Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Polymorphism Related Abstracts

41 Forensic Analysis of MTDNA Hypervariable Region HVII by Sanger Sequence Method in Iraq Population

Authors: H. Imad, Y. Cheah, O. Aamera


The aims of this research are to study the mitochondrial non-coding region by using the Sanger sequencing technique and establish the degree of variation characteristics of a fragment. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) utilized to extract DNA. A portion of a non-coding region encompassing positions 37 to 340 amplified in accordance with the Anderson reference sequence. PCR products purified by EZ-10 spin column then sequenced and detected by using the ABI 3730xL DNA Analyzer. New polymorphic positions 57, 63, and 101 are described may in future be suitable sources for identification purpose. The data obtained can be used to identify variable nucleotide positions characterized by frequent occurrence most promising for identification variants.

Keywords: Polymorphism, Frequency, Iraq, mitochondrial DNA, encompassing nucleotide positions 37 to 340, HVII

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40 RAPD Analysis of the Genetic Polymorphism in the Collection of Rye Cultivars

Authors: L. Petrovičová, Ž. Balážová, Z. Gálová, M. Wójcik-Jagła, M. Rapacz


In the present study, RAPD-PCR was used to assess genetic diversity of the rye including landrances and new rye cultivars coming from Central Europe and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (SUN). Five arbitrary random primers were used to determine RAPD polymorphism in the set of 38 rye genotypes. These primers amplified altogether 43 different DNA fragments with an average number of 8.6 fragments per genotypes. The number of fragments ranged from 7 (RLZ 8, RLZ 9 and RLZ 10) to 12 (RLZ 6). DI and PIC values of all RAPD markers were higher than 0.8 that generally means high level of polymorphism detected between rye genotypes. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. The cultivars were grouped into two main clusters. In this experiment, RAPD proved to be a rapid, reliable and practicable method for revealing of polymorphism in the rye cultivars.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, Polymorphism, RAPD markers, Secale cereale L

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39 RAPD Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean

Authors: M. Vivodík, Ž. Balážová, Z. Gálová


The aim of this work was to detect genetic variability among the set of 40 castor genotypes using 8 RAPD markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 40 genotypes, using RAPD analysis, yielded in 66 fragments, with an average of 8.25 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments ranged from 3 to 13, with the size of amplicons ranging from 100 to 1200 bp. Values of the polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.556 to 0.895 with an average of 0.784 and diversity index (DI) value ranged from 0.621 to 0.896 with an average of 0.798. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared and analyzed genotypes were grouped into two main clusters and only two genotypes could not be distinguished. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used for future breeding programs for increased oil production for industrial uses.

Keywords: Polymorphism, Ricinus communis L, dendrogram, RAPD technique

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38 Polymorphism of HMW-GS in Collection of Wheat Genotypes

Authors: M. Chňapek, M. Tomka, R. Peroutková, Z. Gálová


Processes of plant breeding, testing and licensing of new varieties, patent protection in seed production, relations in trade and protection of copyright are dependent on identification, differentiation and characterization of plant genotypes. Therefore, we focused our research on utilization of wheat storage proteins as genetic markers suitable not only for differentiation of individual genotypes, but also for identification and characterization of their considerable properties. We analyzed a collection of 102 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 41 genotypes of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.), and 35 genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), in this study. Our results show, that genotypes of bread wheat and durum wheat were homogenous and single line, but spelt wheat genotypes were heterogenous. We observed variability of HMW-GS composition according to environmental factors and level of breeding and predict technological quality on the basis of Glu-score calculation.

Keywords: Wheat Quality, Polymorphism, genotype identification, HMW-GS

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37 Polymorphism of Candidate Genes for Meat Production in Lori Sheep

Authors: Shahram Nanekarania, Majid Goodarzia


Calpastatin and callipyge have been known as one of the candidate genes in meat quality and quantity. Calpastatin gene has been located to chromosome 5 of sheep and callipyge gene has been localized in the telomeric region on ovine chromosome 18. The objective of this study was identification of calpastatin and callipyge genes polymorphism and analysis of genotype structure in population of Lori sheep kept in Iran. Blood samples were taken from 120 Lori sheep breed and genomic DNA was extracted by salting out method. Polymorphism was identified using the PCR-RFLP technique. The PCR products were digested with MspI and FaqI restriction enzymes for calpastatin gene and callipyge gene, respectively. In this population, three patterns were observed and AA, AB, BB genotype have been identified with the 0.32, 0.63, 0.05 frequencies for calpastatin gene. The results obtained for the callipyge gene revealed that only the wild-type allele A was observed, indicating that only genotype AA was present in the population under consideration.

Keywords: Polymorphism, calpastatin, callipyge, PCR-RFLP, Lori sheep

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36 Phenotypical and Genotypical Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis in 26 Cases from East and South Algeria

Authors: Yahia Massinissa, Yahia Mouloud


Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal genetic disease in the Europe population, is caused by mutations in the transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). It affects most organs including an epithelial tissue, base of hydroelectrolytic transepithelial transport, notably that aerial ways, the pancreas, the biliary ways, the intestine, sweat glands and the genital tractus. The gene whose anomalies are responsible of the cystic fibrosis codes for a protein Cl channel named CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) that exercises multiple functions in the cell, one of the most important in control of sodium and chlorine through epithelia. The deficient function translates itself notably by an abnormal production of viscous secretion that obstructs the execrator channels of this target organ: one observes then a dilatation, an inflammation and an atrophy of these organs. It also translates itself by an increase of the concentration in sodium and in chloride in sweat, to the basis of the sweat test. In order to do a phenotypical and genotypical diagnosis at a part of the Algerian population, our survey has been carried on 16 patients with evocative symptoms of the cystic fibrosis at that the clinical context has been confirmed by a sweat test. However, anomalies of the CFTR gene have been determined by electrophoresis in gel of polyacrylamide of the PCR products (polymerase chain reaction), after enzymatic digestion, then visualized to the ultraviolet (UV) after action of the ethidium bromide. All mutations detected at the time of our survey have already been identified at patients attained by this pathology in other populations of the world. However, the important number of found mutation with regard to the one of the studied patients testifies that the origin of this big clinical variability that characterizes the illness in the consequences of an enormous diversity of molecular defects of the CFTR gene.

Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, Polymorphism, CFTR gene, algerian population, sweat test, genotypical diagnosis

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35 Polymorphisms of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and Susceptibility to Endometriosis

Authors: Z. Chekini, P. Afsharian, F. Ramezanali, A. A. Akhlaghi, R. Aflatoonian


Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine that involves in pathophysiological events of endometriosis. We aimed to evaluate the association between mRNA expression levels and polymorphisms of MIF in endometriosis. Seventy endometriosis patients and 70 volunteer fertile women were recruited. RFLP was applied to determine -173G/C polymorphism. ORF polymorphisms and -794(CATT)5-8 were detected by sequencing. Q-PCR was used for expression study of 14 ectopic tissues of patients. Homozygote of CATT5 was observed only in controls. The CATT5/G haplotype related to controls (p=0.094, OR=0.61). Expression level of MIF with -794(CATT)6,7/-173GC was significantly more than the other haplotypes (p=0.00). We identified four SNPs including: +254rs2096525 (p=0.843), +626rs33958703 (p=0.029), +656rs2070766 (p=0.703) and +509rs182012324 (p=1.00). In conclusion, increased repeat of CATT and presence of C allele in promoter of MIF were significantly associated with mRNA level in patients. It seems that +509rs182012324 and +626rs33958703 SNPs were significantly correlated with susceptibility to endometriosis.

Keywords: Endometriosis, Polymorphism, haplotype, macrophage migration inhibitory factor

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34 Evaluation of Occupational Exposure to Chromium for Welders of Stainless Steel

Authors: L. Musak, J. Valachova, T. Vasicko, O. Osina


Stainless steel is resistant to electrochemical corrosion by passivation. Welders are greatly exposed to welding fumes of toxic metals, which added to this steel. The content of chromium (Cr) is above 11.5%, Ni and Mo from 2 to 6.5%. The aim of the study was the evaluation of occupational exposure to Cr, chromosome analysis and valuation of individual susceptibility polymorphism of gene CCND1 c.870 G>A. The exposed group was consisted from 117 welders of stainless steels. The average age was 38.43 years and average exposure time 7.14 years. Smokers represented 40.17%. The control group consisted of 123 non-exposed workers with an average age of 39.74 years and time employment 16.67 years. Smokers accounted for 22.76%. Analysis of Cr in blood and urine was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS Varian SpectraAA 30P) with electrothermal decomposition of the sample in the graphite furnace. For the evaluation of chromosomal aberrations (CA) cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was used. Gene polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP reaction using appropriate primers and restriction enzymes. For statistic analysis the Mann-Whitney U-test was used. The mean Cr level in blood of exposed group was 0.095 µmol/l (0.019 min - max 0.504). No value exceeds the average normal value. The mean value Cr in urine was 7.9 µmol/mol creatinine (min 0.026 to max 19.26). The total number of CA was 1.86% in compared to 1.70% controls. (CTA-type 0.90% vs. 0.80% and CSA-type 0.96% vs. 0.90%). In the number of total CA statistical difference was observed between smokers and non-smokers of exposed group (S-1.57% vs. NS-2.04%, P<0.05). In CCND1 gene polymorphisms was observed the increasing of the total CA with wild-type allele (WT) via heterozygous to the VAR genotype (1.44% <1.82% <2.13%). A statistically higher incidence of CTA-type aberrations in variant genotypes between exposed and control groups was observed (1.22% vs. 0.59%, P <0.05). The work place is usually higher source of exposure to harmful factors. Workers need consistent and frequent health control. In assessing the risk of adverse effects of metals it is important to consider their persistence, behavior and bioavailability. Prolonged exposure to carcinogens may not manifest symptoms of poisoning, but delayed effects may occur, which resulted in a higher incidence of malignant tumors.

Keywords: Genotoxicity, Polymorphism, stainless steel, welders, CCND1

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33 Analysis of Endogenous Sirevirus in Germinating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

Authors: Nermin Gozukirmizi, Buket Cakmak, Sevgi Marakli


Sireviruses are genera of copia LTR retrotransposons with a unique genome structure among retrotransposons. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an economically important plant and has been studied as a model plant regarding its short annual life cycle and seven chromosome pairs. In this study, we used mature barley embryos, 10-day-old roots and 10-day-old leaves derived from the same barley plant to investigate SIRE1 retrotransposon movements by Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) technique. We found polymorphism rates between 0-64% among embryos, roots and leaves. Polymorphism rates were detected to be 0-27% among embryos, 8-60% among roots, and 11-50% among leaves. Polymorphisms were observed not only among the parts of different individuals, but also on the parts of the same plant (23-64%). The internal domains of SIRE1 (gag, env and rt) were also analyzed in the embryos, roots and leaves. Analysis of band profiles showed no polymorphism for gag, however, different band patterns were observed among samples for rt and env. The sequencing of SIRE1 gag, env and rt domains revealed 79% similarity for gag, 95% for env and 84% for rt to Ty1-copia retrotransposons. SIRE1 retrotransposon was identified in the soybean genome and has been studied on other plants (maize, rice, tomatoe etc.). This study is the first detailed investigation of SIRE1 in barley genome. The obtained findings are expected to contribute to the comprehension of SIRE1 retrotransposon and its role in barley genome.

Keywords: Polymorphism, barley, retrotransposon, SIRE1 virus

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32 Pharmacogenetics of Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A9) Genetic Polymorphism on Sodium Valproate Pharmacokinetics in Epilepsy

Authors: Murali Munisamy, Gauthaman Karunakaran, Mubarak Al-Gahtany, Vivekanandhan Subbiah, M. Manjari Tripati


Background: Sodium valproate is a widely prescribed broad-spectrum anti-epileptic drug. It shows high inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and has a narrow therapeutic range. We evaluated the effects of polymorphic uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A9) metabolizing enzyme on the pharmacokinetics of sodium valproate in the patients with epilepsy who showed toxicity to therapy. Methods: Genotype analysis of the patients was made with polymerase chain–restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with sequencing. Plasma drug concentrations were measured with reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and concentration–time data were analyzed by using a non-compartmental approach. Results: The results of this study suggested a significant genotypic as well as allelic association with valproic acid toxicity for UGT1A9 polymorphic enzymes. The elimination half-life (t 1/2=40.2 h) of valproic acid was longer and the clearance rate (CL=937 ml/h) was lower in the poor metabolizers group of UGT1A9 polymorphism who showed toxicity than in the intermediate metabolizers group (t1/2=35.5 h, CL=1042 ml/h) or the extensive metabolizers group (t1/2=26. h, CL=1,302 ml/h). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the UGT1A9 genetic polymorphism plays a significant role in the steady state concentration of sodium valproate, and it thereby has an impact on the toxicity of the sodium valproate used in the patients with epilepsy.

Keywords: Pharmacogenetics, Polymorphism, UGT1A9, sodium valporate

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31 Comparative Assessment of ISSR and RAPD Markers among Egyptian Jojoba Shrubs

Authors: Abdelsabour G. A. Khaled, Galal A.R. El-Sherbeny, Ahmed M. Hassanein, Gameel M. G. Aly


Classical methods of identification, based on agronomical characterization, are not always the most accurate way due to the instability of these characteristics under the influence of the different environments. In order to estimate the genetic diversity, molecular markers provided excellent tools. In this study, Genetic variation of nine Egyptian jojoba shrubs was tested using ISSR (inter simple sequences repeats), RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers and based on the morphological characterization. The average of the percentage of polymorphism (%P) ranged between 58.17% and 74.07% for ISSR and RAPD markers, respectively. The range of genetic similarity percents among shrubs based on ISSR and RAPD markers were from 82.9 to 97.9% and from 85.5 to 97.8%, respectively. The average of PIC (polymorphism information content) values were 0.19 (ISSR) and 0.24 (RAPD). In the present study, RAPD markers were more efficient than the ISSR markers. Where the RAPD technique exhibited higher marker index (MI) average (1.26) compared to ISSR one (1.11). There was an insignificant correlation between the ISSR and RAPD data (0.076, P > 0.05). The dendrogram constructed by the combined RAPD and ISSR data gave a relatively different clustering pattern.

Keywords: Molecular markers, correlation, Polymorphism, marker index

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30 Prevalence of Cyp2d6 and Its Implications for Personalized Medicine in Saudi Arabs

Authors: Hamsa T. Tayeb, Mohammad A. Arafah, Dana M. Bakheet, Duaa M. Khalaf, Agnieszka Tarnoska, Nduna Dzimiri


Background: CYP2D6 is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system. The enzyme is responsible for the metabolism and elimination of approximately 25% of clinically used drugs, especially in breast cancer and psychiatric therapy. Different phenotypes have been described displaying alleles that lead to a complete loss of enzyme activity, reduced function (poor metabolizers – PM), hyperfunctionality (ultrarapid metabolizers–UM) and therefore drug intoxication or loss of drug effect. The prevalence of these variants may vary among different ethnic groups. Furthermore, the xTAG system has been developed to categorized all patients into different groups based on their CYP2D6 substrate metabolization. Aim of the study: To determine the prevalence of the different CYP2D6 variants in our population, and to evaluate their clinical relevance in personalized medicine. Methodology: We used the Luminex xMAP genotyping system to sequence 305 Saudi individuals visiting the Blood Bank of our Institution and determine which polymorphisms of CYP2D6 gene are prevalent in our region. Results: xTAG genotyping showed that 36.72% (112 out of 305 individuals) carried the CYP2D6_*2. Out of the 112 individuals with the *2 SNP, 6.23% had multiple copies of *2 SNP (19 individuals out of 305 individuals), resulting in an UM phenotype. About 33.44% carried the CYP2D6_*41, which leads to decreased activity of the CYP2D6 enzyme. 19.67% had the wild-type alleles and thus had normal enzyme function. Furthermore, 15.74% carried the CYP2D6_*4, which is the most common nonfunctional form of the CYP2D6 enzyme worldwide. 6.56% carried the CYP2D6_*17, resulting in decreased enzyme activity. Approximately 5.73% carried the CYP2D6_*10, consequently decreasing the enzyme activity, resulting in a PM phenotype. 2.30% carried the CYP2D6_*29, leading to decreased metabolic activity of the enzyme, and 2.30% carried the CYP2D6_*35, resulting in an UM phenotype, 1.64% had a whole-gene deletion CYP2D6_*5, thus resulting in the loss of CYP2D6 enzyme production, 0.66% carried the CYP2D6_*6 variant. One individual carried the CYP2D6_*3(B), producing an inactive form of the enzyme, which leads to decrease of enzyme activity, resulting in a PM phenotype. Finally, one individual carried the CYP2D6_*9, which decreases the enzyme activity. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that different CYP2D6 variants are highly prevalent in ethnic Saudi Arabs. This finding sets a basis for informed genotyping for these variants in personalized medicine. The study also suggests that xTAG is an appropriate procedure for genotyping the CYP2D6 variants in personalized medicine.

Keywords: Pharmacogenetics, Polymorphism, Psychiatric Treatment, CYP2D6, hormonal breast cancer, Saudi population

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29 Association of 1565C/T Polymorphism of Integrin Beta-3 (ITGB3) Gene and Increased Risk for Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Premature Coronary Artery Disease among Iranian Population

Authors: Mehrdad Sheikhvatan, Mohammad Ali Boroumand, Mehrdad Behmanesh, Shayan Ziaee


Contradictory results have been obtained regarding the role of integrin, beta 3 (ITGB3) gene polymorphisms in occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Hence, we aimed to assess the association between 1565C/T polymorphism of ITGB3 gene and increased risk for acute MI in patients who suffered premature CAD in Iranian population. Our prospective study included 1000 patients (492 men and 508 women aged 21 to 55 years) referred to Tehran Heart center during a period of four years from 2008 to 2011 with the final diagnosis of premature CAD and classified into two groups with history of MI (n = 461) and without of MI (n = 539). The polymorphism variants were determined by PCR-RFLP technique by entering 10% of randomized samples and then genotyping of the polymorphism was also conducted by High Resolution Melting (HRM) method. Among study samples, 640 were followed with a median follow-up time 45.74 months for determining association of long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and genotypes of polymorphisms. There was no significant difference in the frequency of 1565C/T polymorphism between the MI and non-MI groups. The frequency of wild genotype was 69.2% and 72.2%, the frequency of homozygous genotype was 21.3% and 18.4%, and the frequency of mutant genotype was 9.5% and 9.5%, respectively (p=0.505). Results were also similar when adjusted for covariates in a multivariate logistic regression model. No significant difference was also found in total-MACE free survival rate between the patients with different genotypes of 1565C/T polymorphism in both MI and non-MI group. The carriage of the 1565C/T polymorphism of ITGB3 gene seems unlikely to be a significant risk factor for the development of MI in Iranian patients with premature CAD. The presence of this ITGB3 gene polymorphism may not also predict long-term cardiac events.

Keywords: gene, Polymorphism, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, integrin, beta 3

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28 Polymorphism in Myostatin Gene and Its Association with Growth Traits in Kurdi Sheep of Northern Khorasan

Authors: Masoud Alipanah, Sekineh Akbari, Gholamreza Dashab


Myostatin genes or factor 8 affecting on growth and making differentiation works (GDF8) as a moderator in the development of skeletal muscle inhibitor. If mutations occurs in the coding region of myostatin, alter its inhibitory role and the muscle growth is increased. In this study, blood samples were collected randomly from 60 Kurdish sheep in northern Khorasan and DNA extraction was performed using a modified salt. A fragment 337 bp from exon 3 myostatin gene and-specific primers by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were amplified. In order to detect different forms of an allele at this locus HaeΙΙΙ restriction enzymes and PCR-RFLP analysis were used. Band patterns clarification was performed using agarose gel electrophoresis. The frequency of genotypes mm, Mm, and MM, were respectively detected, 0, 0.15 and 0.85. The allele frequency for alleles m and M, were respectively, 0.07 and 0.93. The statistical analyses indicated that m allele was significantly associated with body weight. The results of this study suggest that the Myostatin gene possibly is a candidate gene that affects growth traits in Kurdish sheep.

Keywords: Polymorphism, GDF8 gene, Kurdi Sheep of Northern Khorasan, weight traits

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27 Associations of the FTO Gene Polymorphism with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Lithuanian Adult Population

Authors: Alina Smalinskiene Janina Petkeviciene, Jurate Klumbiene, Vilma Kriaucioniene, Vaiva Lesauskaite


The worldwide prevalence of obesity has been increasing dramatically in the last few decades, and Lithuania is no exception. In 2012, every fifth adult (19% of men and 20.5 % of women) was obese and every third was overweight Association studies have highlighted the influence of SNPs in obesity, with particular focus on FTO rs9939609. Thus far, no data on the possible association of this SNP to obesity in the adult Lithuanian population has been reported. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate an association between the FTO rs9939609 homozygous AA genotype and increased BMI when compared to homozygous TT. Furthermore, a positive association was determined between the FTO rs9939609 variant and risk of metabolic syndrome. Background: This study aimed to examine the associations between the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene rs9939609 variant with obesity and metabolic syndrome in Lithuanian adult population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional health survey was carried out in randomly selected municipalities of Lithuania. The random sample was obtained from lists of 25–64 year-old inhabitants. The data from 1020 subjects were analysed. The rs9939609 SNP of the FTO gene was assessed using TaqMan assays (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). The Applied Biosystems 7900HT Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction System was used for detecting the SNPs. Results: The carriers of the AA genotype had the highest mean values of BMI and waist circumference (WC) and the highest risk of obesity. Interactions ‘genotype x age’ and ‘genotype x physical activity’ in determining BMI and WC were shown. Neither lipid and glucose levels, nor blood pressure were associated with the rs9939609 independently of BMI. In the age group of 25-44 years, association between the FTO genotypes and metabolic syndrome was found. Conclusion: The FTO rs9939609 variant was significantly associated with BMI and WC, and with the risk of obesity in Lithuanian population. The FTO polymorphism might have a greater influence on weight status in younger individuals and in subjects with a low level of physical activity.

Keywords: Polymorphism, Lithuania, obesity metabolic syndrome, FTO gene

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26 Genetic Diversity Analysis in Triticum Aestivum Using Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Prachi Sharma, Mukesh Kumar Rana


In the present study, the simple sequence repeat(SSR) markers have been used in analysis of genetic diversity of 37 genotypes of Triticum aestivum. The DNA was extracted using cTAB method. The DNA was quantified using the fluorimeter. The annealing temperatures for 27 primer pairs were standardized using gradient PCR, out of which 16 primers gave satisfactory amplification at temperature ranging from 50-62⁰ C. Out of 16 polymorphic SSR markers only 10 SSR primer pairs were used in the study generating 34 reproducible amplicons among 37 genotypes out of which 30 were polymorphic. Primer pairs Xgwm533, Xgwm 160, Xgwm 408, Xgwm 120, Xgwm 186, Xgwm 261 produced maximum percent of polymorphic bands (100%). The bands ranged on an average of 3.4 bands per primer. The genetic relationship was determined using Jaccard pair wise similarity co-efficient and UPGMA cluster analysis with NTSYS Pc.2 software. The values of similarity index range from 0-1. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.13 to 0.97. A minimum genetic similarity (0.13) was observed between VL 804 and HPW 288, meaning they are only 13% similar. More number of available SSR markers can be useful for supporting the genetic diversity analysis in the above wheat genotypes.

Keywords: Wheat, Genetic Diversity, Polymorphism, microsatellite

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25 Study of Relation between P53 and Mir-146a Rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Lesion

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Marjan Moradi Fard, Masoud Houshmand


Background: Cervical cancer is multistep disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN)and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of p53 and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of p53 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in cervical lesions. Method: Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33 and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of P53 and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical lesions in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. Conclusion: The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: Cervical Cancer, Polymorphism, P53, miR-146a, rs2910164

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24 Association of Gln223Arg Polymorphism of Gene LEPR, Levels of Leptin and Nourishing Habits in Mexican Adolescents with Morbid Obesity

Authors: Claudia Patricia Beltran Miranda, Mónica López Anaya, Mónica Navarro Meza, Maria Leonor Valderrama Chairez


Background: Mexico occupies the second world-wide place of morbid obese people (10- 12 million). Factors that predispose the development of MO are genetic, environmental, physiological, psycho-social and behavioral (nourishing habits). Objective: Associate Gln223Arg polymorphism of gene LEPR, levels of leptina and nourishing habits with the presence of morbid obesity in adolescents of the south of Jalisco (México). Methods: In 41 adolescents (18 normal weight and 23 morbid obesity) of 12 to 19 years of age, both sexes that were measure size and weight with tanita scale and stadimeter to determine IMC. Morbid obesity was determined by tables of the WHO and was established with a standard deviation >3. The Gln223Arg polymorphism have been identify by PCR and leptina levels by ELISA. Nourishing habits were evaluate by the questionnaire the Adolescent Food Habits Checklist. The statistical analysis was performed to compare mean scores obtained from the questionnaire when we compare morbid obesity vs. normal weight adolescents with p=0.03 and a significance of 95%. Results: frequencies alellics and genics were not stadistics significatives p= 0,011 and p=0,279 respectly when were compared between normal weight adolescents and morbib obesity Leptin levels and nourishing habits were associated with morbid obesity. The polymorphism not shown significance with morbid obesity. Conclusions: Dietary habits and leptin levels in adolescents are important factor that predisposes the development of obesity in adolescents. The presence of the polymorphism are not associated with morbid obesity in these subjects.

Keywords: Polymorphism, leptin, nourishing habits, morbid obesity

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23 Genetic Polymorphism in the Vitamin D Receptor Gene and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Serum Levels in East Indian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty


Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common metabolic abnormality such as changes in lipid profile, diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome occurring in young women of reproductive age. Low vitamin D levels were found to be associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance in women with PCOS. Variants on vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have also been related to metabolic comorbidities in general population. Aim: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate whether the VDR gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to PCOS. Methods: Women with PCOS and a control group, all aged 16-40 years, were enrolled. Genotyping of VDR Fok-I (rs2228570), VDR Apa-I (rs7975232) as well as GC (rs2282679), DHCR7 (rs12785878) SNPs between groups were determined by using direct sequencing. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)] levels were measured by ELISA. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D in the PCOS and control samples were 19.08±7 and 23.27±6.03 (p=0.048) which were significantly lower in PCOS patients compared with controls. CC genotype of the VDR Apa-I SNP was same frequent in PCOS (25.6%) and controls (25.6%) (OR: 0.9995; 95%CI: 0.528 to 1.8921; p= 0.9987). The CC genotype was also significantly associated with both lower E2 (p=0.031) and Androstenedione levels (p=0.062). We observed a significant association of GC polymorphism with 25(OH)D levels. PCOS women carrying the GG genotype (in GC genes) had significantly higher risk for vitamin D deficiency than women carrying the TT genotype. Conclusions: In conclusion, data from this study indicate that vitamin D levels are lower, and vitamin D deficiency more frequent, in PCOS than in controls. The present findings suggest that the Apa-I, Fok-I polymorphism of the VDR gene is associated with PCOS and seems to modulate ovarian steroid secretion. Further studies are needed to better clarify the biological mechanisms by which the polymorphism influences PCOS risk.

Keywords: Polycystic ovary syndrome, Polymorphism, vitamin D, vitamin D receptor

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22 The impact of Breast Cancer Polymorphism on Breast Cancer

Authors: Roudabeh Vakil Monfared, Farhad Mashayekhi


Breast cancer is the most common malignancy type among women with about 1 million new cases each year. The immune system plays an important role in the breast cancer development. OX40L (also known as TNFSF4), a membrane protein, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor super family binds to its receptor OX40 and this co-stimulation has a crucial role in T-cell proliferation, survival and cytokine release. Due to the importance of the T-cells in anti-tumor activities of OX40L we studied the association of rs3850641 (T→C) polymorphism of OX40L gene with breast cancer. The study included 123 women with breast cancer and 126 healthy volunteers with no signs of cancer. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood leucocytes. Genotype and allele frequencies were determined in patients and control cases with the method of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and the analysis was performed by Med Calc. The prevalence of genotype frequencies of TT, CT and CC were 60.9%, 30.08% and 8.9 % in patients with breast cancer and 74.6 %, 18.25 % and 7.14 % in healthy volunteers while the T and C allelic frequency was 76.01% and 23.98 % in patients and 83.73% and 16.26% in healthy controls. Respectively Statistical analysis has shown no significant difference from the comparison of either genotype (P=0.06). According to these results, the rs3850641 SNP has no association with the susceptibility of breast cancer in a population in northern Iran. However, further studies in larger populations including other genetic and environmental factors are required to achieve conclusion.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, gene, Polymorphism, OX40L

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21 Characterization of Polymorphic Forms of Rifaximin

Authors: Ana Carolina Kogawa, Selma Gutierrez Antonio, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado


Rifaximin is an oral antimicrobial, gut - selective and not systemic with adverse effects compared to placebo. It is used for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, travelers diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, Clostridium difficile, ulcerative colitis and acute diarrhea. The crystalline form present in the rifaximin with minimal systemic absorption is α, being the amorphous form significantly different. Regulators are increasingly attention to polymorphisms. Polymorphs can change the form by altering the drug characteristics compromising the effectiveness and safety of the finished product. International Conference on Harmonization issued the ICH Guidance Q6A, which aim to improve the control of polymorphism in new and existing pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to obtain polymorphic forms of rifaximin employing recrystallization processes and characterize them by thermal analysis (thermogravimetry - TG and differential scanning calorimetry - DSC), X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and solubility test. Six polymorphic forms of rifaximin, designated I to VI were obtained by the crystallization process by evaporation of the solvent. The profiles of the TG curves obtained from polymorphic forms of rifaximin are similar to rifaximin and each other, however, the DTG are different, indicating different thermal behaviors. Melting temperature values of all the polymorphic forms were greater to that shown by the rifaximin, indicating the higher thermal stability of the obtained forms. The comparison of the diffractograms of the polymorphic forms of rifaximin with rifaximin α, β and γ constant in patent indicate that forms III, V and VI are formed by mixing polymorph β and α and form III is formed by polymorph β. The polymorphic form I is formed by polymorph β, but with a significant amount of amorphous material. Already, the polymorphic form II consists of polymorph γ, amorphous. In scanning electron microscope is possible to observe the heterogeneity of morphological characteristics of crystals of polymorphic forms among themselves and with rifaximin. The solubility of forms I and II was greater than the solubility of rifaximin, already, forms III, IV and V presented lower solubility than of rifaximin. Similarly, the bioavailability of the amorphous form of rifaximin is considered significantly higher than the form α, the polymorphic forms obtained in this work can not guarantee the excellent tolerability of the reference medicine. Therefore, studies like these are extremely important and they point to the need for greater requirements by the regulatory agencies competent about polymorphs analysis of the raw materials used in the manufacture of medicines marketed globally. These analyzes are not required in the majority of official compendia. Partnerships between industries, research centers and universities would be a viable way to consolidate researches in this area and contribute to improving the quality of solid drugs.

Keywords: Polymorphism, X-Ray Diffraction, solubility, electronic microscopy, rifaximin

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20 TNF-α, TNF-β and IL-10 Gene Polymorphism and Association with Oral Lichen Planus Risk in Saudi Patients

Authors: Maha Ali Al-Mohaya, Lubna Majed Al-Otaibi, Ebtissam Nassir Al-Bakr, Abdulrahman Al-Asmari


Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory oral mucosal disease. Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis and disease progression of OLP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF-β and interleukin (IL)-10 gene polymorphisms with the OLP risk. Material and Methods: Forty-two unrelated patients with OLP and 211 healthy volunteers were genotyped for TNF-α (-308 G/A), TNF-β (+252A/G), IL-10 (-1082G/A), IL-10 (-819C/T), and IL-10 (-592C/A) polymorphisms. Results: The frequencies of allele A and genotype GA of TNF-α (-308G/A) were significantly higher while allele G and GG genotypes were lower in OLP patients as compared to the controls (P < 0.001). The frequency of GA genotype of TNF-β (+252A/G) was significantly higher in patients than in controls while the AA genotype was completely absent in OLP patients. These results indicated that allele A and genotype GA of TNF-α (-308G/A) as well as the GA genotype of TNF-β (+252A/G) polymorphisms are associated with OLP risk. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes of -1082G/A, -819C/T and -592C/A polymorphisms in IL-10 gene did not differ significantly between OLP patients and controls (P > 0.05). However, haplotype ATA extracted from 1082G/A, -819C/T, -592C/A polymorphisms of IL-10 were more prevalent in OLP patients when compared to controls indicating its possible association with OLP susceptibility. Conclusion: It is concluded that TNF-α (-308G/A), TNF-β (+252A/G) and IL-10 (-1082G/A, -819C/T and -592C/A) polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility of OLP, thus giving additional support for the genetic basis of this disease. Further studies are required using a larger sample size to confirm this association and determine the prognostic values of these findings.

Keywords: Cytokines, Genetic, Polymorphism, oral lichen planus

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19 MHC Class II DRB1 Gene Polymorphism in Lori Sheep Breed

Authors: Shahram Nanekarani, Majid Goodarzi, Majid Khosravi


The present study aimed at analyzing of ovine major histocompatibility complex class II (Ovar II) DRB1 gene second exon in Lori Sheep breed. The MHC plays a central role in the control of disease resistance and immunological response. Genomic DNA from blood samples of 124 sheep was extracted and a 296 bp MHC exon 2 fragment was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. PCR products were characterized by the restriction fragment length polymorphism technique using Hin1I restriction enzyme. The PCRRFLP patterns showed three genotypes, AA, AB and BB with frequency of 0.282, 0.573 and 0.145, respectively. There was no significant (P > 0.05) deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for this locus in this population. The results of the present study indicate that exon 2 of the Ovar-DRB1 gene is highly polymorphic in Lori sheep and could be considered as an important marker assisted selection, for improvement of immunity in sheep.

Keywords: Polymorphism, PCR-RFLP, Lori sheep, MHC-DRB1 gene

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18 Associations of Gene Polymorphism of IL-17 a (C737T) with Its Level in Patients with Erysipelas Kazakh Population

Authors: Nazira B. Bekenova, Lydia A. Mukovozova, Andrej M. Grjibovski, Alma Z. Tokayeva, Yerbol M. Smail, Nurlan E. Aukenov


Erysipelas is an infectious disease with socio-economic significance and prone to prolonged recurrent course (30%). Contribution of genetic factors, in particular the gene polymorphism of cytokines, can be essential in disease etiology and pathogenesis. Interleukin – 17 A are produced by T helpers of 17 type and plays a key role in development of local inflammation process. Local inflammatory process is a dominant in the clinic of erysipelas. Established that the skin and mucosas are primary areas of migration (homing) Th17-cell and their cytokines are stimulate the barrier function of the epithelium. We studied associations between gene polymorphism of IL-17A (C737T) rs 8193036 and IL-17A level in patients with erysipelas Kazakh population. Altogether, 90 cases with erysipelas and 90 healthy controls from an ethnic Kazakh population comprised the sample. Cases were identified at Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital of Semey (Kazakhstan). The IL-17A (rs8193036) polymorphism was analyzed by a real time polymerase chain reaction. Plasma levels of IL-17 A were assessed by immuneenzyme analysis method using ‘Vector-Best’ test-system (Russia). Differences in levels of IL-17 A between CC, TT, CT groups were studied using Kruskal — Wallis test. Pairwise comparisons were performed using Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction (New significance level was set to 0.025). We found, that in patients with erysipelas with CC genotype the level of IL-17 A was higher (p= 0, 010) compared to the carriers of CT genotype. When compared the level of IL – 17 A between the patients with TT genotype and patients with CC genotype, also between the patients with CT genotype and patients with TT genotype statistically significant differences are not revealed (p = 0.374 and p = 0.043, respectively). Comparisons of IL-17 A plasma levels between the CC and CT genotypes, between the CC and TT genotypes, and between the TT and CT in healthy patients did not reveal significant differences (p = 0, 291). Therefore, we are determined the associations of gene polymorphism of IL-17 A (C737T) with its level in patients erysipelas carriers CC genotype.

Keywords: Kazakh, Polymorphism, erysipelas, interleukin – 17 A

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17 Associations of Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms with Coronary Artery Diseases

Authors: Elham Sharif, Nasser Rizk, Sirin Abu Aqel, Ofelia Masoud


Background: Previous studies have investigated the association of rs1544410, rs7975232 and rs731236 polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor gene and its impact on diseases such as cancer, diabetes and hypertension in different ethnic backgrounds. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between VDR polymorphisms using three SNP’s (rs1544410, rs7975232 and rs731236) and the severity of the significant lesion in coronary arteries among angiographically diagnosed CAD. Methods: A prospective-retrospective study was conducted on 192 CAD patients enrolled from the cardiology department-Heart Hospital HMC, grouped in 96 subjects with significant stenosis and 96 with non-significant stenosis with a mean age between 30 and 75 years old. Genotyping was performed for the following SNPs rs1544410, rs7975232 and rs731236 using TaqMan assay by the Real Time PCR, ABI 7500 in Health Sciences Labs at Qatar University Biomedical Research Center. Results: The results showed that both groups have matched age and gender distribution but patients with the significant stenosis have significantly higher; BMI (p=0.047); smoking status (p=0.039); FBS (p= 0.031); CK-MB (p=0.025) and Troponin (p=0.002) than the patients with non–significant lesion. Among the traditional risk factors, smoking increases the odds of the severe stenotic lesion in CAD patients by 1.984, with 95% CI between 1.024 – 7.063, with p= 0.042.HWE showed deviations of the rs1544410 and rs731236 among the study subjects. The most frequent genotype in distribution of rs7975232 is the AA among the significant stenosis patients, while the heterozygous AC was the frequent genotype in distribution among the non-significant stenosis group. The carriers of CC genotype in rs7975232 increased the risk of having significant coronary arteries stenotic lesion by 1.83 with 95% CI (1.020 – 3.280), p=0.043. No association was found between the rs7975232 with vitamin D and VDBP. Conclusion: There is a significant association between rs7975232 and the severity of CAD lesion. The carrier of CC genotype in rs7975232 increased the risk of having significant coronary arteries atherosclerotic lesion especially in patients with smoking history independent of vitamin D.

Keywords: Polymorphism, vitamin D, vitamin D receptor, coronary harat disease

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16 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Polymorphism and Disease Resistance

Authors: Oya Bulut, Oguzhan Avci, Zafer Bulut, Atilla Simsek


Livestock breeders have focused on the improvement of production traits with little or no attention for improvement of disease resistance traits. In order to determine the association between the genetic structure of the individual gene loci with possibility of the occurrence and the development of diseases, MHC (major histocompatibility complex) are frequently used. Because of their importance in the immune system, MHC locus is considered as candidate genes for resistance/susceptibility against to different diseases. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a critical role in both innate and adaptive immunity and have been considered candidate molecular markers of an association between polymorphisms and resistance/susceptibility to diseases. The purpose of this study is to give some information about MHC genes become an important area of study in recent years in terms of animal husbandry and determine the relation between MHC genes and resistance/susceptibility to disease.

Keywords: Resistance, Disease, Polymorphism, MHC

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15 High-Pressure Polymorphism of 4,4-Bipyridine Hydrobromide

Authors: Michalina Aniola, Andrzej Katrusiak


4,4-Bipyridine is an important compound often used in chemical practice and more recently frequently applied for designing new metal organic framework (MoFs). Here we present a systematic high-pressure study of its hydrobromide salt. 4,4-Bipyridine hydrobromide monohydrate, 44biPyHBrH₂O, at ambient-pressure is orthorhombic, space group P212121 (phase a). Its hydrostatic compression shows that it is stable to 1.32 GPa at least. However, the recrystallization above 0.55 GPa reveals a new hidden b-phase (monoclinic, P21/c). Moreover, when the 44biPyHBrH2O is heated to high temperature the chemical reactions of this compound in methanol solution can be observed. High-pressure experiments were performed using a Merrill-Bassett diamond-anvil cell (DAC), modified by mounting the anvils directly on the steel supports, and X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out on a KUMA and Excalibur diffractometer equipped with an EOS CCD detector. At elevated pressure, the crystal of 44biPyHBrH₂O exhibits several striking and unexpected features. No signs of instability of phase a were detected to 1.32 GPa, while phase b becomes stable at above 0.55 GPa, as evidenced by its recrystallizations. Phases a and b of 44biPyHBrH2O are partly isostructural: their unit-cell dimensions and the arrangement of ions and water molecules are similar. In phase b the HOH-Br- chains double the frequency of their zigzag motifs, compared to phase a, and the 44biPyH+ cations change their conformation. Like in all monosalts of 44biPy determined so far, in phase a the pyridine rings are twisted by about 30 degrees about bond C4-C4 and in phase b they assume energy-unfavorable planar conformation. Another unusual feature of 44biPyHBrH2O is that all unit-cell parameters become longer on the transition from phase a to phase b. Thus the volume drop on the transition to high-pressure phase b totally depends on the shear strain of the lattice. Higher temperature triggers chemical reactions of 44biPyHBrH2O with methanol. When the saturated methanol solution compound precipitated at 0.1 GPa and temperature of 423 K was required to dissolve all the sample, the subsequent slow recrystallization at isochoric conditions resulted in disalt 4,4-bipyridinium dibromide. For the 44biPyHBrH2O sample sealed in the DAC at 0.35 GPa, then dissolved at isochoric conditions at 473 K and recrystallized by slow controlled cooling, a reaction of N,N-dimethylation took place. It is characteristic that in both high-pressure reactions of 44biPyHBrH₂O the unsolvated disalt products were formed and that free base 44biPy and H₂O remained in the solution. The observed reactions indicate that high pressure destabilized ambient-pressure salts and favors new products. Further studies on pressure-induced reactions are carried out in order to better understand the structural preferences induced by pressure.

Keywords: Polymorphism, high-pressure, conformation, negative area compressibility

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14 Influence of κ-Casein Genotype on Milk Productivity of Latvia Local Dairy Breeds

Authors: S. Petrovska, D. Jonkus, D. Smiltiņa


κ-casein is one of milk proteins which are very important for milk processing. Genotypes of κ-casein affect milk yield, fat, and protein content. The main factors which affect local Latvian dairy breed milk yield and composition are analyzed in research. Data were collected from 88 Latvian brown and 82 Latvian blue cows in 2015. AA genotype was 0.557 in Latvian brown and 0.232 in Latvian blue breed. BB genotype was 0.034 in Latvian brown and 0.207 in Latvian blue breed. Highest milk yield was observed in Latvian brown (5131.2 ± 172.01 kg), significantly high fat content and fat yield also was in Latvian brown (p < 0.05). Significant differences between κ-casein genotypes were not found in Latvian brown, but highest milk yield (5057 ± 130.23 kg), protein content (3.42 ± 0.03%), and protein yield (171.9 ± 4.34 kg) were with AB genotype. Significantly high fat content was observed in Latvian blue breed with BB genotype (4.29 ± 0.17%) compared with AA genotypes (3.42 ± 0.19). Similar tendency was found in protein content – 3.27 ± 0.16% with BB genotype and 2.59 ± 0.16% with AA genotype (p < 0.05). Milk yield increases by increasing parity. We did not obtain major tendency of changes of milk fat and protein content according parity.

Keywords: Polymorphism, dairy cows, κ-casein, milk productivity

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13 Screening of the Genes FOLH1 and MTHFR among the Mothers of Congenital Neural Tube Defected Babies in West Bengal, India

Authors: Silpita Paul, Susanta Sadhukhan, Biswanath Maity, Madhusudan Das


Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common forms of birth defect and affect ~300,000 new born worldwide each year. The prevalence is higher in Northern India (11 per 1000 birth) compare to southern India (5 per 1000 birth). NTDs are one of the common birth defects related with low blood folate and Hcy concentration. Though the mechanism is still unknown, but it is now established that, NTDs in human are polygenic in nature and follow the heterogeneous trait. In spite of its heterogeneity, polymorphism in few genes affects significantly the trait of NTDs. Polymorphisms in the genes FOLH1 and MTHFR plays important role in NTDs. In this study, the polymorphisms of these genes were screened by bi-directional sequencing from 30 mothers with NTD babies as case. The result revealed that 26.67% patients had bi-allelic FOLH1 polymorphism. The polymorphism has been identified as p.Y60H and frequent to cause NTDs. The study of MTHFR gene showed 2 different SNPs rs1801131 (at exon 4) and rs1801131 (at exon 7). The study showed 6.67% patients of both mono- and bi-allelic MTHFR-rs1801131 polymorphism and 6.67% patients of bi-allelic MTHFR-rs1801131 polymorphism. These polymorphisms has been responsible for p.A222V and p.E429A change respectively and frequently involved in NTD formation. Those polymorphisms affect mainly the absorption of dietary folate from intestine and the formation of 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate (5 MTHF) from 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (5,10- MTHF), which is the functional folate form in our system. Though the study is not complete yet, but these polymorphisms play crucial roles in the formation of NTDs in other world population. Based on the result till date, it can be concluded that they also play significant role in our population too as in control samples we have not found any changes.

Keywords: Polymorphism, neural tube defects, FOLH1, MTHFR

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12 Detection of Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene in Holstein Cattle

Authors: Emine Şahin, Murat Soner Balcıoğlu


The aim of this study was to determine the growth hormone (bGH) gene polymorphism in the Holstein cattle growing around Antalya in Turkey. In order to determine the bGH-AluI polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was performed. A 891 bp fragment of bGH was amplified and two types of alleles C and D for bGH were observed. In this study, the frequencies of C and D alleles were 0.8438 and 0.1562, respectively. The genotype frequencies for CC, CD and DD were 0.787, 0.191 and 0.022, respectively. According to the results of the chi-square test, a significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not determined for the bGH locus in the population.

Keywords: Polymorphism, Holstein, RFLP, growth hormone gene

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