Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

polyacrylamide Related Abstracts

6 Application of Water Soluble Polymers in Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: M. Shahzad Kamal, Abdullah S. Sultan, Usamah A. Al-Mubaiyedh, Ibnelwaleed A. Hussein

Abstract:

Oil recovery from reservoirs using conventional oil recovery techniques like water flooding is less than 20%. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques are applied to recover additional oil. Surfactant-polymer flooding is a promising EOR technique used to recover residual oil from reservoirs. Water soluble polymers are used to increase the viscosity of displacing fluids. Surfactants increase the capillary number by reducing the interfacial tension between oil and displacing fluid. Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) is widely used in polymer flooding applications due to its low cost and other desirable properties. HPAM works well in low-temperature and low salinity-environment. In the presence of salts HPAM viscosity decrease due to charge screening effect and it can precipitate at high temperatures in the presence of salts. Various strategies have been adopted to extend the application of water soluble polymers to high-temperature high-salinity (HTHS) reservoir. These include addition of monomers to acrylamide chain that can protect it against thermal hydrolysis. In this work, rheological properties of various water soluble polymers were investigated to find out suitable polymer and surfactant-polymer systems for HTHS reservoirs. Polymer concentration ranged from 0.1 to 1 % (w/v). Effect of temperature, salinity and polymer concentration was investigated using both steady shear and dynamic measurements. Acrylamido tertiary butyl sulfonate based copolymer showed better performance under HTHS conditions compared to HPAM. Moreover, thermoviscosifying polymer showed excellent rheological properties and increase in the viscosity was observed with increase temperature. This property is highly desirable for EOR application.

Keywords: Rheology, Salinity, Enhanced Oil Recovery, polyacrylamide, polymer flooding

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5 Pectin Degrading Enzyme: Entrapment of Pectinase Using Different Synthetic and Non-Synthetic Polymers for Continuous Degradation of Pectin Polymer

Authors: Shah Ali Ul Qader, Afsheen Aman, Haneef Ur Rehman, Abdul Hameed Baloch

Abstract:

Pectinase is a heterogeneous group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of pectin substances and widely has been used in food and textile industries. In current study, pectinase from B. licheniformis KIBGE-IB21 was immobilized within different polymers (calcium alginate beads, polyacrylamide gel and agar-agar matrix) to enhance its catalytic properties. Polyacrylamide gel was found to be most promising one and gave maximum (89%) immobilization yield. While less immobilization yield was observed in case of calcium alginate beads that only retained 46 % activity. The reaction time for maximum pectinolytic activity was increased from 5.0 to 10 minutes after immobilization. The temperature of pectinase for maximum enzyme activity was increased from 45 °C to 50 °C and 55 °C when it was immobilized within agar-agar and calcium alginate beads, respectively. The optimum pH of pectinase didn’t alter when it was immobilized within polyacrylamide gel and calcium alginate beads, but in case of agar-agar it was changed from pH 10 to pH 9.0. Thermal stability of pectinase was improved after immobilization and immobilized pectinase showed higher toleration against different temperatures as compared to free enzyme. It can be concluded that the entrapment is a simple, single step and promising procedure to immobilized pectinase within different synthetic and non-synthetic polymers and enhanced its catalytic properties.

Keywords: pectinase, polyacrylamide, characterization immobilization, agar-agar, calcium alginate beads

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4 Quantification of Effect of Linear Anionic Polyacrylamide on Seepage in Irrigation Channels

Authors: Hamil Uribe, Cristian Arancibia

Abstract:

In Chile, the water for irrigation and hydropower generation is delivery essentially through unlined channels on earth, which have high seepage losses. Traditional seepage-abatement technologies are very expensive. The goals of this work were to quantify water loss in unlined channels and select reaches to evaluate the use of linear anionic polyacrylamide (LA-PAM) to reduce seepage losses. The study was carried out in Maule Region, central area of Chile. Water users indicated reaches with potential seepage losses, 45 km of channels in total, whose flow varied between 1.07 and 23.6 m³ s⁻¹. According to seepage measurements, 4 reaches of channels, 4.5 km in total, were selected for LA-PAM application. One to 4 LA-PAM applications were performed at rates of 11 kg ha⁻¹, considering wet perimeter area as basis of calculation. Large channels were used to allow motorboat moving against the current to carry-out LA-PAM application. For applications, a seeder machine was used to evenly distribute granulated polymer on water surface. Water flow was measured (StreamPro ADCP) upstream and downstream in selected reaches, to estimate seepage losses before and after LA-PAM application. Weekly measurements were made to quantify treatment effect and duration. In each case, water turbidity and temperature were measured. Channels showed variable losses up to 13.5%. Channels showing water gains were not treated with PAM. In all cases, LA-PAM effect was positive, achieving average loss reductions of 8% to 3.1%. Water loss was confirmed and it was possible to reduce seepage through LA-PAM applications provided that losses were known and correctly determined when applying the polymer. This could allow increasing irrigation security in critical periods, especially under drought conditions.

Keywords: Water management, irrigation, polyacrylamide, canal seepage

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3 Design of Nanoreinforced Polyacrylamide-Based Hybrid Hydrogels for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Anuj KUMAR, Kummara M. Rao, Sung S. Han

Abstract:

Bone tissue engineering has emerged as a potentially alternative method for localized bone defects or diseases, congenital deformation, and surgical reconstruction. The designing and the fabrication of the ideal scaffold is a great challenge, in restoring of the damaged bone tissues via cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation under three-dimensional (3D) biological micro-/nano-environment. In this case, hydrogel system composed of high hydrophilic 3D polymeric-network that is able to mimic some of the functional physical and chemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and possibly may provide a suitable 3D micro-/nano-environment (i.e., resemblance of native bone tissues). Thus, this proposed hydrogel system is highly permeable and facilitates the transport of the nutrients and metabolites. However, the use of hydrogels in bone tissue engineering is limited because of their low mechanical properties (toughness and stiffness) that continue to posing challenges in designing and fabrication of tough and stiff hydrogels along with improved bioactive properties. For this purpose, in our lab, polyacrylamide-based hybrid hydrogels were synthesized by involving sodium alginate, cellulose nanocrystals and silica-based glass using one-step free-radical polymerization. The results showed good in vitro apatite-forming ability (biomineralization) and improved mechanical properties (under compression in the form of strength and stiffness in both wet and dry conditions), and in vitro osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1 cells) cytocompatibility. For in vitro cytocompatibility assessment, both qualitative (attachment and spreading of cells using FESEM) and quantitative (cell viability and proliferation using MTT assay) analyses were performed. The obtained hybrid hydrogels may potentially be used in bone tissue engineering applications after establishment of in vivo characterization.

Keywords: Hydrogels, Bone Tissue Engineering, polyacrylamide, sodium alginate, cellulose nanocrystals

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2 Electrophoretic Changes in Testis and Liver of Mice after Exposure to Diclofenac Sodium

Authors: MOHAMMAD ASIF, Deepak Mohan, Sushma Sharma

Abstract:

Diclofenac sodium being one of the most common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is normally used as painkiller and to reduce inflammation. The drug is known to alter the enzymatic activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminases. The drug also results in change in the concentration of proteins and lipids in the body. The present study is an attempt to study different biochemical changes electrophoretically due to administration of different doses of diclofenac (4mg/kg/body weight and 14mg/kg/body weight) on liver and testes of mice from 7-28 days of investigation. Homogenization of the tissue was done, supernatant separated was loaded in the gel and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was conducted. Diclofenac administration resulted in alterations of all these biochemical parameters which were observed in native polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic studies. The severe degenerative changes as observed during later stages of the experiment showed correlation with increase or decrease in the activities of all the enzymes studied in the present investigation. Image analysis of gel in liver showed a decline of 7.4 and 5.3 % in low and high dose group after 7 days whereas a decline of 9.6 and 7.5% was registered after 28 days of investigation. Similar analysis for testis also showed an appreciable decline in the activity of alkaline phosphatase after 28 days. Gel analysis of serum was also performed to find a correlation in the enzymatic activities between the tissue and blood.

Keywords: Inflammation, diclofenac, polyacrylamide, phosphatase

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1 Effect of Polymer Residues for Wastewater Treatment from Petroleum Production

Authors: Chayonnat Thanamun, Kreangkrai Maneeintr

Abstract:

For petroleum industry, polymer flooding is the one of the main methods in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) that is used water-soluble polymer such as partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) to increase oil production. It is added to the flooding water to improve the mobility ratio in the flooding process. During the polymer flooding process, water is produced as a by-product along with oil and gas production. This produced water is a mixture of inorganic and organic compound. Moreover, produced water is more difficult to treat than that from water flooding. In this work, the effect of HPAM residue on the wastewater treatment from polymer flooding is studied. Polyaluminium chloride (PAC) is selected to use as a flocculant. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of polymer residues in produced water on the wastewater treatment by using PAC. The operating parameters of this study are flocculant dosage ranging from 300,400 and 500 mg/L temperature from 30-50 Celsius degree and HPAM concentrations from 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L. Furthermore, the turbidity, as well as total suspended solids (TSS), are also studied. The results indicated that with an increase in HPAM concentration, the TSS and turbidity increase gradually with the increasing of coagulant dosage under the same temperature. Also, the coagulation-flocculation performance is improved with the increasing temperature. This can be applied to use in the wastewater treatment from oil production before this water can be injected back to the reservoir.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Petroleum Production, polyacrylamide, polyaluminium chloride

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