Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Polymerase chain reaction Related Abstracts

13 Antimicrobial Efficacy of Some Antibiotics Combinations Tested against Some Molecular Characterized Multiresistant Staphylococcus Clinical Isolates, in Egypt

Authors: Nourhan Hussein Fanaki, Hoda Mohamed Gamal El-Din Omar, Nihal Kadry Moussa, Eva Adel Edward Farid


The resistance of staphylococci to various antibiotics has become a major concern for health care professionals. The efficacy of the combinations of selected glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) with gentamicin or rifampicin, as well as that of gentamicin/rifampicin combination, was studied against selected pathogenic staphylococcus isolated from Egypt. The molecular distribution of genes conferring resistance to these four antibiotics was detected among tested clinical isolates. Antibiotic combinations were studied using the checkerboard technique and the time-kill assay (in both the stationary and log phases). Induction of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci was tried in the absence and presence of diclofenac sodium as inducer. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the effect of glycopeptides on the ultrastructure of the cell wall of staphylococci. Attempts were made to cure gentamicin resistance plasmids and to study the transfer of these plasmids by conjugation. Trials for the transformation of the successfully isolated gentamicin resistance plasmid to competent cells were carried out. The detection of genes conferring resistance to the tested antibiotics was performed using the polymerase chain reaction. The studied antibiotic combinations proved their efficacy, especially when tested during the log phase. Induction of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci was more promising in presence of diclofenac sodium, compared to its absence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the thickening of bacterial cell wall in staphylococcus clinical isolates due to the presence of tested glycopeptides. Curing of gentamicin resistance plasmids was only successful in 2 out of 9 tested isolates, with a curing rate of 1 percent for each. Both isolates, when used as donors in conjugation experiments, yielded promising conjugation frequencies ranging between 5.4 X 10-2 and 7.48 X 10-2 colony forming unit/donor cells. Plasmid isolation was only successful in one out of the two tested isolates. However, low transformation efficiency (59.7 transformants/microgram plasmid DNA) of such plasmids was obtained. Negative regulators of autolysis, such as arlR, lytR and lrgB, as well as cell-wall associated genes, such as pbp4 and/or pbp2, were detected in staphylococcus isolates with reduced susceptibility to the tested glycopeptides. Concerning rifampicin resistance genes, rpoBstaph was detected in 75 percent of the tested staphylococcus isolates. It could be concluded that in vitro studies emphasized the usefulness of the combination of vancomycin or teicoplanin with gentamicin or rifampicin, as well as that of gentamicin with rifampicin, against staphylococci showing varying resistance patterns. However, further in vivo studies are required to ensure the safety and efficacy of such combinations. Diclofenac sodium can act as an inducer of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci. Cell-wall thickness is a major contributor to such resistance among them. Gentamicin resistance in these strains could be chromosomally or plasmid mediated. Multiple mutations in the rpoB gene could mediate staphylococcus resistance to rifampicin.

Keywords: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Polymerase chain reaction, Glycopeptides, diclofenac, combinations, induction

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12 PTFE Capillary-Based DNA Amplification within an Oscillatory Thermal Cycling Device

Authors: Jyh J. Chen, Fu H. Yang, Ming H. Liao


This study describes a capillary-based device integrated with the heating and cooling modules for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The device consists of the reaction polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary, the aluminum blocks, and is equipped with two cartridge heaters, a thermoelectric (TE) cooler, a fan, and some thermocouples for temperature control. The cartridge heaters are placed into the heating blocks and maintained at two different temperatures to achieve the denaturation and the extension step. Some thermocouples inserted into the capillary are used to obtain the transient temperature profiles of the reaction sample during thermal cycles. A 483-bp DNA template is amplified successfully in the designed system and the traditional thermal cycler. This work should be interesting to persons involved in the high-temperature based reactions and genomics or cell analysis.

Keywords: Capillary, Polymerase chain reaction, thermal cycles, TE cooler

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11 Mutational Analysis of DNase I Gene in Diabetic Patients

Authors: Hateem Zafar Kayani, Nageen Hussain


The main aim is to analyze the mutations of DNASE I gene in diabetic patients. A total of 120 diabetes patients and 120 controls were sampled. The total number of male diabetic patients included in the study was 79 (66%) while female patients were 41 (34%) in number. Exon 8 of the DNASE I gene was amplified by using thermo cycler. The possible band of interest was located at 165 base pairs. Two samples showed similar missense mutations at 127th position of exon 8 which replaced amino acid Arginine (Arg) to Glutamine (Gln). All controls showed no mutations. The association of diabetes with different levels of blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) were found to be significant.

Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction, deoxyribonuclease I, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

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10 The Predictive Value of Micro Rna 451 on the Outcome of Imatinib Treatment in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients

Authors: Nehal Adel Khalil, Amel Foad Ketat, Fairouz Elsayed Mohamed Ali, Nahla Abdelmoneim Hamid, Hazem Farag Manaa


Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) represents 15% of adult leukemias. Imatinib Mesylate (IM) is the gold standard treatment for new cases of CML. Treatment with IM results in improvement of the majority of cases. However, about 25% of cases may develop resistance. Sensitive and specific early predictors of IM resistance in CML patients have not been established to date. Aim: To investigate the value of miR-451 in CML as an early predictor for IM resistance in Egyptian CML patients. Methods: The study employed Real time Polymerase Reaction (qPCR) technique to investigate the leucocytic expression of miR-451 in fifteen newly diagnosed CML patients (group I), fifteen IM responder CML patients (group II), fifteen IM resistant CML patients (group III) and fifteen healthy subjects of matched age and sex as a control group (group IV). The response to IM was defined as < 10% BCR-ABL transcript level after 3 months of therapy. The following parameters were assessed in subjects of all the studied groups: 1- Complete blood count (CBC). 2- Measurement of plasma level of miRNA 451 using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). 3- Detection of BCR-ABL gene mutation in CML using qPCR. Results: The present study revealed that miR-451 was significantly down-regulated in leucocytes of newly diagnosed CML patients as compared to healthy subjects. IM responder CML patients showed an up-regulation of miR- 451 compared with IM resistant CML patients. Conclusion: According to the data from the present study, it can be concluded that leucocytic miR- 451 expression is a useful additional follow-up marker for the response to IM and a promising prognostic biomarker for CML.

Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction, chronic myeloid leukemia, imatinib resistance, microRNA 451

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9 Evaluation of the Incidence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex Associated with Soil, Hayfeed and Water in Three Agricultural Facilities in Amathole District Municipality in the Eastern Cape Province

Authors: Athini Ntloko


Mycobacterium bovis and other species of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) can result to a zoonotic infection known as Bovine tuberculosis (bTB). MTBC has members that may contaminate an extensive range of hosts, including wildlife. Diverse wild species are known to cause disease in domestic livestock and are acknowledged as TB reservoirs. It has been a main study worldwide to deliberate on bTB risk factors as a result and some studies focused on particular parts of risk factors such as wildlife and herd management. The significance of the study was to determine the incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that is associated with soil, hayfeed and water. Questionnaires were administered to thirty (30) smallholding farm owners in the two villages (kwaMasele and Qungqwala) and three (3) three commercial farms (Fort Hare dairy farm, Middledrift dairy farm and Seven star dairy farm). Detection of M. tuberculosis complex was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction using primers for IS6110; whereas a genotypic drug resistance mutation was detected using Genotype MTBDRplus assays. Nine percent (9%) of respondents had more than 40 cows in their herd, while 60% reported between 10 and 20 cows in their herd. Relationship between farm size and vaccination for TB differed from forty one percent (41%) being the highest to the least five percent (5%). The highest number of respondents who knew about relationship between TB cases and cattle location was ninety one percent (91%). Approximately fifty one percent (51%) of respondents had knowledge about wild life access to the farms. Relationship between import of cattle and farm size ranged from nine percent (9%) to thirty five percent (35%). Cattle sickness in relation to farm size differed from forty three (43%) being the highest to the least three percent (3%); while thirty three percent (33%) of respondents had knowledge about health management. Respondents with knowledge about the occurrence of TB infections in farms were forty-eight percent (48%). The frequency of DNA isolation from samples ranged from the highest forty-five percent (45%) from water to the least twenty two percent (22%) from soil. Fort Hare dairy farm had the highest number of positive samples, forty four percent (44%) from water samples; whereas Middledrift dairy farm had the lowest positive from water, seventeen percent (17%). Twelve (22%) out of 55 isolates showed resistance to INH and RIF that is, multi-drug resistance (MDR) and nine percent (9%) were sensitive to either INH or RIF. The mutations at rpoB gene differed from 58% being the highest to the least (23%). Fifty seven percent (57%) of samples showed a S315T1 mutation while only 14% possessed a S531L in the katG gene. The highest inhA mutations were detected in T8A (80 %) and the least was observed in A16G (17%). The results of this study reveal that risk factors for bTB in cattle and dairy farm workers are a serious issue abound in the Eastern Cape of South Africa; with the possibility of widespread dissemination of multidrug resistant determinants in MTBC from the environment.

Keywords: Water, Soil, Polymerase chain reaction, Multi-Drug Resistance, isoniazid, rifampicin, hayfeed, mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

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8 The Influence of the Moving Speeds of DNA Droplet on Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Jyh Jyh Chen, Fu H. Yang, Chen W. Wang, Yu M. Lin


In this work, a reaction chamber is reciprocated among three temperature regions by using an oscillatory thermal cycling machine. Three cartridge heaters are collocated to heat three aluminum blocks in order to achieve PCR requirements in the reaction chamber. The effects of various chamber moving speeds among different temperature regions on the chamber temperature profiles are presented. To solve the evaporation effect of the sample in the PCR experiment, the mineral oil and the cover lid are used. The influences of various extension times on DNA amplification are also demonstrated. The target fragments of the amplification are 385-bp and 420-bp. The results show when the forward speed is set at 6 mm/s and the backward speed is 2.4 mm/s, the temperature required for the experiment can be achieved. It is successful to perform the amplification of DNA fragments in our device.

Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction, oscillatory, reaction chamber, thermal cycling machine

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7 Occurrence of Porcine circovirus Type 2 in Pigs of Eastern Cape Province South Africa

Authors: Kayode O. Afolabi, Benson C. Iweriebor, Anthony I. Okoh, Larry C. Obi


Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the major etiological viral agent of porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PWMS) and other porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD) of great economic importance in pig industry globally. In an effort to determine the status of swine herds in the Province as regarding the ‘small but powerful’ viral pathogen; a total of 375 blood, faecal and nasal swab samples were obtained from seven pig farms (commercial and communal) in Amathole, O.R. Tambo and Chris-Hani District Municipalities of Eastern Cape Province between the year 2015 and 2016. Three hundred and thirty nine (339) samples out of the total sample were subjected to molecular screening using PCV2 specific primers by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Selected sequences were further analyzed and confirmed through genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. The data obtained revealed that 15.93% of the screened samples (54/339) from the swine herds of the studied areas were positive for PCV2; while the severity of occurrence of the viral pathogen as observed at farm level ranges from approximately 5.6% to 60% in the studied farms. The Majority, precisely 15 out of 17 (88%) analyzed sequences were found clustering with other PCV2b reference strains in the phylogenetic analysis. More interestingly, two other sequences obtained were also found clustering within PCV2d genogroup, which is presently another fast-spreading genotype with observable higher virulence in global swine herds. This finding confirmed the presence of this all-important viral pathogen in pigs of the region; which could result in a serious outbreak of PCVAD and huge economic loss at the instances of triggering factors if no appropriate measures are taken to curb its spread effectively.

Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction, Pigs, South Africa, porcine circovirus type 2

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6 Optimization of Process Parameters for Peroxidase Production by Ensifer Species

Authors: Ayodeji O. Falade, Leonard V. Mabinya, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Anthony I. Okoh


Given the high utility of peroxidase in several industrial processes, the search for novel microorganisms with enhanced peroxidase production capacity is of keen interest. This study investigated the process conditions for optimum peroxidase production by Ensifer sp, new ligninolytic proteobacteria with peroxidase production potential. Also, some agricultural residues were valorized for peroxidase production under solid state fermentation. Peroxidase production was optimum at an initial medium pH 7, incubation temperature of 30 °C and agitation speed of 100 rpm using alkali lignin fermentation medium supplemented with guaiacol as the most effective inducer and ammonium sulphate as the best inorganic nitrogen. Optimum peroxidase production by Ensifer sp. was attained at 48 h with specific productivity of 12.76 ± 1.09 U mg⁻¹. Interestingly, probable laccase production was observed with optimum specific productivity of 12.76 ± 0.45 U mg⁻¹ at 72 h. The highest peroxidase yield was observed with sawdust as solid substrate under solid state fermentation. In conclusion, Ensifer sp. possesses the capacity for enhanced peroxidase production that can be exploited for various biotechnological applications.

Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction, Enzyme Production, peroxidase, proteobacteria, catalase-peroxidase

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5 Distribution of Spotted Fever Group in Ixodid Ticks, Domestic Cattle and Buffalos of Faisalabad District, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Qurat-ul-Ain, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan, Asma Kausar, Adil Ejaz


Rickettsiosis, caused by a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae (SFGR), is considered as an emerging infectious disease from public and veterinary perspective. The present study reports distribution of SFGR in the host (buffalo and cattle) and vector (ticks) population determined through gene specific amplification through PCR targeting outer membrane protein (ompA). Tick and blood samples were collected using standard protocols through convenient sampling from district Faisalabad. Ticks were dissected to extract salivary glands (SG). Blood and tick SG pools were subjected to DNA extraction and amplification of ompA using PCR. Overall prevalence of SFGR was reported as 21.5% and 33.6 % from blood and ticks, respectively. Hyalomma anatolicum was more prevalent tick associated with SFGR as compared to Rhipicephalus sp. Higher prevalence of SFGR was reported in cattle (25%) population as compared to that of buffalo (17.07%). On seasonal basis, high SFGR prevalence was recorded during spring season (48.1%, 26.32%, 17.76%) as compared to winter (27.9%, 21.43%, 15.38%) in vector and host (cattle and buffalo respectively) population. Sequencing analysis indicated that rickettsial endo-symbionts were associated with ticks of the study area. These results provided baseline information about the prevalence of SFGR in vector and host population.

Keywords: Livestock, Rickettsia, Polymerase chain reaction, Sequencing, Vectors, ticks

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4 Molecular Characterization of Dirofilaria repens in Dogs from Karnataka, India

Authors: D. S. Malatesh, K. J. Ananda, C. Ansar Kamran, K. Ganesh Udupa


Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-borne filarioid nematode of dogs and other carnivores and accidentally affects humans. D. repens is reported in many countries, including India. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis caused by D. repens is a zoonotic disease, widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa, with higher prevalence reported in dogs from Sri Lanka (30-60%), Iran (61%) and Italy (21-25%). Dirofilariasis in dogs was diagnosed by detection of microfilariae in blood. Identification of different Dirofilaria species was done by using molecular methods like polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Even though many researchers reported molecular evidence of D. repens across India, to our best knowledge there is no data available on molecular diagnosis of D. repens in dogs and its zoonotic implication in Karnataka state a southern state in India. The aim of the present study was to identify the Dirofilaria species occurring in dogs from Karnataka, India. Out of 310 samples screened for the presence of microfilariae using traditional diagnostic methods, 99 (31.93%) were positive for the presence of microfilariae. Based on the morphometry, the microfilariae were identified as D. repens. For confirmation of species, the samples were subjected to PCR using pan filarial primers (DIDR-F1, DIDR-R1) for amplification of internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA. The PCR product of 484 base pairs on agarose gel was indicative of D. repens. Hence, a single PCR reaction using pan filarial primers can be used to differentiate filarial species found in dogs. The present study confirms that dirofilarial species occurring in dogs from Karnataka is D. repens and further sequencing studies are needed for genotypic characterization of D. repens.

Keywords: India, Polymerase chain reaction, Molecular Characterization, Karnataka, Dirofilaria repens

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3 Comparison of Sensitivity and Specificity of Pap Smear and Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods for Detection of Human Papillomavirus: A Review of Literature

Authors: M. Malekian, M. E. Heydari, M. Irani Estyar


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infection, which may lead to cervical cancer as the main cause of it. With early diagnosis and treatment in health care services, cervical cancer and its complications are considered to be preventable. This study was aimed to compare the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of Pap smear and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting HPV. A literature search was performed in Google Scholar, PubMed and SID databases using the keywords 'human papillomavirus', 'pap smear' and 'polymerase change reaction' to identify studies comparing Pap smear and PCR methods for the detection. No restrictions were considered.10 studies were included in this review. All samples that were positive by pop smear were also positive by PCR. However, there were positive samples detected by PCR which was negative by pop smear and in all studies, many positive samples were missed by pop smear technique. Although The Pap smear had high specificity, PCR based HPV detection was more sensitive method and had the highest sensitivity. In order to promote the quality of detection and high achievement of the maximum results, PCR diagnostic methods in addition to the Pap smear are needed and Pap smear method should be combined with PCR techniques according to the high error rate of Pap smear in detection.

Keywords: Cervical Cancer, Polymerase chain reaction, Human Papillomavirus, pap smear

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2 Identifying Pathogenic Mycobacterium Species Using Multiple Gene Phylogenetic Analysis

Authors: Lemar Blake, Chris Oura, Ayanna C. N. Phillips Savage


Improved DNA sequencing technology has greatly enhanced bacterial identification, especially for organisms that are difficult to culture. Mycobacteriosis with consistent hyphema, bilateral exophthalmia, open mouth gape and ocular lesions, were observed in various fish populations at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Aquaculture/Aquatic Animal Health Unit. Objective: To identify the species of Mycobacterium that is affecting aquarium fish at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Aquaculture/Aquatic Animal Health Unit. Method: A total of 13 fish samples were collected and analyzed via: Ziehl-Neelsen, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. These tests were carried out simultaneously for confirmation. The following combination of conventional primers: 16s rRNA (564 bp), rpoB (396 bp), sod (408 bp) were used. Concatenation of the gene fragments was carried out to phylogenetically classify the organism. Results: Acid fast non-branching bacilli were detected in all samples from homogenized internal organs. All 13 acid fast samples were positive for Mycobacterium via real-time PCR. Partial gene sequences using all three primer sets were obtained from two samples and demonstrated a novel strain. A strain 99% related to Mycobacterium marinum was also confirmed in one sample, using 16srRNA and rpoB genes. The two novel strains were clustered with the rapid growers and strains that are known to affect humans. Conclusions: Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated two novel Mycobacterium strains with the potential of being zoonotic and one strain 99% related to Mycobacterium marinum.

Keywords: DNA Sequencing, Polymerase chain reaction, phylogenetic, zoonotic

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1 Detection and Dissemination of Putative Virulence Genes from Brucella Species Isolated from Livestock in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

Authors: Rudzani Manafe, Ezekiel Green


Brucella, has many different virulence factors that act as a causative agent of brucellosis, depending on the environment and other factors, some factors may play a role more than others during infection and as a result, play a role in becoming a causative agent for pathogenesis. Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus are considered to be pathogenic to humans. The genetic regularity of nine potential causes of virulence of two Brucella species in Eastern Cape livestock have been examined. A hundred and twenty isolates obtained from Molecular Pathogenesis and Molecular Epidemiology Research Group (MPMERG) were used for this study. All isolates were grown on Brucella agar medium. Nine primer pairs were used for the detection of virB2, virB5, vceC, btpA, btpB, prpA, betB, bpe275, and bspB virulence factors using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Approximately 100% was observed for genes BecC and BetB from B. arbotus. While the lowest gene observed was PrpA at 4.6% from B. arbotus. BetB was detected in 34.7%, while virB2 and prpA (0%) were not detected in B. melitensis. The results from this research suggest that most isolates of Brucella have virulence-related genes associated with disease pathogenesis. Finally, our findings showed that Brucella strains in the Eastern Cape Province are extremely virulent as virulence characteristics exist in most strains investigated.

Keywords: Milk, Polymerase chain reaction, brucella, putative virulence genes

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