole Related Abstracts

17 Development of New Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Interfaces Based on ITO Au NPs/ Polymer for Nickel Detection

Authors: F. Z. Tighilt, N. Belhaneche-Bensemra, S. Belhousse, S. Sam, K. Lasmi, N. Gabouze


Recently, the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) became an active multidisciplinary research topic. First, Au thin films fabricated by alkylthiol-functionalized Au NPs were found to have vapor sensitive conductivities, they were hence widely investigated as electrical chemiresistors for sensing different vapor analytes and even organic molecules in aqueous solutions. Second, Au thin films were demonstrated to have speciallocalized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR), so that highly ordered 2D Au superlattices showed strong collective LSPR bands due to the near-field coupling of adjacent nanoparticles and were employed to detect biomolecular binding. Particularly when alkylthiol ligands were replaced by thiol-terminated polymers, the resulting polymer-modified Au NPs could be readily assembled into 2D nanostructures on solid substrates. Monolayers of polystyrene-coated Au NPs showed typical dipolar near-field interparticle plasmon coupling of LSPR. Such polymer-modified Au nanoparticle films have an advantage that the polymer thickness can be feasibly controlled by changing the polymer molecular weight. In this article, the effect of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coatings on the plasmonic properties of ITO interfaces modified with gold nanostructures (Au NSs) is investigated. The interest in developing ITO overlayers is multiple. The presence of a con-ducting ITO overlayer creates a LSPR-active interface, which can serve simultaneously as a working electrode in an electro-chemical setup. The surface of ITO/ Au NPs contains hydroxyl groups that can be used to link functional groups to the interface. Here the covalent linking of nickel /Au NSs/ITO hybrid LSPR platforms will be presented.

Keywords: conducting polymer, metal nanoparticles (NPs), LSPR, poly (3-(pyrrolyl)–carboxylic acid), polypyrrole

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16 Characteristics of a Dye-Entrapped Polypyrrole Film Prepared in the Presence of a Different Dye

Authors: M. Mominul Haque, Danny KY. Wong


In this paper, we will demonstrate the feasibility of selectively removing the azo dye, Acid Red 1, in the presence of a second dye, Indigo Carmine, at conducting polypyrrole films. A long-term goal of this work is to develop an efficient and effective electrochemical treatment of textile effluents that does not yield any toxic by-products. Specifically, pyrrole was initially electrochemically oxidised in the presence of Acid Red 1 to prepare an Acid Red 1-entrapped polypyrrole film. Next, the Acid Red 1 entrapped film was electrochemically reduced to expel the dye from the film. The film was then ready for use in removing the dye in an Acid Red 1 solution. The entrapment efficiency of the film was then studied by spectroscopically determining the change in the absorbance of the dye solution. These experiments were repeated using Indigo Carmine or a mixture of Acid Red 1 and Indigo Carmine, in place of Acid Red 1. Therefore, this has given rise to an environmentally friendly treatment method for textile effluents. In our work, we have also studied the characteristics of Acid Red 1- and Indigo Carmine-entrapped polypyrrole films by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy.

Keywords: electrochemical treatment, polypyrrole, azo dye, Acid Red 1

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15 Polypyrrole Integrated MnCo2O4 Nanorods Hybrid as Electrode Material for High Performance Supercapacitor

Authors: Debabrata Pradhan, Santimoy Khilari


Ever−increasing energy demand and growing energy crisis along with environmental issues emphasize the research on sustainable energy conversion and storage systems. Recently, supercapacitors or electrochemical capacitors emerge as a promising energy storage technology for future generation. The activity of supercapacitors generally depends on the efficiency of its electrode materials. So, the development of cost−effective efficient electrode materials for supercapacitors is one of the challenges to the scientific community. Transition metal oxides with spinel crystal structure receive much attention for different electrochemical applications in energy storage/conversion devices because of their improved performance as compared to simple oxides. In the present study, we have synthesized polypyrrole (PPy) supported manganese cobaltite nanorods (MnCo2O4 NRs) hybrid electrode material for supercapacitor application. The MnCo2O4 NRs were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal and calcination approach. The MnCo2O4 NRs/PPy hybrid was prepared by in situ impregnation of MnCo2O4 NRs during polymerization of pyrrole. The surface morphology and microstructure of as−synthesized samples was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The crystallographic phase of MnCo2O4 NRs, PPy and hybrid was determined by X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical charge storage activity of MnCo2O4 NRs, PPy and MnCo2O4 NRs/PPy hybrid was evaluated from cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Significant improvement of specific capacitance was achieved in MnCo2O4 NRs/PPy hybrid as compared to the individual components. Furthermore, the mechanically mixed MnCo2O4 NRs, and PPy shows lower specific capacitance as compared to MnCo2O4 NRs/PPy hybrid suggesting the importance of in situ hybrid preparation. The stability of as prepared electrode materials was tested by cyclic charge-discharge measurement for 1000 cycles. Maximum 94% capacitance was retained with MnCo2O4 NRs/PPy hybrid electrode. This study suggests that MnCo2O4 NRs/PPy hybrid can be used as a low cost electrode material for charge storage in supercapacitors.

Keywords: Supercapacitors, nanorods, polypyrrole, spinel, MnCo2O4

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14 Synthesis and Characterization of Polypyrrole-Coated Non-Conducting Cellulosic Substrate and Modified by Copper Oxide

Authors: A. Hamam, D. Oukil, A. Dib, L. Makhloufi


The aim of this work is to synthesize modified Polypyrrole films (PPy) containing nanoparticles of copper oxides onto a non conducting cellulosic substrate. Firstly, the chemical polymerization of polypyrrole onto cellulosic substrate is carried out using FeCl3 as an oxidant and Pyrrole as monomer. Different parameters were optimized (monomer concentration, duration of the experiment, nature of supporting electrolyte, temperature, etc.) in order to obtain films with different thickness and different morphologies. Thickness and topography of different PPy deposits were estimated by a profilometer apparatus. The electrochemical reactivity of the obtained electrodes were tested by cyclic voltammetry technique (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Secondly, the modification of the PPy film surface by incorporation of copper oxide nanonoparticles is conducted by applying a galvanostatic procedure from CuCl2 solution. Surface characterization has been carried out using scanning microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analysis showed the presence of the copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO) in the polymer films with dimensions less than 50 nm.

Keywords: polypyrrole, copper oxide, modified electrode, cellulosic substrate

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13 Heterophase Polymerization of Pyrrole and Thienyl End Capped Ethoxylated Nonyl Phenol by Iron (III) Chloride

Authors: Nesrin Köken, Görkem Ülkü, Esin A. Güvel, Nilgün Kızılcan


Ethoxylated nonyl phenols (ENP) and ceric ammonium nitrate redox systems have been used for the polymerization of vinyl and acrylic monomers. In that case, ENP acted as an organic reducing agent in the presence of Ce (IV) salt and a radical was formed. The polymers obtained with that redox system contained ENP chain ends because the radicals are formed on the reducing molecules. Similar copolymer synthesis has been reported using poly(ethylene oxide) instead of its nonyl phenol terminated derivative, ENP. However, copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and conducting polymers synthesized by ferric ions were produced in two steps. Firstly, heteroatoms (pyrrole, thiophene etc.) were attached to the poly(ethylene oxide) chains then copolymerization with heterocyclic monomers was carried out. In this work, ethoxylated nonylphenol (ENP) was reacted with 2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride in order to synthesize a macromonomer containing thienyl end-group (ENP-ThC). Then, copolymers of ENP-ThC and pyrrole were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization using iron (III) chloride as an oxidant.

Keywords: polypyrrole, end capped polymer, ethoxylated nonylphenol, heterophase polymerization

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12 Copolymers of Pyrrole and α,ω-Dithienyl Terminated Poly(ethylene glycol)

Authors: Nesrin Köken, Esin A. Güvel, Nilgün Kızılcan


This work presents synthesis of α,ω-dithienyl terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGTh) capable for further chain extension by either chemical or electrochemical polymerization. PEGTh was characterized by FTIR and 1H-NMR. Further, copolymerization of PEGTh and pyrrole (Py) was performed by chemical oxidative polymerization using ceric (IV) salt as an oxidant (PPy-PEGTh). PEG without end group modification was used directly to prepare copolymers with Py by Ce (IV) salt (PPy-PEG). Block copolymers with mole ratio of pyrrole to PEGTh (PEG) 50:1 and 10:1 were synthesized. The electrical conductivities of copolymers PPy-PEGTh and PPy-PEG were determined by four-point probe technique. Influence of the synthetic route and content of the insulating segment on conductivity and yield of the copolymers were investigated.

Keywords: conducting polymer, polypyrrole, chemical oxidative polymerization, poly(ethylene glycol)

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11 Modified Poly (Pyrrole) Film-Based Biosensors for Phenol Detection

Authors: M. S. Kilic, S. Korkut, E. Erhan


In order to detect and quantify the phenolic contents of a wastewater with biosensors, two working electrodes based on modified Poly (Pyrrole) films were fabricated. Enzyme horseradish peroxidase was used as biomolecule of the prepared electrodes. Various phenolics were tested at the biosensor. Phenol detection was realized by electrochemical reduction of quinones produced by enzymatic activity. Analytical parameters were calculated and the results were compared with each other.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube, polypyrrole, phenol biosensor, poly (glutaraldehyde)

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10 Fabrication of a New Electrochemical Sensor Based on New Nanostructured Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole for Selective and Sensitive Determination of Morphine

Authors: Samaneh Nabavi, Hadi Shirzad, Arash Ghoorchian, Maryam Shanesaz, Reza Naderi


Morphine (MO), the most effective painkiller, is considered the reference by which analgesics are assessed. It is very necessary for the biomedical applications to detect and maintain the MO concentrations in the blood and urine with in safe ranges. To date, there are many expensive techniques for detecting MO. Recently, many electrochemical sensors for direct determination of MO were constructed. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is a polymeric material, which has a built-in functionality for the recognition of a particular chemical substance with its complementary cavity.This paper reports a sensor for MO using a combination of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and differential-pulse voltammetry (DPV). Electropolymerization of MO doped polypyrrole yielded poor quality, but a well-doped, nanostructure and increased impregnation has been obtained in the pH=12. Above a pH of 11, MO is in the anionic forms. The effect of various experimental parameters including pH, scan rate and accumulation time on the voltammetric response of MO was investigated. At the optimum conditions, the concentration of MO was determined using DPV in a linear range of 7.07 × 10−6 to 2.1 × 10−4 mol L−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and a detection limit of 13.3 × 10-8 mol L−1, respectively. The effect of common interferences on the current response of MO namely ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) is studied. The modified electrode can be used for the determination of MO spiked into urine samples, and excellent recovery results were obtained. The nanostructured polypyrrole films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and furrier transforms infrared (FTIR).

Keywords: Sensor, nanostructure, polypyrrole, molecularly imprinted polymer, morphine detection

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9 Development of PPy-M Composites Materials for Sensor Application

Authors: Yatimah Alias, Tilagam Marimuthu, M. R. Mahmoudian, Sharifah Mohamad


The rapid growth of science and technology in energy and environmental fields has enlightened the substantial importance of the conducting polymer and metal composite materials engineered at nano-scale. In this study, polypyrrole-cobalt composites (PPy-Co Cs) and polypyrrole-nickel oxide composites (PPy-NiO Cs) were prepared by a simple and facile chemical polymerization method with an aqueous solution of pyrrole monomer in the presence of metal salt. These composites then fabricated into non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose sensor. The morphology and composition of the composites are characterized by the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum and X-ray Powder Diffraction. The obtained results were compared with the pure PPy and metal oxide particles. The structural and morphology properties of synthesized composites are different from those of pure PPy and metal oxide particles, which were attributed to the strong interaction between the PPy and the metal particles. Besides, a favorable micro-environment for the electrochemical oxidation of H2O2 and glucose was achieved on the modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) coated with PPy-Co Cs and PPy-NiO Cs respectively, resulting in an enhanced amperometric response. Both PPy-Co/GCE and PPy-NiO/GCE give high response towards target analyte at optimum condition of 500 μl pyrrole monomer content. Furthermore, the presence of pyrrole monomer greatly increases the sensitivity of the respective modified electrode. The PPy-Co/GCE could detect H2O2 in a linear range of 20 μM to 80 mM with two linear segments (low and high concentration of H2O2) and the detection limit for both ranges is 2.05 μM and 19.64 μM, respectively. Besides, PPy-NiO/GCE exhibited good electrocatalytic behavior towards glucose oxidation in alkaline medium and could detect glucose in linear ranges of 0.01 mM to 0.50 mM and 1 mM to 20 mM with detection limit of 0.33 and 5.77 μM, respectively. The ease of modifying and the long-term stability of this sensor have made it superior to enzymatic sensors, which must kept in a critical environment.

Keywords: Composite, polypyrrole, metal oxide, non-enzymatic sensor

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8 Application of Electrochemically Prepared PPy/MWCNT:MnO2 Nano-Composite Film in Microbial Fuel Cells for Sustainable Power Generation

Authors: D. C. Tiwari, Rajeev jain, Praveena Mishra


Nano-composite of polypyrrole/multiwalled carbon nanotubes:mangenese oxide (PPy/MWCNT:MnO2) was electrochemically deposited on the surface of carbon cloth (CC). The nano-composite was structurally characterized by FTIR, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis studies. Nano-composite was also characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), current voltage measurements (I-V) and the optical band gaps of film were evaluated from UV-Vis absorption studies. The PPy/MWCNT:MnO2 nano-composite was used as anode in microbial fuel cell (MFC) for sewage waste water treatment, power and coulombic efficiency measurement. The prepared electrode showed good electrical conductivity (0.1185 S m-1). This was also supported by band gap measurements (direct 0.8 eV, indirect 1.3 eV). The obtained maximum power density was 1125.4 mW m-2, highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 93% and the maximum coulombic efficiency was 59%. For the first time PPy/MWCNT:MnO2 nano-composite for MFC prepared from nano-composite electrode having the potential for the use in MFC with good stability and better adhesion of microbes is being reported. The SEM images confirm the growth and development of microbe’s colony.

Keywords: functionalization, Microbial Fuel Cells, polypyrrole, multi walled carbon nanotubes, carbon cloth, electro-polymerization

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7 Photocatalytic Activity of Polypyrrole/ZnO Composites for Degradation of Dye Reactive Red 45 in Wastewater

Authors: Ljerka Kratofil Krehula, Vanja Gilja, Andrea Husak, Sniježana Šuka, Zlata Hrnjak-Murgić


Zinc oxide (ZnO) can be used as photocatalysts for water purification. However, one particular interest is given on the integration of inorganic ZnO nanoclusters with conducting polymers because the resulting nanocomposites may possess unique properties and enhanced photocatalytic activity in comparison to pure ZnO, using UV and also visible light. It is needed to explore the appropriate structure of polypyrrole that can induce activation of ZnO photocatalyst since the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials can result in a synergistic and complementary feature, increasing ZnO photocatalytic efficiency. In this paper several different composites of polypyrrole/zinc oxide (ZnO) were studied. Composite samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic efficiency of prepared samples was studied as a decomposition of Reactive Red 45 (RR 45) dye, which was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy as a change in absorbance of characteristic wavelength at 542 nm. Results show good photocatalytic efficiency of all nanocomposite samples.

Keywords: wastewater, photocatalysis, zinc oxide, polypyrrole

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6 Structural and Electrical Characterization of Polypyrrole and Cobalt Aluminum Oxide Nanocomposites

Authors: Sutar Rani Ananda, M. V. Murugendrappa


To investigate electrical properties of conducting polypyrrole (PPy) and cobalt aluminum oxide (CAO) nanocomposites, impedance analyzer in frequency range of 100 Hz to 5 MHz is used. In this work, PPy/CAO nanocomposites were synthesized by chemical oxidation polymerization method in different weight percent of CAO in PPy. The dielectric properties and AC conductivity studies were carried out for different nanocomposites in temperature range of room temperature to 180 °C. With the increase in frequency, the dielectric constant for all the nanocomposites was observed to decrease. AC conductivity of PPy was improved by addition of CAO nanopowder.

Keywords: dielectric constant, dielectric loss, polypyrrole, AC conductivity

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5 Synthesis, Characterization and Impedance Analysis of Polypyrrole/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 Nanocomposites

Authors: M. V. Murugendrappa, M. G. Smitha


Perovskite manganite La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 was synthesized by Sol-gel method. Polymerization of pyrrole was carried by in-situ polymerization method. The composite of pyrrole (Py)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 composite in the presence of oxidizing agent ammonium per sulphate to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCM) composite was carried out by the same in-situ polymerization method. The PPy/LCM composites were synthesized with varying compositions like 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt.% of LCM in Py. The surface morphologies of these composites were analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The images show that LCM particles are embedded in PPy chain. The impedance measurement of PPy/LCM at different temperature ranges from 30 to 180 °C was studied using impedance analyzer. The study shows that impedance is frequency and temperature dependent and it is found to decrease with increase in frequency and temperature.

Keywords: Composites, impedance, sol gel, polypyrrole

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4 The Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Blue 25 Dye by Polypyrrole/Titanium Dioxide and Polypyrrole/Zinc Oxide Composites

Authors: Ljerka Kratofil Krehula, Vanja Gilja, Zlata Hrnjak-Murgić, Martina Perlog, Jasmina Stjepanović, Marijana Kraljić Roković


The composite preparation of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide photocatalysts with the conductive polymers gives the opportunity to carry out the catalysis reactions not only under UV light but also under visible light. Such processes may efficiently use sunlight in degradation of different organic pollutants and present new design for wastewater treatment. The paper presents the preparation procedure, material characteristics and photocatalytic efficiency of polypyrrole/titanium dioxide and polypyrrole/zinc oxide composites (PPy/TiO2 and PPy/ZnO). The obtained composite samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic efficiency of the samples was determined following the decomposition of Acid Blue 25 dye (AB 25) under UV and visible light by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The efficiency of degradation is determined by total organic carbon content (TOC) after photocatalysis processes. The results show enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of the samples under visible light, so the prepared composite samples are recognized as efficient catalysts in degradation process of AB 25 dye. It can be concluded that the preparation of TiO2 or ZnO composites with PPy can serve as a very efficient method for the improvement of TiO2 and ZnO photocatalytic performance under visible light.

Keywords: photocatalysis, Composite, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, polypyrrole

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3 Fabrication of Biosensor Based on Layered Double Hydroxide/Polypyrrole/Carbon Paste Electrode for Determination of Anti-Hypertensive and Prostatic Hyperplasia Drug Terazosin

Authors: Amira M. Hassanein, Nehal A. Salahuddin, Atsunori Matsuda, Toshiaki Hattori, Mona N. Elfiky


New insights into the design of highly sensitive, carbon-based electrochemical sensors are presented in this work. This was achieved by exploring the interesting properties of conductive (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide- Dodecyl Sulphate/Polypyrrole nanocomposites which were synthesized by in-situ polymerization of pyrrole during the assembly of (Mg/Al) layered double hydroxide, and by employing the anionic surfactant Dodecyl sulphate as a modifier. The morphology and surface area of the nanocomposites changed with the percentage of Pyrrole. Under optimal conditions, the modified carbon paste electrode successfully achieved detection limits of 0.057 and 0.134 nmol.L-1 of Terazosin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum fluid, respectively. Moreover, the sensors are highly stable, reusable, and free from interference by other commonly present excipients in drug formulations.

Keywords: layered double hydroxide, polypyrrole, terazosin hydrochloride, square-wave adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetry

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2 Urea Amperometric Biosensor Based on Entrapment Immobilization of Urease onto a Nanostructured Polypyrrol and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube

Authors: Iman Farahbakhsh, Afshin Farahbakhsh, Hamide Amani


In this paper, an amprometric biosensor based on surface modified polypyrrole (PPy) has been developed for the quantitative estimation of urea in aqueous solutions. The incorporation of urease (Urs) into a bipolymeric substrate consisting of PPy was performed by entrapment to the polymeric matrix, PPy acts as amperometric transducer in these biosensors. To increase the membrane conductivity, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were added to the PPy solution. The entrapped MWCNT in PPy film and the bipolymer layers were prepared for construction of Pt/PPy/MWCNT/Urs. Two different configurations of working electrodes were evaluated to investigate the potential use of the modified membranes in biosensors. The evaluation of two different configurations of working electrodes suggested that the second configuration, which was composed of an electrode-mediator-(pyrrole and multi-walled carbon nanotube) structure and enzyme, is the best candidate for biosensor applications.

Keywords: multi-walled carbon nanotube, polypyrrole, urease, urea biosensor

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1 Polypyrrole as Bifunctional Materials for Advanced Li-S Batteries

Authors: Jiazhao Wang, Fang Li, Jianmin Ma


The practical application of Li-S batteries is hampered due to poor cycling stability caused by electrolyte-dissolved lithium polysulfides. Dual functionalities such as strong chemical adsorption stability and high conductivity are highly desired for an ideal host material for a sulfur-based cathode. Polypyrrole (PPy), as a conductive polymer, was widely studied as matrixes for sulfur cathode due to its high conductivity and strong chemical interaction with soluble polysulfides. Thus, a novel cathode structure consisting of a free-standing sulfur-polypyrrole cathode and a polypyrrole coated separator was designed for flexible Li-S batteries. The PPy materials show strong interaction with dissoluble polysulfides, which could suppress the shuttle effect and improve the cycling stability. In addition, the synthesized PPy film with a rough surface acts as a current collector, which improves the adhesion of sulfur materials and restrain the volume expansion, enhancing the structural stability during the cycling process. For further enhancing the cycling stability, a PPy coated separator was also applied, which could make polysulfides into the cathode side to alleviate the shuttle effect. Moreover, the PPy layer coated on commercial separator is much lighter than other reported interlayers. A soft-packaged flexible Li-S battery has been designed and fabricated for testing the practical application of the designed cathode and separator, which could power a device consisting of 24 light-emitting diode (LED) lights. Moreover, the soft-packaged flexible battery can still show relatively stable cycling performance after repeated bending, indicating the potential application in flexible batteries. A novel vapor phase deposition method was also applied to prepare uniform polypyrrole layer coated sulfur/graphene aerogel composite. The polypyrrole layer simultaneously acts as host and adsorbent for efficient suppression of polysulfides dissolution through strong chemical interaction. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the polypyrrole could trap lithium polysulfides through stronger bonding energy. In addition, the deflation of sulfur/graphene hydrogel during the vapor phase deposition process enhances the contact of sulfur with matrixes, resulting in high sulfur utilization and good rate capability. As a result, the synthesized polypyrrole coated sulfur/graphene aerogel composite delivers a specific discharge capacity of 1167 mAh g⁻¹ and 409.1 mAh g⁻¹ at 0.2 C and 5 C respectively. The capacity can maintain at 698 mAh g⁻¹ at 0.5 C after 500 cycles, showing an ultra-slow decay rate of 0.03% per cycle.

Keywords: polypyrrole, long-term stability, strong chemical interaction, Li-S batteries

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