Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 76

Policy Related Abstracts

76 A Consensus Approach to the Formulation of a School ICT Policy: A Q-Methodology Case Study

Authors: Thiru Vandeyar

Abstract:

This study sets out to explore how teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influence a consensus approach to the formulation of a school ICT policy. This case study proposes Q- methodology as an innovative method to facilitate a school’s capacity to develop policy reflecting teacher beliefs and attitudes. Q-methodology is used as a constructivist approach to the formulation of an ICT policy. Data capture was a mix of Q-methodology and qualitative principles. Data was analyzed by means of document, content and cluster analysis methods. Findings were threefold: First, teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influenced a consensus approach by including teachers as policy decision-makers. Second, given the opportunity, teachers have the inherent ability to deconstruct and critically engage with policy statements according to their own professional beliefs and attitudes. And third, an inclusive approach to policy formulation may inform the practice of school leaders and policymakers alike on how schools may develop their own policy.

Keywords: Policy, ICT, teacher beliefs, consensus

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75 Child Care Policy in Kazakhstan: A New Model

Authors: Dina Maratovna Aikenova

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Child care policy must be a priority area of public authorities in any country. This study investigates child care policy in Kazakhstan in accordance with the current position of children and laws. The results show that Kazakhstan policy in this sphere needs more systematic model including state economic and social measures, parental involvement and role of non-government organizations.

Keywords: Policy, Children, Vulnerability, Kazakhstan

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74 Language Rights and the Challenge of National Integration: The Nigerian Experience

Authors: Odewumi Olatunde, Adegun Sunday

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Linguistic diversity is seen to complicate attempts to build a stable and cohesive political community. Hence, the challenge of integration is enormous in a multi-ethno-lingual country like Nigeria. In the same vein, justification for minority language rights claims in relation to broader political theories of justice, freedom and democracy cannot be ignored. It is in the light of the fore-going that this paper explores Nigeria’s experiments at language policy and planning(LPP) and the long drawn agitations for self-determination and linguistic freedom by the minority ethnic groups in the polity which has been exacerbated by the National Policy on Education language provisions. The paper succinctly reviews Nigeria’s LPP efforts and its attendant theater of conflicts; explores international attempts at evolving normative principles of freedom and equality for language policy and finally evaluates the position of the Nigerian LPP in the light of evolving international conventions. On this premise, it is concluded that giving a conscientious and honest implementation of the Nigerian language provisions as assessed from their face validity, the nation’s efforts could be exonerated from running afoul of any known civilized values and best practices. It is, therefore, recommended that an effectual and consistent commitment to implementation driven by a renewed political will is what is required for the nation to succeed in this direction.

Keywords: Policy, Integration, conventions, rights, challenge

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73 Public Policy and Sexuality Education for Youth with Disabilities: Impact on Sexual Behavior and Outcomes

Authors: Alexandra M. Kriofske Mainella

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This paper will examine the need for more aggressive public policies around bodily, reproductive and sexual health education for young people with disabilities in the United States. This paper will consider the policies around sexuality education for students in the United States and the recommendation for national standards around sexuality education. We will investigate the intersection of these policies and recommendations for students with disabilities and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): what this means for students with disabilities’ access to comprehensive sexuality education and how it affects their behaviors and outcomes.

Keywords: Education, Disability, Policy, Sexuality

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72 Analysis of National Science and Technology Policies: The Case of South Korea

Authors: Jeonghwan Jeon

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As the science and technology (S&T) has been rapidly advanced, the national government attempts to reflect changes in the S&T for promoting public R&D activities and economic development. Amongst others, due to the rapid advances and changes of S&T, it becomes important to analyze the trends of S&T policies for formulating the new policy and investigating promising S&T fields. Thus, this paper aims to trace the national S&T policies during this decade for analyzing the change of major S&T fields in the case of South Korea. As one of the organization for S&T policy in South Korea, the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) has been established to coordinate inter-ministerial policies and programs and to determine all of the national and public S&T policy of South Korea. In this regard, the items on national S&T policy determined by the NSTC are useful for understanding the needs for major S&T fields and adapting to the rapid change of S&T. To this end, we first gathered the data on 512 items on the S&T agenda from 1999 to 2013. Based on these items, the trend of S&T policies is monitored and the major S&T fields are derived. Differences of policy purposes between S&T fields are identified to provide guideline for policy making such as budget allocation or investment promotion as well.

Keywords: Policy, Trends, S&T field, national science and technology

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71 The Application of Creative Economy in National R&D Programs of Health Technology (HT) Area in Korea

Authors: Hong Bum Kim

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Health technology (HT) area have high growth potential because of global trends such as ageing and economical development. For its high employment effect and capability for creating new business, HT is being considered as one of the major next-generation growth power. Particularly, convergence technologies which are emerged by fusion of HT and other technological area is emphasized for new industry creation in Korea, as a part of Creative Economy. In this study, current status of HT area in Korea is analyzed. The aspect of transition in emphasized technological area of HT-related national R&D enterprise is statistically reviewed. Current level of HT-related technologies such as BT, IT and NT is investigated in this context. Existing research system for HT-convergence technology development such as establishment of research center is also analyzed. Finally, proposed research support system such as system of legislation for developing HT area as one of the main component of Creative Economy in Korea will be analyzed. Analysis of technology trend and policy will help to draw a new direction in progression of R&D enterprise in HT area. Improvement of policy such as legal system reorganization and measure of social agreement for burden of expense could be deduced based on these results.

Keywords: Policy, Creative Economy, national R&D programs

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70 Technical Efficiency and Challenges of Smallholder Horticultural Farmers in Ghana: A Wake-Up Call for Policy Implementers

Authors: Freda E. Asem, R. D. Osei, D. B. Sarpong, J. K. Kuwornu

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While market access remains important, Ghana’s major handicap is her inability to sustain export growth on the open market. The causes of these could be attributed to inefficiency, lack of competitiveness and supply-side constraints. This study examined the challenges faced by smallholder horticultural farmers and how it relates to their technical efficiency. The study employed mixed methods to address the problem. Using the Millennium Development Account (MiDA) Farmer Based Organization survey data on farm households in 23 districts in Ghana, the study assessed the technical efficiency of smallholder horticultural farmers (taking into account production risks). Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews were also conducted on smallholder mango, pineapple, and chilli pepper farmers selected districts in Ghana. Results revealed the constraints faced by smallholder horticultural farmers to be marketing, training, funding, accessibility, and affordability of inputs, land, access to credit, and the disconnect between themselves and policy makers and implementers.

Keywords: Gender, Productivity, Policy, Efficiency, Constraints

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69 Prospects for an Integrated Public Transport System (IPTS) in Harare: An Institutional and Policy Analysis

Authors: Abdon O. Makore

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The study analyses policy and institutional implications with regard to the successful implementation of IPTS in Harare. IPTS has widely been recommended as a rich solution to chaotic public transport operations, yet studies to determine the suitability or applicability of this concept have not been done in light of the existing transport institutions and policy framework in Harare. A predominantly qualitative research approach was employed backed by a deep scrutiny of the NTP and other subsidiary legislations and plans in place so as to ascertain the views and perceptions of various stakeholders regarding the proposed concept. As such, key informant interviews, unstructured interviews, and questionnaires were vital tools in gathering data and these were effectively buttressed by observations, photography, and documentary analysis. The study revealed from a policy perspective that there are high prospects for the implementation of IPTS in Harare as the existing NTP, subsidiary legislations and plans do have provisions for the concept backed by keen interest of all responsible urban public transport authorities. However, there is lack of coherent and systematic approach among other responsible institutions, as such recommendations formulated advocated for institutional integration and strong political will for the ultimate success of the concept.

Keywords: Policy, Institutions, Legislation, integrated public transport system

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68 Implementation of Renewable Energy Technologies in Rural Africa

Authors: Joseph Levodo, Andy Ford, ISSA Chaer

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Africa enjoys some of the best solar radiation levels in the world averaging between 4-6 kWh/m2/day for most of the year and the global economic and political conditions that tend to make African countries more dependent on their own energy resources have caused growing interest in wanting renewable energy based technologies. However to-date, implementation of Modern Energy Technologies in Africa is still very low especially the use of solar conversion technologies. It was initially speculated that the low uptake of solar technology in Africa was associated with the continent’s high poverty levels and limitations in technical capacity as well as awareness. Nonetheless, this is not an academic based speculation and the exact reasons for this low trend in technology adoption are unclear and require further investigation. This paper presents literature review and analysis relating to the techno-economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic power generation in Africa. The literature review would include the following four main categories: design methods, techno-economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic power generation, performance evaluations of various systems, Then it looks at the role of policy and potential future of technological development of photovoltaic (PV) by exploring the impact of alternative policy instruments and technology cost reductions on the financial viability of investing solar photovoltaic (PV) in Africa.

Keywords: Policy, technologies, Photovoltaic, Africa Solar Potential

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67 Disability and Education towards Inclusion

Authors: Amratpal Kaur

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The right to education is universal in nature. This right has been enshrined in Indian Constitution and in various significant international documents. Unfortunately, despite of comprehensive legislation at the regional and international level 98% children with disabilities in developing countries don’t attend schools. Vast majority of children suffering from disability in developing nations lack basic literacy. The paper discusses in detail that the term inclusive education has got impetus all over the world and more so in India in the last decade. India has committed itself to the development of an inclusive education system as it is signatory to the Salamanca Statement and it has strived to achieve it thereon. Due to the shift from medical to social model of disability the emphasis is on inclusive school, so that the disabled children can be integrated in the mainstream easily. Thus, the idea is to educate disabled children along with their peers. The paper focuses on developing a clear understanding of inclusive education and identifying strategies to enhance the education of all children at the regional and international level.

Keywords: Education, Disability, Inclusion, Policy

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66 Analysis of Solid Waste Management Practices and the Implications for Human Health and the Environment: A Case Study of Kayamandi Informal Settlement

Authors: Peter Iyobosa Asemota

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This study on solid waste management practices addressed aspects of environmental and health impacts resulting from poor management of solid waste. The study was occasioned by the observed rate and volume of illegal and indiscriminate dumping of solid waste materials especially in informal settlements. The main focus of this study was to establish the impact of waste management practices on human health and the environment. The study, therefore, presents a critical analysis of the state of solid waste management in the study area and the implications for human health and the environment. The study was carried out in Kayamandi informal settlement within Stellenbosch municipality. The sustainable management of solid waste is very important in order to minimize the environmental and public health risks associated with improper solid waste management. There is no denying the fact that the problems of waste management will become critical as time goes on because of improper and inefficient waste management practices. Towns and cities exhibit the burdens of waste management which is a characteristics feature of most African cities. The study critically assess the implementation of waste management practices by the residents of the informal settlement; identify the factors affecting management issues in the operation of solid waste management system by the municipality; identify factors militating against the implementation of waste management policies and legislation. Furthermore, a waste assessment study was carried out to assess the generation; composition of the waste stream and also determine the attitudes and behavior of the residents with regard to waste management practices. Findings from the study revealed that Kayamandi is not different from other informal settlements with regards to waste management. People are of the opinion that solid waste management is the sole responsibility of municipal authorities and as such, the government should be responsible for bearing the cost of solid waste management.

Keywords: Waste, Environment, Policy, Waste Collection, Integrated Solid Waste Management, sanitary landfill, waste composition, waste stream, waste categories

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65 Achieving Household Electricity Saving Potential Through Behavioral Change

Authors: Lusi Susanti, Prima Fithri

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The rapid growth of Indonesia population is directly proportional to the energy needs of the country, but not all of Indonesian population can relish the electricity. Indonesia's electrification ratio is still around 80.1%, which means that approximately 19.9% of households in Indonesia have not been getting the flow of electrical energy. Household electricity consumptions in Indonesia are generally still dominated by the public urban. In the city of Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia, about 94.10% are power users of government services (PLN). The most important thing of the issue is human resources efficient energy. User behavior in utilizing electricity becomes significant. However repair solution will impact the user's habits sustainable energy issues. This study attempts to identify the user behavior and lifestyle that affect household electricity consumption and to evaluate the potential for energy saving. The behavior component is frequently underestimated or ignored in analyses of household electrical energy end use, partly because of its complexity. It is influenced by socio-demographic factors, culture, attitudes, aesthetic norms and comfort, as well as social and economic variables. Intensive questioner survey, in-depth interview and statistical analysis are carried out to collect scientific evidences of the behavioral based changes instruments to reduce electricity consumption in household sector. The questioner was developed to include five factors assuming affect the electricity consumption pattern in household sector. They are: attitude, energy price, household income, knowledge and other determinants. The survey was carried out in Padang, West Sumatra Province Indonesia. About 210 questioner papers were proportionally distributed to households in 11 districts in Padang. Stratified sampling was used as a method to select respondents. The results show that the household size, income, payment methods and size of house are factors affecting electricity saving behavior in residential sector. Household expenses on electricity are strongly influenced by gender, type of job, level of education, size of house, income, payment method and level of installed power. These results provide a scientific evidence for stakeholders on the potential of controlling electricity consumption and designing energy policy by government in residential sector.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Behavior, Policy, Electricity, household

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64 Assessing Household Energy Savings and Consumer Behavior in Padang City

Authors: Lusi Susanti, Prima Fithri, Karin Bestarina

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Indonesia's electrification ratio is still around 80.1%, which means that approximately 19.9% of households in Indonesia have not been getting the flow of electrical energy. Household electricity consumptions in Indonesia are generally still dominated by the public urban. In the city of Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia, about 94.10% are power users of government services (PLN). The most important thing of the issue is human resources efficient energy. Consumer behavior in utilizing electricity becomes significant. Intensive questioner survey, in-depth interview and statistical analysis are carried out to collect scientific evidences of the behavioral based changes instruments to reduce electricity consumption in household sector. The questioner was developed to include five factors assuming affect the electricity consumption pattern in household sector. They are: attitude, energy price, household income, knowledge and other determinants. The survey was carried out in Padang, West Sumatra Province Indonesia. About 210 questioner papers were proportionally distributed to households in 11 districts in Padang. Stratified sampling was used as a method to select respondents. The results show that the household size, income, payment methods and size of house are factors affecting electricity saving behavior in residential sector. Household expenses on electricity are strongly influenced by gender, type of job, level of education, size of house, income, payment method and level of installed power. These results provide a scientific evidence for stakeholders on the potential of controlling electricity consumption and designing energy policy by government in residential sector.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Behavior, Policy, Electricity, household

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63 Determinants of Utilization of Information and Communication Technology by Lecturers at Kenya Medical Training College, Nairobi

Authors: Agnes Anyango Andollo, Jane Achieng Achola

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The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has become one of the driving forces in facilitation of learning in most colleges. The ability to effectively harness the technology varies from college to college. The study objective was to determine the lecturers’, institutional attributes and policies that influence the utilization of ICT by the lecturers’. A cross sectional survey design was employed in order to empirically investigate the extent to which lecturers’ personal, institutional attributes and policies influence the utilization of ICT to facilitate learning. The target population of the study was 295 lecturers who facilitate learning at KMTC-Nairobi. Structured self-administered questionnaire was given to the lecturers. Quantitative data was scrutinized for completeness, accuracy and uniformity then coded. Data were analyzed in frequencies and percentages using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19, this was a reliable tool for quantitative data analysis. A total of 155 completed questionnaires administered were obtained from the respondents for the study that were subjected to analysis. The study found out that 93 (60%) of the respondents were male while 62 (40%) of the respondents were female. Individual’s educational level, age, gender and educational experience had the greatest impact on use of ICT. Lecturers’ own beliefs, values, ideas and thinking had moderate impact on use of ICT. And that institutional support by provision of resources for ICT related training such as internet, computers, laptops and projectors had moderate impact (p = 0.049) at 5% significant level on use of ICT. The study concluded that institutional attributes and ICT policy were keys to utilization of ICT by lecturers at KMTC Nairobi also mandatory policy on use of ICT by lecturers to facilitate learning was key. It recommended that policies should be put in place for Technical support to lecturers when in problem during utilization of ICT and also a mechanism should be put in place to make the use of ICT in teaching and learning mandatory.

Keywords: Policy, ICTs, computers education, medical training institutions

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62 Food for Health: Understanding the Importance of Food Safety in the Context of Food Security

Authors: Carmen J. Savelli, Romy Conzade

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Background: Access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food is a basic human necessity, required to sustain life and promote good health. Food safety and food security are therefore inextricably linked, yet the importance of food safety in this relationship is often overlooked. Methodologies: A literature review and desk study were conducted to examine existing frameworks for discussing food security, especially from an international perspective, to determine the entry points for enhancing considerations for food safety in national and international policies. Major Findings: Food security is commonly understood as the state when all people at all times have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Conceptually, food security is built upon four pillars including food availability, access, utilization and stability. Within this framework, the safety of food is often wrongly assumed as a given. However, in places where food supplies are insufficient, coping mechanisms for food insecurity are primarily focused on access to food without considerations for ensuring safety. Under such conditions, hygiene and nutrition are often ignored as people shift to less nutritious diets and consume more potentially unsafe foods, in which chemical, microbiological, zoonotic and other hazards can pose serious, acute and chronic health risks. While food supplies might be safe and nutritious, if consumed in quantities insufficient to support normal growth, health and activity, the result is hunger and famine. Recent estimates indicate that at least 842 million people, or roughly one in eight, still suffer from chronic hunger. Even if people eat enough food that is safe, they will become malnourished if the food does not provide the proper amounts of micronutrients and/or macronutrients to meet daily nutritional requirements, resulting in under- or over-nutrition. Two billion people suffer from one or more micronutrient deficiencies and over half a billion adults are obese. Access to sufficient amounts of nutritious food is not enough. If food is unsafe, whether arising from poor quality supplies or inadequate treatment and preparation, it increases the risk of foodborne infections such as diarrhoea. 70% of diarrhoea episodes occurring annually in children under five are due to biologically contaminated food. Conclusions: An integrated approach is needed where food safety and nutrition are systematically introduced into mainstream food system policies and interventions worldwide in order to achieve health and development goals. A new framework, “Food for Health” is proposed to guide policy development and requires all three aspects of food security to be addressed in balance: sufficiency, nutrition and safety.

Keywords: Food Safety, Food Security, Nutrition, Policy

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61 Implementing Urban Rainwater Harvesting Systems: Between Policy and Practice

Authors: Natàlia Garcia Soler, Timothy Moss

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Despite the multiple benefits of sustainable urban drainage, as demonstrated in numerous case studies across the world, urban rainwater harvesting techniques are generally restricted to isolated model projects. The leap from niche to mainstream has, in most cities, proved an elusive goal. Why policies promoting rainwater harvesting are limited in their widespread implementation has seldom been subjected to systematic analysis. Much of the literature on the policy, planning and institutional contexts of these techniques focus either on their potential benefits or on project design, but very rarely on a critical-constructive analysis of past experiences of implementation. Moreover, the vast majority of these contributions are restricted to single-case studies. There is a dearth of knowledge with respect to, firstly, policy implementation processes and, secondly, multi-case analysis. Insights from both, the authors argue, are essential to inform more effective rainwater harvesting in cities in the future. This paper presents preliminary findings from a research project on rainwater harvesting in cities from a social science perspective that is funded by the Swedish Research Foundation (Formas). This project – UrbanRain – is examining the challenges and opportunities of mainstreaming rainwater harvesting in three European cities. The paper addresses two research questions: firstly, what lessons can be learned on suitable policy incentives and planning instruments for rainwater harvesting from a meta-analysis of the relevant international literature and, secondly, how far these lessons are reflected in a study of past and ongoing rainwater harvesting projects in a European forerunner city. This two-tier approach frames the structure of the paper. We present, first, the results of the literature analysis on policy and planning issues of urban rainwater harvesting. Here, we analyze quantitatively and qualitatively the literature of the past 15 years on this topic in terms of thematic focus, issues addressed and key findings and draw conclusions on research gaps, highlighting the need for more studies on implementation factors, actor interests, institutional adaptation and multi-level governance. In a second step we focus in on the experiences of rainwater harvesting in Berlin and present the results of a mapping exercise on a wide variety of projects implemented there over the last 30 years. Here, we develop a typology to characterize the rainwater harvesting projects in terms of policy issues (what problems and goals are targeted), project design (which kind of solutions are envisaged), project implementation (how and when they were implemented), location (whether they are in new or existing urban developments) and actors (which stakeholders are involved and how), paying particular attention to the shifting institutional framework in Berlin. Mapping and categorizing these projects is based on a combination of document analysis and expert interviews. The paper concludes by synthesizing the findings, identifying how far the goals, governance structures and instruments applied in the Berlin projects studied reflect the findings emerging from the meta-analysis of the international literature on policy and planning issues of rainwater harvesting and what implications these findings have for mainstreaming such techniques in future practice.

Keywords: Planning, Policy, Project Implementation, institutional framework, urban rainwater management

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60 Gender Policy in Nigeria: Implications for Sustainable Development in the Fourth Republic

Authors: Adadu Yahaya, Abdullahi Erunke Canice

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The study sets out to examine the interface that tends to exist in the relationship between gender policy and Nigeria’s socio-economic development. Despite Nigeria’s ratification of virtually all international instruments on the protection and promotion of gender rights and equality, it appears that the practice is honored in the breach than in observance; hence, these policies have not been adequately domesticated and implemented. The implication of this is that the women folks have generally been isolated from mainstream politics and their political rights and privileges truncated in the scheme of things. The paper observes that gender inequality and marginalization in Nigeria has practically occasioned the unwholesome subjugation of Nigerian women to the background, hence poses more critical questions and challenges to the national question. The consequence of this, to this paper, is that Nigeria’s development process will be adversely affected if this trend is not checked. The paper sums up with appropriate policy options which are believed to have the potentials of giving women the right pride of place in the socio-economic and political dynamics in the 21st century Nigeria and beyond.

Keywords: Development, Gender, Equality, Policy

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59 Nepal Himalaya: Status of Women, Politics, and Administration

Authors: Tulasi Acharya

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The paper is a qualitative analysis of status of women and women in politics and administration in Nepal Himalaya. The paper reviews data of women in civil service and in administrative levels. Looking at the Nepali politics and administration from the social constructivist perspective, the paper highlights some social and cultural issues that have othered women as “second sex.” As the country is heading towards modernity, gender friendly approaches are being instituted. Although the data reflects on the progress on women’s status and on women’s political and administrative participation, the data is not enough to predict the democratic gender practices in political and administrative levels. The political and administrative culture of Nepal Himalaya should be changed by promoting gender practices and deconstructing gender images in administrative culture through representative bureaucracy and by introducing democratic policies.

Keywords: Democracy, Culture, Politics, Women, Administration, Policy, Nepal

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58 Women Entrepreneuship in Croatia: Issues and Policies

Authors: Marko Kolakovic, Mihaela Mikic, Martina Taborin

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Women entrepreneurship is often regarded as the unused economical potential in many countries, including Republic of Croatia. Although women represent a majority in the population, they are still a minority in the field of entrepreneurship and face many challenges in fulfilling their entrepreneurship potential. The reasons are often hided in historical distorted perceptions about value, credibility, competitiveness, responsibility and knowledge which women have, or can have. This is significant for at least two reasons. First, in terms of global economic crisis, the economy needs more quality, more skilled and educated people willing to face entrepreneurial challenges and create new jobs, new opportunities and higher living standards. Second, in the entrepreneurial activity, women finally have a chance to highlight their own abilities, such as knowledge, relentless work, organizational skills, communication and negotiation skills, responsibility, flexibility, etc., in order to insure their economic independence, for a better social position, and to increase confidence and faith in their own abilities. This paper empirically analyses characteristics of women entrepreneurship in Croatia and conducted policies for it improvement. An empirical research was conducted with the goal of discovering real life experiences and attitudes of Croatian women entrepreneurs. Results show that Croatian women entrepreneurs are usually highly educated, have previous work experience and operate in service sector, due to lower need for start-up capital. The biggest obstacle on their entrepreneurial path represents government bureaucracy. Although the number of women entrepreneurs is rising today and the gap between male and women entrepreneurs in Croatia, as well as women entrepreneurship levels lower than the European average, we believe that there is still a long way to reach potential and successful women entrepreneurship development. Research showed that by breaking down the barriers as access to finance, education investments, knowledge, skills and confidence development, women will be able to accomplish more significant and more efficient entrepreneurial outcome.

Keywords: Policy, SMEs, women entrepreneurship, Croatia, women entrepreneurial strategy

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57 Mental Illness, Dargahs and Healing: A Qualitative Exploration in a North Indian City

Authors: Reetinder Kaur, R. K. Pathak

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Mental health is recognised as an important global health concern. World Health Organisation in 2004 estimated that neuropsychiatric illnesses in India account for 10.8 percent of the global burden. The prevalence of serious mental illnesses is estimated as 6.5 percent by National Commission of Macroeconomics and Health in 2005. India spends only 0.06 percent of its health budget on mental health. One of the major problems that exist in Indian mental health care is the treatment gap due to scarcity of manpower, inadequate infrastructure and deficiencies in policy initiatives. As a result, traditional healing is a popular resource for mentally ill individuals and their families. The various traditional healing resources include faith healers, healers at temples and Dargahs. Chandigarh is a Union Territory located in North India. It has surplus manpower and infrastructure available for mental health care. Inspite of availability of mental health care services, mentally ill individuals and their families seek help from traditional healers at various Dargahs within or outside Chandigarh. For the present study, the data was collected from four dargahs. A total of thirty patients medically diagnosed with various mental illnesses, their family members who accompanied them and healers were part of this study. The aim of the study was to: Understand the interactions between healer, patient and family members during the course of treatment, understand explanations of mental illnesses and analyse the healing practices in context of culture. The interviews were conducted using an interview guide for the three sets of informants: Healers, patients and family members. The interview guide for healer focussed on the healing process, healer’s understanding of patient’s explanatory models, healer’s knowledge about mental illnesses and types of these illnesses cured by the healer. The interview guide for patients and family members focussed on their understanding of the symptoms, explanations for illness and help-seeking behaviour. The patients were observed over the weeks (every Thursday, the day of pir and healing) during their visits to the healer. Detailed discussions were made with the healer regarding the healing process and benefits of healing. The data was analysed thematically and the themes: The role of sacred, holistic healing, healer’s understanding of patient’s explanatory models of mental illness, the patient’s, and family’s understanding of mental illnesses, healer’s knowledge about mental illnesses, types of mental illnesses cured by the healer, bad dreams and their interpretation emerged. From the analysis of data, it was found that the healers concentrate their interventions in the social arena, ‘curing’ distressed patients by bringing significant changes in their social environment. It is suggested that in order to make the mental health care services effective in India, the collaboration between healers and psychiatrist is essential. However, certain specifications need to be made to make this kind of collaboration successful and beneficial for the stakeholders.

Keywords: Policy, Mental Illness, traditional healing, Dargah

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56 Drugs, Silk Road, Bitcoins

Authors: Lali Khurtsia, Vano Tsertsvadze

Abstract:

Georgian drug policy is directed to reduce the supply of drugs. Retrospective analysis has shown that law enforcement activities have been followed by the expulsion of particular injecting drugs. The demand remains unchanged and drugs are substituted by the hand-made, even more dangerous homemade drugs entered the market. To find out expected new trends on the Georgian drug market, qualitative study was conducted with Georgian drug users to determine drug supply routes. It turned out that drug suppliers and consumers for safety reasons and to protect their anonymity, use Skype to make deals. IT in illegal drug trade is even more sophisticated in the worldwide. Trading with Bitcoins in the Darknet ensures high confidentiality of money transactions and the safe circulation of drugs. In 2014 largest Bitcoin mining enterprise in the world was built in Georgia. We argue that the use of Bitcoins and Darknet by Georgian drug consumers and suppliers will be an incentive to response adequately to the government's policy of restricting supply in order to satisfy market demand for drugs.

Keywords: drugs, Policy, bitcoin, darknet

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55 A Closer Look on Economic and Fiscal Incentives for Digital TV Industry

Authors: Maya Safira Dewi, Yunita Anwar

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With the increasing importance on digital TV industry, there must be several incentives given to support the growth of the industry. Prior research have found mixed findings of economic and fiscal incentives to economic growth, which means these incentives do not necessarily boost the economic growth while providing support to a particular industry. Focusing on a setting of digital TV transition in Indonesia, this research will conduct document analysis to analyze incentives have been given in other country and incentives currently available in Indonesia. Our results recommend that VAT exemption and local tax incentives could be considered to be added to the incentives list available for digital TV industry.

Keywords: Policy, Digital TV transition, Economic Incentives, Fiscal Incentives

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54 Criticality of Socio-Cultural Factors in Public Policy: A Study of Reproductive Health Care in Rural West Bengal

Authors: Arindam Roy

Abstract:

Public policy is an intriguing terrain, which involves complex interplay of administrative, social political and economic components. There is hardly any fit-for all formulation of public policy as Lindbloom has aptly categorized it as a science of muddling through. In fact, policies are both temporally and contextually determined as one the proponents of policy sciences Harold D Lasswell has underscored it in his ‘contextual-configurative analysis’ as early as 1950s. Though, a lot of theoretical efforts have been made to make sense of this intricate dynamics of policy making, at the end of the day the applied area of public policy negates any such uniform, planned and systematic formulation. However, our policy makers seem to have learnt very little of that. Until recently, policy making was deemed as an absolutely specialized exercise to be conducted by a cadre of professionally trained seasoned mandarin. Attributes like homogeneity, impartiality, efficiency, and neutrality were considered as the watchwords of delivering common goods. Citizen or clientele was conceptualized as universal political or economic construct, to be taken care of uniformly. Moreover, policy makers usually have the proclivity to put anything into straightjacket, and to ignore the nuances therein. Hence, least attention has been given to the ground level reality, especially the socio-cultural milieu where the policy is supposed to be applied. Consequently, a substantial amount of public money goes in vain as the intended beneficiaries remain indifferent to the delivery of public policies. The present paper in the light of Reproductive Health Care policy in rural West Bengal has tried to underscore the criticality of socio-cultural factors in public health delivery. Indian health sector has traversed a long way. From a near non-existent at the time of independence, the Indian state has gradually built a country-wide network of health infrastructure. Yet it has to make a major breakthrough in terms of coverage and penetration of the health services in the rural areas. Several factors are held responsible for such state of things. These include lack of proper infrastructure, medicine, communication, ambulatory services, doctors, nursing services and trained birth attendants. Policy makers have underlined the importance of supply side in policy formulation and implementation. The successive policy documents concerning health delivery bear the testimony of it. The present paper seeks to interrogate the supply-side oriented explanations for the failure of the delivery of health services. Instead, it identified demand side to find out the answer. The state-led and bureaucratically engineered public health measures fail to engender demands as these measures mostly ignore socio-cultural nuances of health and well-being. Hence, the hiatus between supply side and demand side leads to huge wastage of revenue as health infrastructure, medicine and instruments remain unutilized in most cases. Therefore, taking proper cognizance of these factors could have streamlined the delivery of public health.

Keywords: Policy, context, uniformity, socio-cultural factor

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53 Green Energy, Fiscal Incentives and Conflicting Signals: Analysing the Challenges Faced in Promoting on Farm Waste to Energy Projects

Authors: Hafez Abdo, Rob Ackrill

Abstract:

Renewable energy (RE) promotion in the UK relies on multiple policy instruments, which are required to overcome the path dependency pressures favouring fossil fuels. These instruments include targeted funding schemes and economy-wide instruments embedded in the tax code. The resulting complexity of incentives raises important questions around the coherence and effectiveness of these instruments for RE generation. This complexity is exacerbated by UK RE policy being nested within EU policy in a multi-level governance (MLG) setting. To gain analytical traction on such complexity, this study will analyse policies promoting the on-farm generation of energy for heat and power, from farm and food waste, via anaerobic digestion. Utilising both primary and secondary data, it seeks to address a particular lacuna in the academic literature. Via a localised, in-depth investigation into the complexity of policy instruments promoting RE, this study will help our theoretical understanding of the challenges that MLG and path dependency pressures present to policymakers of multi-dimensional policies.

Keywords: Energy, renewable, Policy, Tax, Green, Anaerobic Digestion

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52 Policy and Strategy to Combatting Terrorism in Indonesia: Analysis Socio Juridical Counter and Contra Terrorism

Authors: Dini Dewi Heniarti

Abstract:

In the past decades, Indonesia has suffered severe terrorist attacks, faced major terrorism challenges and has made impressive progress in countering it. The trend of terrorist groups operating in Indonesia is to focus on ‘soft’ targets. Indonesia has made notable progress in strengthening the legal regime against terrorism, in conformity with the international treaties against terrorism. Further measures are however needed to complete the legal regime building processes. This paper will demonstrate analyze socio yuridical contra and counter terrorism by Indonesia Government.

Keywords: Strategy, Policy, combatting terrorism, socio juridical, counter and contra terrorism

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51 Solid Waste Management Policy Implementation in Imus, Cavite

Authors: Michael John S. Maceda

Abstract:

Waste has been a global concern aggravated by climate change. In the case of Imus, Cavite which in the past has little or no regard to waste experienced heavy flooding during August 19, 2013. This event led to a full blown implementation of Municipal Solid Waste Management integrating participation and the use of low-cost technology to reduce the amount of waste generated. The methodology employed by the city of Imus, provided a benchmark in the province of Cavite. Reducing the amount of waste generated and Solid Waste Management Cost.

Keywords: Policy, Composting, SWM, IMUS

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50 The Continuing Saga of Poverty Reduction and Food Security in the Philippines

Authors: Shienna Marie Esteban

Abstract:

The economic growth experience of the Philippines is one of the fastest in Asia. However, the said growth has not yet trickled down to every Filipino. This is evident to agricultural-dependent population. Moreover, the contribution of the agriculture sector to GDP has been dwindling while large number of labor force is still dependent on a relatively small share of GDP. As a result, poverty incidence worsened among rural poor causing hunger and malnutrition. Therefore, the existing agricultural policies in the Philippines are pushing to achieve greater food production and productivity to alleviate poverty and food insecurity. Through a review of related literature and collection and analysis of secondary data from DA, DBM, BAS - CountrySTAT, PSA, NSCB, PIDS, IRRI, UN-FAO, IFPRI, and World Bank among others, the study revealed that Philippines is still far from its goals of poverty reduction and food security. In addition, the agricultural sector is underperforming. The productivity growth of the sector comes out mediocre. The common observation is that weakness is attributed to the failures of policy and institutional environments of the agriculture sector. The policy environment failed to create a structure appropriate for the rapid growth of the sector due to institutional and governance weaknesses. A recommendation is to go through institutional and policy reforms through legislative or executive mandates should take form to improve the implementation and enforcement of existing policies.

Keywords: Food Security, Agriculture, Policy, Poverty

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49 Psychological and Ethical Factors in African American Custody Litigation

Authors: Brian Carey Sims

Abstract:

The current study examines psychological factors relevant to child custody litigation among African American fathers. Thirty-seven fathers engaged in various stages of custody litigation involving their children were surveyed about their perceptions of racial stereotypes, parental motivations, and racialized dynamics of the court/ legal process. Data were analyzed using a Critical Race Theory model designed to statistically isolate fathers’ perceptions of the existence and maintenance of structural racism through the legal process. Results indicate significant correlations between fathers’ psychological measures and structural outcomes of their cases. Findings are discussed in terms of ethical implications for family court judicial systems and attorney practice.

Keywords: Ethics, Policy, Race, Family, Legal Psychology

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48 Tracing Syrian Refugees Urban Mobilities: The Case of Egypt and Canada

Authors: N. Elgendy, N. Hussein

Abstract:

The current Syrian crisis has caused unprecedented practices of global mobility. The process of forced eviction and the resettlement of refugees could be seen through the insights of the “new mobilities paradigm”. The mobility of refugees in terms of meaning and practice is a subject that calls for further studies. There is a need for the development of an approach to human mobility to understand a practice that is turning into a phenomenon in the 21st century. This paper aims at studying, from a qualitative point of view, the process of movement within the six constituents of mobility defined as the first phase of the journey of a refugee. The second phase would include the process of settling in and re-defining the host country as new “home” to refugees. The change in the refugee state of mind and crossing the physical and mental borders from a “foreigner” to a citizen is encouraged by both the governmental policies and the local communities’ efforts to embrace these newcomers. The paper would focus on these policies of social and economic integration. The concept of integration connotes the idea that refugees would enjoy the opportunities, rights and services available to the citizens of the refugee’s new community. So, this paper examines this concept through showcasing the two hosting countries of Canada and Egypt, as they provide two contrasting situations in terms of cultural, geographical, economic and political backgrounds. The analysis would highlight the specific policies defined towards the refugees including the mass communication, media calls, and access to employment. This research is part of a qualitative research project on the process of Urban Mobility practiced by the Syrian Refugees, drawing on conversational interviews with new-settlers who have moved to the different hosting countries, from their home in Syria. It explores these immigrants’ practical and emotional relationships with the process of movement and settlement. It uses the conversational interviews as a tool to document analysis and draw relationships in an attempt to establish an understanding of the factors that contribute to the new-settlers feeling of home and integration within the new community.

Keywords: Mobility, Policy, Integration, Refugees

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47 Public-Private Partnership for Critical Infrastructure Resilience

Authors: Anjula Negi, D. T. V. Raghu Ramaswamy, Rajneesh Sareen

Abstract:

Road infrastructure is emphatically one of the top most critical infrastructure to the Indian economy. Road network in the country of around 3.3 million km is the second largest in the world. Nationwide statistics released by Ministry of Road, Transport and Highways reveal that every minute an accident happens and one death every 3.7 minutes. This reported scale in terms of safety is a matter of grave concern, and economically represents a national loss of 3% to the GDP. Union Budget 2016-17 has allocated USD 12 billion annually for development and strengthening of roads, an increase of 56% from last year. Thus, highlighting the importance of roads as critical infrastructure. National highway alone represent only 1.7% of the total road linkages, however, carry over 40% of traffic. Further, trends analysed from 2002 -2011 on national highways, indicate that in less than a decade, a 22 % increase in accidents have been reported, but, 68% increase in death fatalities. Paramount inference is that accident severity has increased with time. Over these years many measures to increase road safety, lessening damage to physical assets, reducing vulnerabilities leading to a build-up for resilient road infrastructure have been taken. In the context of national highway development program, policy makers proposed implementation of around 20 % of such road length on PPP mode. These roads were taken up on high-density traffic considerations and for qualitative implementation. In order to understand resilience impacts and safety parameters, enshrined in various PPP concession agreements executed with the private sector partners, such highway specific projects would be appraised. This research paper would attempt to assess such safety measures taken and the possible reasons behind an increase in accident severity through these PPP case study projects. Delving further on safety features to understand policy measures adopted in these cases and an introspection on reasons of severity, whether an outcome of increased speeds, faulty road design and geometrics, driver negligence, or due to lack of discipline in following lane traffic with increased speed. Assessment exercise would study these aspects hitherto to PPP and post PPP project structures, based on literature review and opinion surveys with sectoral experts. On the way forward, it is understood that the Ministry of Road, Transport and Highway’s estimate for strengthening the national highway network is USD 77 billion within next five years. The outcome of this paper would provide an understanding of resilience measures adopted, possible options for accessible and safe road network and its expansion to policy makers for possible policy initiatives and funding allocation in securing critical infrastructure.

Keywords: Safety, Policy, PPP, national highways

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