Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

polyester Related Abstracts

13 Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Reinforced Composite with Different Fiber Orientation

Authors: Y. C. Ching, K. H. Chong

Abstract:

The increasing of environmental awareness has led to grow interest in the expansion of materials with eco-friendly attributes. In this study, a 3 ply sandwich layer of kenaf fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester with various fiber orientations was developed. The effect of the fiber orientation on mechanical and thermal stability properties of polyester was studied. Unsaturated polyester as a face sheets and kenaf fibers as a core was fabricated with combination of hand lay-up process and cold compression method. Tested result parameters like tensile, flexural, impact strength, melting point, and crystallization point were compared and recorded based on different fiber orientation. The failure mechanism and property changes associated with directional change of fiber to polyester composite were discussed.

Keywords: Thermal Stability, tensile, kenaf fiber, polyester

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12 Microwave Sanitization of Polyester Fabrics

Authors: K. Haggag, M. Salama, H. El-Sayed

Abstract:

Polyester fabrics were sanitized by exposing them to vaporized water under the influence of conventional heating or microwave irradiation. Hydrogen peroxide was added the humid sanitizing environment as a disinfectant. The said sanitization process was found to be effective towards two types of bacteria, namely Escherichia coli ATCC 2666 (G –ve) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 (G +ve). The effect of the sanitization process on some of the inherent properties of polyester fabrics was monitored.

Keywords: Microwave, Bacteria, Fabric, polyester, sanitization

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11 Insight into the Physical Ageing of Poly(Butylene Succinate)

Authors: I. Georgousopoulou, S. Vouyiouka, C. Papaspyrides

Abstract:

The hydrolytic degradation of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was investigated when exposed to different humidity-temperature environments. To this direction different PBS grades were submitted to hydrolysis runs. Results indicated that the increment of hydrolysis temperature and relative humidity induced significant decrease in the molecular weight and thermal properties of the bioplastic. Τhe derived data can be considered to construct degradation kinetics based on carboxyl content variation versus time.

Keywords: polyester, hydrolytic degradation, physical ageing, poly(butylene succinate)

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10 Effect of Water Absorption on the Fatigue Behavior of Glass/Polyester Composite

Authors: Djamel Djeghader, Bachir Redjel

Abstract:

The composite materials of glass fibers can be used as a repair material for damage elements under repeated stresses, and in various environments. A cyclic bending characterization of a glass/polyester composite material was carried out with consideration of the period of immersion in water. These tests describe the behavior of materials and identify the mechanical fatigue characteristics using the Wohler Curve for different immersion time: 0, 90, 180 and 270 days in water. These curves are characterized by a dispersion in the lifetimes were modeled by straight whose intercepts are very similar and comparable to the static strength. This material deteriorates fatigue at a constant rate, which increases with increasing immersion time in water at a constant speed. The endurance limit seems to be independent of the immersion time in the water.

Keywords: Glass, Immersion, Composite, Fatigue, polyester, wohler

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9 Influence of High Temperature and Humidity on Polymer Composites Used in Relining of Sewage

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi, Folke Björk

Abstract:

Some of the main causes for degradation of polymeric materials are thermal aging, hydrolysis, oxidation or chemical degradation by acids, alkalis or water. The first part of this paper provides a brief summary of advances in technology, methods and specification of composite materials for relining as a rehabilitation technique for sewage systems. The second part summarizes an investigation on frequently used composite materials for relining in Sweden, the rubber filled epoxy composite and reinforced polyester composite when they were immersed in deionized water or in dry conditions, and elevated temperatures up to 80°C in the laboratory. The tests were conducted by visual inspection, microscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) as well as mechanical testing, three point bending and tensile testing.

Keywords: Composite, Sewage, epoxy, polyester, relining

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8 Influence of Modified and Unmodified Cow Bone on the Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Polyester Composites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: I. O. Oladele, J. A. Omotoyinbo, A. M. Okoro, A. G. Okikiola, J. L. Olajide

Abstract:

This work was carried out to investigate comparatively the effects of modified and unmodified cow bone particles on the mechanical properties of polyester matrix composites in order to investigate the suitability of the materials as biomaterial. Cow bones were procured from an abattoir, sun dried for 4 weeks and crushed. The crushed bones were divided into two, where one part was turned to ash while the other part was pulverized with laboratory ball mill before the two grades were sieved using 75 µm sieve size. Bone ash and bone particle reinforced tensile and flexural composite samples were developed from pre-determined proportions of 2, 4, 6, and 8 %. The samples after curing were stripped from the moulds and were allowed to further cure for 3 weeks before tensile and flexural tests were performed on them. The tensile test result showed that, 8 wt % bone particle reinforced polyester composites has higher tensile properties except for modulus of elasticity where 8 wt % bone ash particle reinforced composites has higher value while for flexural test, bone ash particle reinforced composites demonstrate the best flexural properties. The results show that these materials are structurally compatible.

Keywords: Biomedical, Composites, reinforcement, Mechanical Properties, polyester, cow bone

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7 Study of the Tribological Behavior of a Pin on Disc Type of Contact

Authors: S. Djebali, S. Larbi, A. Bilek

Abstract:

The present work aims at contributing to the study of the complex phenomenon of wear of pin on disc contact in dry sliding friction between two material couples (bronze/steel and unsaturated polyester virgin and charged with graphite powder/steel). The work consists of the determination of the coefficient of friction, the study of the influence of the tribological parameters on this coefficient and the determination of the mass loss and the wear rate of the pin. This study is also widened to the highlighting of the influence of the addition of graphite powder on the tribological properties of the polymer constituting the pin. The experiments are carried out on a pin-disc type tribometer that we have designed and manufactured. Tests are conducted according to the standards DIN 50321 and DIN EN 50324. The discs are made of annealed XC48 steel and quenched and tempered XC48 steel. The main results are described here after. The increase of the normal load and the sliding speed causes the increase of the friction coefficient, whereas the increase of the percentage of graphite and the hardness of the disc surface contributes to its reduction. The mass loss also increases with the normal load. The influence of the normal load on the friction coefficient is more significant than that of the sliding speed. The effect of the sliding speed decreases for large speed values. The increase of the amount of graphite powder leads to a decrease of the coefficient of friction, the mass loss and the wear rate. The addition of graphite to the UP resin is beneficial; it plays the role of solid lubricant.

Keywords: steel, Graphite, mass loss, wear rate, polyester, bronze, friction coefficient

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6 Optical Whitening of Textiles: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C. W. Kan

Abstract:

This study examines the results of optical whitening process of different textiles such as cotton, wool and polyester. The optical whitening agents used are commercially available products, and the optical whitening agents were applied to the textiles with manufacturers’ suggested methods. The aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application methods of optical whitening agent to different textiles and hence to provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: Cotton, Wool, polyester, learning materials, optical whitening agent

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5 Heat Setting of Polyester: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C. W. Kan

Abstract:

Heat setting is a commonly used technique in textile industry for treating synthetic fibers. In this study, we examined the effect of heat-setting process on the dyeing properties of polyester fabric. The heat setting conditions were varied, and these conditions would affect the dyeing results. The aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application method of heat setting process to polyester fabric, and the results could provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: Dyeing, polyester, learning materials, heat setting

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4 A Study on the Water and Oil Repellency Characteristics of Plasma-Treated Pet and Pet/Elastane Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan

Abstract:

New orientations have emerged in the textile sector as a result of increasing global competition and environmental problems. Under the scope of new understandings, it is required to bring forward multi-functional, simple and environmentally friendly methods that will meet tight economic and ecological demands of today. Plasma technology has become a significant alternative in this sense. This technology may provide great advantages in case it is developed, however, it does not receive adequate consideration. In this study, plasma treatment was applied by using glow discharge plasma system to 100% polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and 95% PET/5% elastane fabrics and then the effects of plasma polymerization on fabric surface was tested and analyzed using water and oil repellent finishes.

Keywords: plasma, polyester, oil repellency, water repellency, elastane

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3 Comparative Efficacy of Prolene and Polyester Mesh for the Repair of Abdominal Wall Defect in Pigeons (Columba livia)

Authors: Muhammad Naveed Ali, Hamad Bin Rashid, Muhammad Arif Khan, Abdul Basit, Hafiz Muhammad Arshad

Abstract:

Abdominal defects are very common in pigeons. A new technique is known as intraabdominal mesh transplant that give better protection for herniorrhaphy. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of hernia mesh. In this study, an efficacy of two synthetic hernia mesh implants viz. conventional Prolene and a lightweight mesh monofilament polyester were assessed for the abdominal wall repair in pigeons. Twenty four healthy pigeons were selected and randomly distributed into three groups, A, B and C (n=8). In all groups, experimental laparotomy was performed; thereafter, abdominal muscles and peritoneum were sutured together, while, a 2 x 2 cm defect was created in the abdominal muscles. For onlay hernioplasty, the hernia mesh (Prolene mesh: group A; Polyester mesh: group B) was implanted over the external oblique muscles of the abdomen. In group C (control), the mesh was not implanted; instead, the laparotomy incision was closed after a herniorrhaphy. Post-operative pain wound healing, adhesion formation, histopathological findings and formation of hematoma, abscess and seroma were assessed as short-term complications. Post-operatively, pain at surgical site was significantly less (P < 0.001) in group B (Polyester mesh); wound healing was also significantly better and rapid in group B (P < 0.05) than in group A (Prolene mesh). Group B (Polyester mesh) also depicted less than 25% adhesions when assessed on the basis of a Quantitative Modified Diamond scale; a Qualitative Adhesion Tenacity scale also depicted either no adhesions or flimsy adhesions (n=2) in group B (Polyester mesh), in contrast to group A (Prolene), which manifested greater adhesion formation and presence of dense adhesions requiring blunt dissection. There were observed hematoma, seroma and abscess formations in birds treated by Prolene mesh only. Conclusively, the polyester mesh proved superior to the Prolene mesh regarding lesser adhesion, better in wound healing, and no short-term follow-up complications.

Keywords: Adhesion, Mesh, polyester, prolene

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2 Sustainable Dyeing of Cotton and Polyester Blend Fabric without Reduction Clearing

Authors: Mohammad Tofayel Ahmed, Seung Kook An

Abstract:

In contemporary research world, focus is more set on sustainable products and innovative processes. The global textile industries are putting tremendous effort to achieve a balance between economic development and ecological protection concurrently. The conservation of water sources and environment have become immensely significant issue in textile dyeing production. Accordingly, an attempt has been taken in this study to develop a process to dye polyester blend cotton without reduction clearing process and any extra wash off chemical by simple modification aiming at cost reduction and sustainability. A widely used combination of 60/40 cotton/polyester (c/p) single jersey knitted fabric of 30’s, 180 g/m² was considered for study. Traditionally, pretreatment is done followed by polyester part dyeing, reduction clearing and cotton part dyeing for c/p blend dyeing. But in this study, polyester part is dyed right away followed by pretreatment process and cotton part dyeing by skipping the reduction clearing process diametrically. The dyed samples of both traditional and modified samples were scrutinized by various color fastness tests, dyeing parameters and by consumption of water, steam, power, process time and total batch cost. The modified process in this study showed no necessity of reduction clearing process for polyester blend cotton dyeing. The key issue contributing to avoid the reduction clearing after polyester part dyeing has been the multifunctional effect of NaOH and H₂O₂ while pretreatment of cotton after polyester part dyeing. The results also revealed that the modified process could reduce the consumption of water, steam, power, time and cost remarkably. The bulk trial of modified process demonstrated the well exploitability to dye polyester blend cotton substrate ensuring all fastness and dyeing properties regardless of dyes category, blend ratio, color, and shade percentage thus making the process sustainable, eco-friendly and economical. Furthermore, the proposed method could be applicable to any cellulosic blend with polyester.

Keywords: Economical, Dyeing, Cotton, polyester

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1 Controlled Conductivity of Poly (3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly (4-Styrene Sulfonate) Composites with Polyester

Authors: Kazui Sasakii, Seira Mormune-Moriya, Hiroaki Tanahashi, Shigeji Kongaya

Abstract:

Poly (3.4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly (4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) attracted a great deal of attention because of its unique characteristics of flexibility, optical properties, heat resistance and colloidal dispersion in water. It is well known that when high boiling solvents such as ethylene glycol or dimethyl sulfoxide are added as a secondary dopant to the micellar structure, PEDOT microcrystallizes and becomes highly conductive. In previous study bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) sulfone (BPS) was used as a secondary dopant for PEDOT:PSS and the enhancement of the conductivity was revealed. However, ductility is one of the serious issues which limited the application of PEDOT:PSS/BPS. So far, the composition with polymer binders has been conducted, however, polymer binders decrease the conductivity of the materials. In this study, PEDOT: PSS composites with polyester (PEs) were prepared by a simple aqueous process using PEs emulsion. The structural studies revealed that PEDOT:PSS and PEs were homogeneously distributed in the composites. It was found that the properties of PEDOT:PSS were remarkably enhanced by the incorporation of PEs. According to the tensile test, the ductility of PEDOT:PSS was remarkably improved. Interestingly, the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS/PEs composites was higher than that of neat PEDOT:PSS. For example, the conductivity increased by 8% at PEs content of 25 wt%. Since PEDOT:PSS were homogeneously dispersed on the surface of PEs particles, it was assumed that the conductive pathway was constructed by PEs particles in the nanocomposites. Therefore, a significant increase in conductivity was achieved.

Keywords: Polymer composites, Conductivity, polyester, PEDOT:PSS

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