Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Related Abstracts

8 Evaluation of the Physico-Chemical and Microbial Properties of the Compost Leachate (CL) to Assess Its Role in the Bioremediation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Authors: H. Moawad, Omaima A. Sharaf, Tarek A. Moussa, Said M. Badr El-Din

Abstract:

Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose great environmental and human health concerns for their widespread occurrence, persistence, and carcinogenic properties. PAHs releases due to anthropogenic activities to the wider environment have led to higher concentrations of these contaminants than would be expected from natural processes alone. This may result in a wide range of environmental problems that can accumulate in agricultural ecosystems, which threatened to become a negative impact on sustainable agricultural development. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the physico-chemical, and microbial properties of the compost leachate (CL) to assess its role as nutrient and microbial source (biostimulation/bioaugmentation) for developing a cost-effective bioremediation technology for PAHs contaminated sites. Material and Methods: PAHs-degrading bacteria were isolated from CL that was collected from a composting site located in central Scotland, UK. Isolation was carried out by enrichment using phenanthrene (PHR), pyrene (PYR) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as the sole source of carbon and energy. The isolates were characterized using a variety of phenotypic and molecular properties. Six different isolates were identified based on the difference in morphological and biochemical tests. The efficiency of these isolates in PAHs utilization was assessed. Further analysis was performed to define taxonomical status and phylogenic relation between the most potent PAHs-utilizing bacterial strains and other standard strains, using molecular approach by partial 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Results indicated that the 16S rDNA sequence analysis confirmed the results of biochemical identification, as both of biochemical and molecular identification of the isolates assigned them to Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes faecalis, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Providenicia which were identified as the prominent PAHs-utilizers isolated from CL. Conclusion: This study indicates that the CL samples contain a diverse population of PAHs-degrading bacteria and the use of CL may have a potential for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated sites.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, physico-chemical analyses, compost leachate, microbial and biochemical analyses, phylogenic relations

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7 Seasonal Variation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Associated with PM10 in Győr, Hungary

Authors: Zsofia Csanadi, Andrea Szabó Nagy, János Szabó, József Erdős

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to assess the seasonal variation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations associated with PM10 in an urban site of Győr, Hungary. A total of 112 PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the years of 2012 and 2013 and analyzed for PAHs by gas chromatography method. The total PAH concentrations (sum of the concentrations of 19 individual PAH compounds) ranged from 0.19 to 70.16 ng/m3 with the mean value of 12.29 ng/m3. Higher concentrations of both total PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were detected in samples collected in the heating seasons. Using BaP-equivalent potency index on the carcinogenic PAH concentration data, the local population appears to be exposed to significantly higher cancer risk in the heating seasons. However, the comparison of the BaP and total PAH concentrations observed for Győr with other cities it was found that the PAH levels in Győr generally corresponded to the EU average.

Keywords: Air quality, PAHs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzo[a]pyrene

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6 Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Biodegradation by Bacterial Isolated from Contaminated Soils

Authors: N. Messaadia, M. Houhamdi, Z. Abdessemed

Abstract:

The PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) represent a persistent source of pollution for oil field soils. Their degradation, essentially dominated by the aerobic bacterial and fungal flora, exhibits certain aspects for remediation of these soils microbial oxygenases have, as their substrates, a large range of PAH. The variety and the performance of these enzymes allow the initiation of the biodegradation of any PAH through many different metabolic pathways. These pathways are very important for the recycling of the PAH in the biosphere, where substances supposed indigestible by living organisms are rapidly transformed into simples compounds, directly assimilated by the intermediate metabolism of other microorganisms.

Keywords: biodegradation, Metabolic Pathways, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, microbial oxygenases

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5 Temporal Variation of PM10-Bound Benzo(a)Pyrene Concentration in an Urban and a Rural Site of Northwestern Hungary

Authors: Zs. Csanádi, A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, J. Erdős

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to assess the annual concentration and seasonal variation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) associated with PM10 in an urban site of Győr and in a rural site of Sarród in the sampling period of 2008–2012. A total of 280 PM10 aerosol samples were collected in each sampling site and analyzed for BaP by gas chromatography method. The BaP concentrations ranged from undetected to 8 ng/m3 with the mean value of 1.01 ng/m3 in the sampling site of Győr, and from undetected to 4.07 ng/m3 with the mean value of 0.52 ng/m3 in the sampling site of Sarród, respectively. Relatively higher concentrations of BaP were detected in samples collected in both sampling sites in the heating seasons compared with non-heating periods. The annual mean BaP concentrations were comparable with the published data of different other Hungarian sites.

Keywords: Air quality, PAHs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzo(a)pyrene

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4 Long-Term Monitoring and Seasonal Analysis of PM10-Bound Benzo(a)pyrene in the Ambient Air of Northwestern Hungary

Authors: Zs. Csanádi, A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, J. Erdős

Abstract:

Atmospheric aerosols have several important environmental impacts and health effects in point of air quality. Monitoring the PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could have important environmental significance and health protection aspects. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is the most relevant indicator of these PAH compounds. In Hungary, the Hungarian Air Quality Network provides air quality monitoring data for several air pollutants including BaP, but these data show only the annual mean concentrations and maximum values. Seasonal variation of BaP concentrations comparing the heating and non-heating periods could have important role and difference as well. For this reason, the main objective of this study was to assess the annual concentration and seasonal variation of BaP associated with PM10 in the ambient air of Northwestern Hungary seven different sampling sites (six urban and one rural) in the sampling period of 2008–2013. A total of 1475 PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the different sampling sites and analyzed for BaP by gas chromatography method. The BaP concentrations ranged from undetected to 8 ng/m3 with the mean value range of 0.50-0.96 ng/m3 referring to all sampling sites. Relatively higher concentrations of BaP were detected in samples collected in each sampling site in the heating seasons compared with non-heating periods. The annual mean BaP concentrations were comparable with the published data of the other Hungarian sites.

Keywords: Air quality, PAHs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzo(a)pyrene

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3 Investigating the Effect of Plant Root Exudates and of Saponin on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubilization in Brownfield Contaminated Soils

Authors: Marie Davin, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Gilles Colinet

Abstract:

In Wallonia, there are 6,000 estimated brownfields (rising to over 3.5 million in Europe) that require remediation. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of recalcitrant carcinogenic/mutagenic organic compounds of major concern as they accumulate in the environment and represent 17% of all encountered pollutants. As an alternative to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies, a lot of research has been directed to developing techniques targeting organic pollutants. The following experiment, based on the observation that PAHs soil content decreases in the presence of plants, aimed at improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in phytoremediation. It focusses on plant root exudates and whether they improve PAHs solubilization, which would make them more available for bioremediation by soil microorganisms. The effect of saponin, a natural surfactant found in some plant roots such as members of the Fabaceae family, on PAHs solubilization was also investigated as part of the implementation of the experimental protocol. The experiments were conducted on soil collected from a brownfield in Saint-Ghislain (Belgium) and presenting weathered PAHs contamination. Samples of soil were extracted with different solutions containing either plant root exudates or commercial saponin. Extracted PAHs were determined in the different aqueous solutions using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection (HPLC-FLD). Both root exudates of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) or red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and commercial saponin were tested in different concentrations. Distilled water was used as a control. First of all, results show that PAHs are more extracted using saponin solutions than distilled water and that the amounts generally rise with the saponin concentration. However, the amount of each extracted compound diminishes as its molecular weight rises. Also, it appears that passed a certain surfactant concentration, PAHs are less extracted. This suggests that saponin might be investigated as a washing agent in polluted soil remediation techniques, either for ex-situ or in-situ treatments, as an alternative to synthetic surfactants. On the other hand, preliminary results on experiments using plant root exudates also show differences in PAHs solubilization compared to the control solution. Further results will allow discussion as to whether or not there are differences according to the exudates provenance and concentrations.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, Root Exudates, Medicago sativa, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brownfield, saponin, trifolium pratense, solubilization

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2 Fluoranthene Removal in Wastewater Using Biological and Physico-Chemical Methods

Authors: Angelica Salmeron Alcocer, Deifilia Ahuatzi Chacon, Felipe Rodriguez Casasola

Abstract:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are produced naturally (forest fires, volcanic eruptions) and human activity (burning fossil fuels). Concern for PAHs is due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects and so pose a potential risk to human health and ecology. Therefore these are considered the most toxic components of oil, they are highly hydrophobic, making them easily depositable on the floor, air and water. One method of removing PAHs of contaminated soil used surfactants such as Tween 80, which it has been reported as less toxic and also increases the solubility of the PAH compared to other surfactants, fluoranthene is a PAH with molecular formula C16H10, its name derives from the fluorescence which presents to UV light. In this paper, a study of the fluoranthene removal solubilized with Tween 80 in synthetic wastewater using a microbial community (isolated from soil of coffee plantations in the state of Veracruz, Mexico) and Fenton oxidation method was performed. The microbial community was able to use both tween 80 and fluoranthene as carbon sources for growth, when the biological treatment in batch culture was applied, 100% of fluoranthene was mineralized, this only occurred at an initial concentration of 100 ppm, but by increasing the initial concentration of fluoranthene the removal efficiencies decay and degradation time increases due to the accumulation of byproducts more toxic or less biodegradable, however when the Fenton oxidation was previously applied to the biological treatment, it was observed that removal of fluoranthene improved because it is consumed approximately 2.4 times faster.

Keywords: Biological treatment, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fenton oxidation, fluoranthene

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1 Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Padina boryana Alga Collected from a Contaminated Site at the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Huda Qari, I. A. Hassan

Abstract:

The brown alga Padina boryanawas was used for bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulation at the seashore of Jeddah city. PAHs were determined in the coastal water and algal tissues by GC-MS. Acenaphthene (Ace) and dibenzo (a,h) anthracene (dB(a,h)An) were the main PAHs in seawater (50.02 and 46.18) and algal tissues (64.67 and 72.45), respectively. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (1.76 – 1.44), fluoranthene/pyrene (1.57 – 1.52) and phenanthrene/anthracene (0.86 – 0.67) in seawater and algal tissues, respectively, indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic. This study has demonstrated the utility of using Padina boryanawas as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters.

Keywords: Waste water, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bioaccumulation, Padina boryanawas

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