Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

polyphenol Related Abstracts

9 Human Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Effect, in vivo Antioxidant Activity of Globularia alypum L. Extracts

Authors: N. Boussoualim, H. Trabsa, I. Krache, S. Aouachria, S. Boumerfeg, L. Arrar, A. Baghiani

Abstract:

The aim of this study consisted in evaluating the antioxidant in vivo properties, anti-hemolytic and XOR inhibitory effect of Globularia alypum L. (GA) extracts. GA was submitted to extraction and fractionation to give crude (CrE), chloroformique (ChE), ethyle acetate (EAE) and aqueos (AqE) extracts. Total polyphenols contents of GA extracts were determined; EAE is the most rich in polyphenols (157,74±5,27 mg GAE/mg of extract). GA Extracts inhibited XO in a concentration-dependent manner, the EAE showed the highest inhibitory properties on the XOR activity (IC50=0,083±0,001 mg/ml), followed by CrE and ChE. The antioxidant activities of the CrE, EAE, and AqE were tested by an in vivo assay in mice, the plasma ability to inhibit DPPH radical was measured, The CrE was found to exhibit the greatest scavenger activity with 48.41±2.763%, followed by AqE and EAE (40.54±7.51% and 41.79±1.654%, respectively). Total antioxidant capacity of red blood cells was measured, from the kinetics of hemolysis obtained. The calculated HT50 reveal an extension of time for half hemolysis in all treated groups compared with the control group. CrE increase significantly HT50 (112,8±2,427). The hemolysis is lagged, indicating that endogenous antioxidants in the erythrocytes can trap radicals to protect them against free-radical-induced hemolysis. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined by the disc diffusion method. Test microorganisms were; 4 Gram positive, 7 gram negative bacteria, most active extracts were EAE and CrE. We deduce a great relationship between the effect on the extracts antibacterial effect and their contents in flavonoid.

Keywords: Globularia alypum, Xanthine oxidoreductase, in vivo-antioxidant activity, hemolysis, polyphenol

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8 Exploring the Feasibility of Introducing Particular Polyphenols into Cow Milk Naturally through Animal Feeding

Authors: Steve H. Y. Lee, Jeremy P. E. Spencer

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of enriching polyphenols in cow milk via addition of flavanone-rich citrus pulp to existing animal feed. 8 Holstein lactating cows were enrolled onto the 4 week feeding study. 4 cows were fed the standard farm diet (control group), with another 4 (treatment group) which are fed a standard farm diet mixed with citrus pulp diet. Milk was collected twice a day, 3 times a week. The resulting milk yield and its macronutrient composition as well as lactose content were measured. The milk phenolic compounds were analysed using electrochemical detection (ECD).

Keywords: Milk, Animal Feeding, polyphenol, lactating cows

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7 Phytochemical Study and Biological Activity of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

Authors: Mekhaldi Abdelkader, Bouzned Ahcen, Djibaoui Rachid, Hamoum Hakim

Abstract:

This study presents an attempt to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract and essential oils prepared from the leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The content of polyphenols in the methanolic extract of the leaves from Salvia officinalis extract was determined by spectrophoto- metrically, calculated as gallic acid and catechin equivalent. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenylpicryl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The plant essential oil and methanol extract were also subjected to screenings for the evaluation of their antioxidant activities using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. While the plant essential oil showed only weak antioxidant activities, its methanol extract was considerably active in DPPH (IC50= 37.29µg/ml) test. Appreciable total phenolic content (31.25mg/g) was also detected for the plant methanol extract as gallic acid equivalent in the Folin–Ciocalteu test. The plant was also screened for its antimicrobial activity and good to moderate inhibitions were recorded for its essential oil and methanol extract against most of the tested microorganisms. The present investigation revealed that this plant has rich source of antioxidant properties. It is for this reason that sage has found increasing application in food formulations.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, flavonoid, Salvia officinalis, polyphenol

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6 Phenolic Analysis, Antioxidant Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity of Origanum glandulosum Desf Extract from Algeria

Authors: Abdelkader Basli, Jean-Claude Delaunay, Eric Pedrot, Jean-Michel Mérillon, Jean-Pierre Monti, Khodir Madani, Mohamed Chibane, Tristan Richard

Abstract:

The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Origanum glandulosum collected in Algeria have been studied. Extract was prepared from aerial part of endemic Algerian oregano. The produced extract has been characterized in terms of total phenols (using Folin method), total flavonoid, antioxidant activities (using the DPPH radical scavenging method and ORAC assay) and microbial activity against four bacteria: Streptococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae one yeast: Candida albicans and one fungi: Aspergillus niger. The results pointed the antioxidant activities of the extract of O. glandulosum and antimicrobial activities against all bacteria and C. Candida, but no effect on A. niger. High performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) were used to separate and identify the major compounds present in the oregano extract. Rosmarinic acid, globoidnan A and B, lithospermic acid B and three flavonoids were identified.

Keywords: antioxidant, microbial activity, polyphenol, origanum glandulosum, LC-MS, LC-NMR

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5 Evolution of Bioactive Components of Prickly Pear Juice (Opuntia ficus indica) and Cocktails with Orange Juice

Authors: T. Hadj Sadok, R. Hattab Bey, K. Rebiha

Abstract:

The valuation of juice from prickly pear of Opuntia ficus indica inermis as cocktails appears an attractive alternative because of their nutritional intake and functional compound has anti-radical activity (polyphenols, vitamin C, carotenoids, Betalaines, fiber and minerals). The juice from the fruit pulp is characterized by a high pH 5.85 which makes it difficult for its conservation and preservation requires a thermal treatment at high temperatures (over 100 °C) harmful for bioactive constituents compared to juice orange more acidic and processed at temperatures < 100 °C. The valuation as fig cocktails-orange is particularly interesting thanks to the contribution of polyph2nols, fiber, vitamin C, reducing sugar (sweetener) and betalaine, minerals while allowing lower temperature processing to decrease pH. The heat treatment of these juices: orange alone or in cocktails showed that the antioxidant power decreases by 12% in presence of 30% of juice treated by the heat and of 28 and 32% in the presence of 10 and 20% juice which shows the effect prickly pear juice of Opuntia. During storage for 4 weeks the loss of vitamin C is 40 and 38% in the presence of 10 and 20% juice and 33% in the presence of 30% pear juice parallel, a treatment of stabilization by heat affects relatively the polyphenols rate which decreases from 10.5% to 30% in the cocktail, and 6.11-6.71pour cocktails at 10% and 20%. Vitamin C decreases to 12 to 24 % after a heat treatment at 85°C for 30 minutes respectively for the orange juice and pear juice; this reduction is higher when the juice is in the form of cocktails composed of 10 to 30 % pear juice.

Keywords: Vitamin, polyphenol, prickly pear juice, orange cocktail, Opuntia ficus indica

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4 Mathematical Modeling of Carotenoids and Polyphenols Content of Faba Beans (Vicia faba L.) during Microwave Treatments

Authors: Ridha Fethi Mechlouch, Ahlem Ayadi, Ammar Ben Brahim

Abstract:

Given the importance of the preservation of polyphenols and carotenoids during thermal processing, we attempted in this study to investigate the variation of these two parameters in faba beans during microwave treatment using different power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g), then to perform a mathematical modeling by using non-linear regression analysis to evaluate the models constants. The variation of the carotenoids and polyphenols ratio of faba beans and the models are tested to validate the experimental results. Exponential models were found to be suitable to describe the variation of caratenoid ratio (R²= 0.945, 0.927 and 0.946) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively, and polyphenol ratio (R²= 0.931, 0.989 and 0.982) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively. The effect of microwave power density Pd(W/g) on the coefficient k of models were also investigated. The coefficient is highly correlated (R² = 1) and can be expressed as a polynomial function.

Keywords: Modeling, polyphenol, power density, microwave treatment, carotenoid

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3 Inhibition and Breaking of Advanced Glycation End Products with Nuts and Polyphenols

Authors: Moon Ho Do, Sin-Hee Park, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kyo Hee Cho, Jae Kyung Chae, Sun Yeou Kim

Abstract:

Long-term hyperglycemic conditions associated with diabetes lead to the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Highly reactive glucose metabolites, methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO), induced carbonyl stress and it may induce cellular damage, cross-linking of proteins, and glycation, playing an important role in the impairment of kidney function. Small molecules that have the ability to inhibit AGE formation, and even break preformed AGEs have a beneficial impact on metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cancer. We quantified contents of polyphenols in nuts and investigated the protective effect of nuts and polyphenols on MGO-induced cytotoxicity in porcine kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). Moreover, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of AGEs formation in the presence of MGO or GO and possess the ability to break preformed AGEs. In this study, we confirmed twenty polyphenols in diverse nuts using LC-MS/MS system. Nuts and polyphenols play a protective role in LLC-PK1 cells by reducing MGO-induced cytotoxicity. They could also prevent the formation of MGO or GO-mediated AGEs and Break AGEs crosslink. It can be surmised that increased consumption of nuts would be an effective means of preventing diabetic diseases.

Keywords: polyphenol, advanced glycation end products, LLC-PK1, methylglyoxal, nut

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2 Optimization of a Method of Total RNA Extraction from Mentha piperita

Authors: Soheila Afkar

Abstract:

Mentha piperita is a medicinal plant that contains a large amount of secondary metabolite that has adverse effect on RNA extraction. Since high quality of RNA is the first step to real time-PCR, in this study optimization of total RNA isolation from leaf tissues of Mentha piperita was evaluated. From this point of view, we researched two different total RNA extraction methods on leaves of Mentha piperita to find the best one that contributes the high quality. The methods tested are RNX-plus, modified RNX-plus (1-5 numbers). RNA quality was analyzed by agarose gel 1.5%. The RNA integrity was also assessed by visualization of ribosomal RNA bands on 1.5% agarose gels. In the modified RNX-plus method (number 2), the integrity of 28S and 18S rRNA was highly satisfactory when analyzed in agarose denaturing gel, so this method is suitable for RNA isolation from Mentha piperita.

Keywords: polyphenol, mentha piperita, polysaccharide, RNA extraction

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1 The Effect of the Variety and Harvesting Date on Polyphenol Composition of Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) and Anti-diabetic Properties of Haskap Polyphenols

Authors: Aruma Baduge Kithma De Silva

Abstract:

Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.), also known as blue honeysuckle, is a newly commercialized berry crop in Canada. Haskap berries are rich in polyphenols, including, anthocyanins, which are known for potential health-promoting properties. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is the most abundant anthocyanin of haskap berries. The compound C3G has the ability to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), which has become an increasingly common health issue around the world. The T2D is characterized as a metabolic disorder of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. It has been demonstrated that C3G has anti-diabetic effects through several ways, including inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), reduction of gluconeogenesis, improvement in insulin sensitivity, and inhibition of activities of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, including α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of variety and harvests maturity of haskap on C3G, other fruit quality characteristics and anti-diabetic activities of haskap berries using in vitro studies. The polyphenols present in four commercially grown haskap cultivars, Aurora, Rebecca, Larissa, and Evie harvested at five harvesting dates (H1-H5) apart from 2-3 days, were extracted separately. High-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyzes of polyphenols revealed that haskap berries contain predominantly anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids. The compound C3G was the most prominent anthocyanin, which is available in approximately 79% of total anthocyanin in four cultivars. The Larissa at H5 contained the highest C3G content. The antioxidant capacity of Evie at H5 was greater than other cultivars. Furthermore, Larissa H5 showed the greatest inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes including alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase. In conclusion, the haskap variety and harvesting date influenced the polyphenol composition and biological properties. The variety Larissa, at H5 harvesting date, contained the highest polyphenol content and the ability of inhibition of the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme as well as DPP4 enzyme in order to reduce type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, polyphenol, anthocyanin, haskap

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