Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

pollutant Related Abstracts

10 Study on Novel Reburning Process for NOx Reduction by Oscillating Injection of Reburn Fuel

Authors: Changyeop Lee, Sewon Kim, Jongho Lee

Abstract:

Reburning technology has been developed to adopt various commercial combustion systems. Fuel lean reburning is an advanced reburning method to reduce NOx economically without using burnout air, however it is not easy to get high NOx reduction efficiency. In the fuel lean reburning system, the localized fuel rich eddies are used to establish partial fuel rich regions so that the NOx can react with hydrocarbon radical restrictively. In this paper, a new advanced reburning method which supplies reburn fuel with oscillatory motion is introduced to increase NOx reduction rate effectively. To clarify whether forced oscillating injection of reburn fuel can effectively reduce NOx emission, experimental tests were conducted in vertical combustion furnace. Experiments were performed in flames stabilized by a gas burner, which was mounted at the bottom of the furnace. The natural gas is used as both main and reburn fuel and total thermal input is about 40kW. The forced oscillating injection of reburn fuel is realized by electronic solenoid valve, so that fuel rich region and fuel lean region is established alternately. In the fuel rich region, NOx is converted to N2 by reburning reaction, however unburned hydrocarbon and CO is oxidized in fuel lean zone and mixing zone at downstream where slightly fuel lean region is formed by mixing of two regions. This paper reports data on flue gas emissions and temperature distribution in the furnace for a wide range of experimental conditions. All experimental data has been measured at steady state. The NOx reduction rate increases up to 41% by forced oscillating reburn motion. The CO emissions were shown to be kept at very low level. And this paper makes clear that in order to decrease NOx concentration in the exhaust when oscillating reburn fuel injection system is adopted, the control of factors such as frequency and duty ratio is very important.

Keywords: NOx, reburning, pollutant

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9 Application of Crude Palm Oil Liquid Sludge Sewage On Maize (Zea mays. L) as Re-Cycle Possibility to Fertilizer

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin, Henni Rosneti, Agusnimar

Abstract:

Crude palm oil liquid sludge sewage was treated to maize with 400 cc/plant could be increased mean relative growth rates, net assimilation rate, leaf area and dry weight of seed. There are indicated that 400 cc / plant treated to maize significantly increase the average of mean relative growth rates into 0.32 g.day-1. Net assimilation rates increase from 13.5 mg.m-2.day-1 into 34.5 mg.m-2.day-1, leaf area at 50 days after planting increase from 1419 cm-2 into 2458 cm-2 and dry weight of seed from 38 g per plant into 43 g per plant. Crude palm oil liquid sludge waste chemical analysis indicated that, there are no exceed threshold content of dangerous metals and biology effects. Cadmium content as heavy metal is lower than threshold of human healthy tolerance. Therefore, it has no syndrome effect to human health. Biological oxygen demands and chemical oxygen demands as indicators for micro-organism activities, there are under the threshold of human healthy tolerance.

Keywords: Waste, fertilizer, pollutant, maize, crude-palm-oil, liquid-sludge

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8 Studies on the Effect of Bio-Methanated Distillery Spentwash on Soil Properties and Crop Yields

Authors: S. K. Gali

Abstract:

Spentwash, An effluent of distillery is an environmental pollutant because of its high load of pollutants (pH: 2-4; BOD>40,000 mg/l, COD>100,000mg/l and TDS >70,000mg/l). But However, after subjecting it to primary treatment (bio-methanation), Its pollutant load gets drastically reduced (pH: 7.5-8.5, BOD<10,000 mg/l) and could be disposed off safely as a source of organic matter and plant nutrients for crop production. With the consent of State Pollution Control Board, the distilleries in Karnataka are taking up ‘one time controlled land application’ of bio-methanated spentwash in farmers’ fields. A monitoring study was undertaken in Belgaum district of Karnataka State with an objective of studying the effect of land application of bio-methanated spent wash of a distillery on soil properties and crop growth. The treated spentwash was applied uniformly to the fallow dry lands in different farmers’ fields during summer, 2012 at recommended rate (based on nitrogen requirement of crops). The application was made at least a fortnight before sowing/planting operations. The analysis of soils collected before land application of spentwash and after harvest of crops revealed that there was no adverse effect of applied spentwash on soil characteristics. A slight build up in soluble salts was observed but, however all the soils recorded EC of less than 2.0 dSm-1. An increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) and available nitrogen (N) by about 10 to 30 % was observed in the spentwash applied soils. The presence of good amount of biodegradable organics in the treated spentwash (BOD of 6550 mg/l) contributed for increase in SOC and N. A substantial build up in available potassium (K) status (50 to 200%) was observed due to spentwash application. This was attributed to the high K content in spentwash (6950 mg/l). The growth of crops in the spentwash applied fields was higher and farmers could get nearly 10 to 20 per cent higher yields, especially in sugarcane and corn. The analysis of ground water samples showed that the quality of water was not affected due to land application of treated spentwash. Apart from realizing higher crop yields, the farmers were able to save money on N and K fertilisers as the applied spentwash met the crop requirement. Hence, it could be concluded that the bio-methanated distillery spentwash can be gainfully utilized in crop production without polluting the environment.

Keywords: soil organic carbon, pollutant, bio-methanation, potassium status

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7 Persistent Organic Pollutant Level in Challawa River Basin of Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdulkadir Sarauta

Abstract:

Almost every type of industrial process involves the release of trace quantity of toxic organic and inorganic compound that up in receiving water bodies, this study was aimed at assessing the Persistent Organic Pollutant Level in Challawa River Basin of Kano State, Nigeria. And the research formed the basis of identifying the presence of PCBs and PAHs in receiving water bodies in the study area, assessing the PCBs and PAHs concentration in receiving water body of Challawa system, evaluate the concentration level of PCBs and PAHs in fishes in the study area, determine the concentration level of PCBs and PAHs in crops irrigated in the study area as well as compare the concentration of PCBs and PAHs with the acceptable limit set by Nigerian, EU, U.S and WHO standard. Data were collected using reconnaissance survey, site inspection, field survey, laboratory experiment as well as secondary data source. A total of 78 samples were collected through stratified systematic random sampling (i.e., 26 samples for each of water, crops and fish) three sampling points were chosen and designated A, B and C along the stretch of the river (i.e. up, middle, and downstream) from Yan Danko Bridge to Tambirawa bridge. The result shows that the Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was not detected while, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was detected in the whole samples analysed at the trench of Challawa River basin in order to assess the contribution of human activities to global environmental pollution. The total concentrations of ΣPAH and ΣPCB ranges between 0.001 to 0.087mg/l and 0.00 to 0.00mg/l of water samples While, crops samples ranges between 2.0ppb to 8.1ppb and fish samples ranges from 2.0 to 6.7ppb.The whole samples are polluted because most of the parameters analyzed exceed the threshold limits set by WHO, Nigerian, U.S and EU standard. The analytical results revealed that some chemicals are present in water, crops and fishes are significantly very high at Zamawa village which is very close to Challawa industrial estate and also is main effluent discharge point and drinking water around study area is not potable for consumption. Analysis of Variance was obtained by Bartlett’s test performance. There is only significant difference in water because the P < 0.05 level of significant, But there is no difference in crops concentration they have the same performance, likes wise in the fishes. It is said to be of concern to health hazard which will increase incidence of tumor related diseases such as skin, lungs, bladder, gastrointestinal cancer, this show there is high failure of pollution abatement measures in the area. In conclusion, it can be said that industrial activities and effluent has impact on Challawa River basin and its environs especially those that are living in the immediate surroundings. Arising from the findings of this research some recommendations were made the industries should treat their liquid properly by installing modern treatment plants.

Keywords: Organic, pollutant, Challawa River Basin, persistent

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6 Time Series Analysis of Air Pollution in Suceava County ( Nord- East of Romania)

Authors: Lazurca Liliana Gina

Abstract:

Different time series analysis of yearly air pollution at Suceava County, Nord-East of Romania, has been performed in this study. The trends in the atmospheric concentrations of the main gaseous and particulate pollutants in urban, industrial and rural environments across Suceava County were estimated for the period of 2008-2014. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to determine the trends in the annual average concentrations of air pollutants (NO2, NO, NOx, SO2, CO, PM10, O3, C6H6). The slope was estimated using the non-parametric Sen’s method. Trend significance was assumed at the 5% significance level (p < 0.05) in the current study. During the 7 year period, trends in atmospheric concentrations may not have been monotonic, in some instances concentrations of species increased and subsequently decreased. The trend in Suceava County is to keep a low concentration of pollutants in ambient air respecting the limit values.All the results that we obtained show that Romania has taken a lot of regulatory measures to decrease the concentrations of air pollutants in the last decade, in Suceava County the air quality monitoring highlight for the most part of the analyzed pollutants decreasing trends. For the analyzed period we observed considerable improvements in background air in Suceava County.

Keywords: Air Quality Monitoring, pollutant, trend, Mann-Kendall

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5 Phytoremediation Rates of Water Hyacinth in an Aquaculture Effluent Hydroponic System

Authors: A. O. Ogunlela, E. A. Kiridi

Abstract:

Conventional wastewater treatment plants of activated carbon, electrodialysis, ion exchange, reverse osmosis etc. are expensive to install, operate and maintain especially in developing countries; therefore, the use of aquatic macrophytes for wastewater purification is a viable alternative. On the first day of experimentation, approximately 100g of water hyacinth was introduced into the hydroponic units in four replicates. The water quality parameters measured were total suspended solids (TSS), pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Others were concentration of ammonium–nitrogen (NH4+-N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2--N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N), phosphate–phosphorus (PO43--P), and biomass value. At phytoremediation intervals of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, the biomass recorded were 438.2 g, 600.7 g, 688.2 g and 725.7 g. Water hyacinth was able to reduce the pollutant concentration of all the selected parameter. The percentage reduction of pH ranged from 1.9% to 14.7%, EC from 49.8% to 97.0%, TDS from 50.4% to 97.6%, TSS from 34.0% to 78.3%, NH4+-N from 38.9% to 85.2%, NO2--N from 0% to 84.6%, NO3--N from 63.2% to 98.8% and PO43--P from 10% to 88.0%. Paired sample t-test shows that at 95% confidence level, it can be concluded statistically that the inequality between the pre-treatment and post-treatment values are significant. This suggests that the use of water hyacinth is valuable in the design and operation of aquaculture effluent treatment and should therefore be adopted by environmental and wastewater managers.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, pollutant, water hyacinth, aquaculture effluent

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4 Biodegradation Study of Diethyl Phthalate Using Bacteria Isolated from Plastic Industry Wastewater Discharge Site

Authors: Sangram Shamrao Patil, Hara Mohan Jena

Abstract:

Phthalates are among the most common organic pollutant since they have become widespread in the environment and found in sediments, natural waters, soils, plants, landfill leachates, biota including human tissue and aquatic organisms. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is a low molecular weight phthalate which has wide applications as plasticizer and become a major cause of environmental pollution. Environmental protection agency (EPA) listed DEP as priority pollutant because of its toxicity and they recommended human health ambient water quality criterion for diethyl phthalate (DEP) as 4 mg/l. Therefore, wastes containing phthalates require proper treatment before being discharged into the environment. Biodegradation is attractive and efficient treatment method as it is cost effective and produces non-toxic end products. In the present study, a DEP degrading aerobic bacterium was isolated from soil contaminated with plastic industry wastewater. Morphological and biochemical characteristics of isolate were performed. 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of isolate was carried out and it was identified as Empedobacter brevis. Isolate has been found to tolerate up to 1650 mg/l of DEP. This study will be significant for exploring an application of microbes for remediation of phthalates and development of a suitable bioreactor.

Keywords: biodegradation, pollutant, plasticizer, diethyl phthalate

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3 Application Use of Slaughterhouse Waste to Improve Nutrient Level in Apium glaviolens

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

Using the slaughterhouse waste combined to suitable dose of nitrogen fertilizer to Apium glaviolen gives the significant effect to mean relative growth rate. The same pattern also showed significantly in net assimilation rate. The net assimilation rate increased significantly during 42 days old plants. Combination of treatment of 100 ml/l animal slaughterhouse waste and 0.1 g/kg nitrogen fertilizer/kg soil increased the vegetative growth of Apium glaviolens. The biomass of plant and mean relative growth rate of Apium glaviolens were rapidly increased in 4 weeks after planting and gradually decreased after 35 days at the harvest time. Combination of 100 ml/l slaughterhouse waste and applied 0.1 g/kg nitrogen fertilizer has increased all parameters. The highest vegetative growth, biomass, mean relative growth rate and net assimilation rate were received from 0.56 mg-l.m-2.days-1.

Keywords: Waste, Nitrogen, pollutant, slaughterhouse, Apium glaviolent

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2 The Role of Phycoremediation in the Sustainable Management of Aquatic Pollution

Authors: Raymond EZENWEANI, Jeffrey Ogbebor

Abstract:

The menace of aquatic pollution has become increasingly of great concern and the effects of this pollution as a result of anthropogenic activities cannot be over emphasized. Phycoremediation is the application of algal remediation technology in the removal of harmful products from the environment. Harmful products also known as pollutants are usually introduced into the environment through variety of processes such as industrial discharge, agricultural runoff, flooding, and acid rain. This work has to do with the capability of algae in the efficient removal of different pollutants, ranging from hydrocarbons, eutrophication, agricultural chemicals and wastes, heavy metals, foul smell from septic tanks or dumps through different processes such as bioconversion, biosorption, bioabsorption and biodecomposition. Algae are capable of bioconversion of environmentally persistent compounds to degradable compounds and also capable of putting harmful bacteria growth into check in waste water remediation. Numerous algal organisms such as Nannochloropsis spp, Chlorella spp, Tetraselmis spp, Shpaerocystics spp, cyanobacteria and different macroalgae have been tested by different researchers in laboratory scale and shown to have 100% efficiency in environmental remediation. Algae as a result of their photosynthetic capacity are also efficient in air cleansing and management of global warming by sequestering carbon iv oxide in air and converting it into organic carbon, thereby making food available for the other organisms in the higher trophic level of the aquatic food chain. Algae play major role in the sustenance of the aquatic ecosystem by their virtue of being photosynthetic. They are the primary producers and their role in environmental sustainability is remarkable.

Keywords: Aquatic, Sustainability, Algae, pollutant, Phycoremediation

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1 Evaluation of the Impact of Green Infrastructure on Dispersion and Deposition of Particulate Matter in Near-Roadway Areas

Authors: Deeksha Chauhan, Kamal Jain

Abstract:

Pollutant concentration is high in near-road environments, and vegetation is an effective measure to mitigate urban air quality problems. This paper presents the influence of roadside green infrastructure in dispersion and Deposition of Particulate matter (PM) by the ENVI-met Simulations. Six green infrastructure configurations were specified (i) hedges only, (ii) trees only, (iii) a mix of trees and shrubs (iv) green barrier (v) green wall, and (vi) no tree buffer were placed on both sides of the road. The changes in concentrations at all six scenarios were estimated to identify the best barrier to reduce the dispersion and deposition of PM10 and PM2.5 in an urban environment.

Keywords: barrier, Particulate Matter, Deposition, Concentration, Dispersion, pollutant

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