Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Police Related Abstracts

12 Big Data-Driven Smart Policing: Big Data-Based Patrol Car Dispatching in Abu Dhabi, UAE

Authors: Oualid Walid Ben Ali

Abstract:

Big Data has become one of the buzzwords today. The recent explosion of digital data has led the organization, either private or public, to a new era towards a more efficient decision making. At some point, business decided to use that concept in order to learn what make their clients tick with phrases like ‘sales funnel’ analysis, ‘actionable insights’, and ‘positive business impact’. So, it stands to reason that Big Data was viewed through green (read: money) colored lenses. Somewhere along the line, however someone realized that collecting and processing data doesn’t have to be for business purpose only, but also could be used for other purposes to assist law enforcement or to improve policing or in road safety. This paper presents briefly, how Big Data have been used in the fields of policing order to improve the decision making process in the daily operation of the police. As example, we present a big-data driven system which is sued to accurately dispatch the patrol cars in a geographic environment. The system is also used to allocate, in real-time, the nearest patrol car to the location of an incident. This system has been implemented and applied in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in the UAE.

Keywords: Intelligent, Police, Big Data, GIS, Big data analytics, Abu Dhabi, UAE, patrol car allocation, dispatching

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11 Human Trafficking the Kosovar Perspective of Fighting the Phenomena through Police and Civil Society Cooperation

Authors: Samedin Mehmeti

Abstract:

The rationale behind this study is considering combating and preventing the phenomenon of trafficking in human beings from a multidisciplinary perspective that involves many layers of the society. Trafficking in human beings is an abhorrent phenomenon highly affecting negatively the victims and their families in both human and material aspect, sometimes causing irreversible damages. The longer term effects of this phenomenon, in countries with a weak economic development and extremely young and dynamic population, such as Kosovo, without proper measures to prevented and control can cause tremendous damages in the society. Given the fact that a complete eradication of this phenomenon is almost impossible, efforts should be concentrated at least on the prevention and controlling aspects. Treating trafficking in human beings based on traditional police tactics, methods and proceedings cannot bring satisfactory results. There is no doubt that a multi-disciplinary approach is an irreplaceable requirement, in other words, a combination of authentic and functional proactive and reactive methods, techniques and tactics. Obviously, police must exercise its role in preventing and combating trafficking in human beings, a role sanctioned by the law, however, police role and contribution cannot by any means considered complete if all segments of the society are not included in these efforts. Naturally, civil society should have an important share in these collaborative and interactive efforts especially in preventive activities such as: awareness on trafficking risks and damages, proactive engagement in drafting appropriate legislation and strategies, law enforcement monitoring and direct or indirect involvement in protective and supporting activities which benefit the victims of trafficking etc.

Keywords: Civil Society, Police, Human trafficking, cooperation

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10 Organized Crime-A Social Challenge for Kosovo towards European Union Integration

Authors: Samedin Mehmeti

Abstract:

Very tens political and economic situation, in particular armed conflicts that followed at the time of the destruction of the former Yugoslavia, influenced migrations and displacement of population. Especially setting international sanctions and embargo influenced the creation of organized criminal groups. A lot of members of the former Yugoslav security apparatus in collaboration with ordinary criminal groups engaged in: smuggling of goods, petroleum and arms, sale and transport of drugs, payable murder, damage to public property, kidnappings, extortion, racketeering, etc. This tradition of criminality, of course in other forms and with other methods, has continued after conflicts and continues with a high intensity even in nowadays. One of the most delicate problems of organized crime activity is the impact on the economic sphere, where organized crime opposes and severely damages national security and economy to criminalize it in certain sectors and directions. Organized crime groups including who find Kosovo as a place to develop their criminal activities are characterized by: loyalty of many people especially through family connections and kinship in carrying out criminal activities and the existence of powerful hierarchy of leadership which in many cases include the corrupt officials of state apparatus. Groups have clear hierarchy and flexible structure of command, each member within the criminal group knows his duties concrete. According to statistics presented in police reports its notable that Kosovo has a large number of cases of organized crime, cultivation, trafficking and possession of narcotics. As already is very well known that one of the primary conditions that must be fulfilled on track toward integration in the European Union is precisely to prevent and combat organized crime. Kosovo has serious problems with prosecutorial and judicial system. But the misuse of public funds, even those coming directly from EU budget or the budget of the European Union member states, have a negative impact on this process. The economic crisis that has gripped some of the EU countries has led to the creation of an environment in which there are far fewer resources and opportunities to invest in preventing and combating organized crime within member states. This automatically reduces the level of financial support for other countries in the fight against organized crime. Kosovo as a poor country, now has less likely benefiting from the support tools that will be eventually offered by Europe set of in this area.

Keywords: Police, Narcotics, Organized Crime, european integration

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9 Investigating the Effects of Empowering the Employees in Managing Crimes by the Police

Authors: Mehdi Moghimi, Akbar Salimi

Abstract:

Goal: The human resource empowerment is a new strategy in achieving a competitive advantage. The aim of the research is to understand crime management by the police by using this strategy. Method: The research is applied in terms of goal and it is a survey type research. The sample intended include all the police officers of a police station for as many as 52 people. The data were collected by a researcher made four choice questionnaire after the validity and reliability were confirmed. Findings: By regarding the Melhem pattern as the framework, four dimensions of empowerment were identified and the triangle of crime was explained and then four hypotheses proportionate to it were formulated. Results: Given the fact that the sample was all counted, all the four hypotheses were supported by using the average data received and by regarding the %50 as the criterion.

Keywords: Management, Police, Empowerment, employees

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8 An Investigation on Interactions between Social Security with Police Operation and Economics in the Field of Tourism

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Namdari, Hosein Torki

Abstract:

Security as an abstract concept, has involved human being from the beginning of creation to the present, and certainly to the future. Accordingly, battles, conflicts, challenges, legal proceedings, crimes and all issues related to human kind are associated with this concept. Today by interviewing people about their life, the security of societies and Social crimes are interviewed too. Along with the security as an infrastructure and vital concept, the economy and related issues e.g. welfare, per capita income, total government revenue, export, import and etc. is considered another infrastructure and vital concept. These two vital concepts (Security and Economic) have linked together complexly and significantly. The present study employs analytical-descriptive research method using documents and Statistics of official sources. Discovery and explanation of this mutual connection are comprising a profound and extensive research; so management, development and reform in system and relationships of the scope of this two concepts are complex and difficult. Tourism and its position in today's economy is one of the main pillars of the economy of the 21st century that maybe associate with the security and social crimes more than other pillars. Like all human activities, economy of societies and partially tourism dependent on security especially in the public and social security. On the other hand, the true economic development (generally) and the growth of the tourism industry (dedicated) are a security generating and supporting for it, because a dynamic economic infrastructure prevents the formation of centers of crime and illegal activities by providing a context for socio-economic development for all segments of society in a fair and humane. This relationship is a formula of the complexity between the two concept of economy and security. Police as a revealed or people-oriented organization in the field of security directly has linked with the economy of a community and is very effective In the face of the tourism industry. The relationship between security and national crime index, and economic indicators especially ones related to tourism is confirming above discussion that is notable. According to understanding processes about security and economic as two key and vital concepts are necessary and significant for sovereignty of governments.

Keywords: Economic, Tourism, Police, Social Security

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7 Medical Examiner Collection of Comprehensive, Objective Medical Evidence for Conducted Electrical Weapons and Their Temporal Relationship to Sudden Arrest

Authors: Michael Brave, Mark Kroll, Steven Karch, Charles Wetli, Michael Graham, Sebastian Kunz, Dorin Panescu

Abstract:

Background: Conducted electrical weapons (CEW) are now used in 107 countries and are a common law enforcement less-lethal force practice in the United Kingdom (UK), United States of America (USA), Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and others. Use of these devices is rarely temporally associated with the occurrence of sudden arrest-related deaths (ARD). Because such deaths are uncommon, few Medical Examiners (MEs) ever encounter one, and even fewer offices have established comprehensive investigative protocols. Without sufficient scientific data, the role, if any, played by a CEW in a given case is largely supplanted by conjecture often defaulting to a CEW-induced fatal cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the difficulty in investigating individual deaths, the lack of information also detrimentally affects being able to define and evaluate the ARD cohort generally. More comprehensive, better information leads to better interpretation in individual cases and also to better research. The purpose of this presentation is to provide MEs with a comprehensive evidence-based checklist to assist in the assessment of CEW-ARD cases. Methods: PUBMED and Sociology/Criminology data bases were queried to find all medical, scientific, electrical, modeling, engineering, and sociology/criminology peer-reviewed literature for mentions of CEW or synonymous terms. Each paper was then individually reviewed to identify those that discussed possible bioelectrical mechanisms relating CEW to ARD. A Naranjo-type pharmacovigilance algorithm was also employed, when relevant, to identify and quantify possible direct CEW electrical myocardial stimulation. Additionally, CEW operational manuals and training materials were reviewed to allow incorporation of CEW-specific technical parameters. Results: Total relevant PUBMED citations of CEWs were less than 250, and reports of death extremely rare. Much relevant information was available from Sociology/Criminology data bases. Once the relevant published papers were identified, and reviewed, we compiled an annotated checklist of data that we consider critical to a thorough CEW-involved ARD investigation. Conclusion: We have developed an evidenced-based checklist that can be used by MEs and their staffs to assist them in identifying, collecting, documenting, maintaining, and objectively analyzing the role, if any, played by a CEW in any specific case of sudden death temporally associated with the use of a CEW. Even in cases where the collected information is deemed by the ME as insufficient for formulating an opinion or diagnosis to a reasonable degree of medical certainty, information collected as per the checklist will often be adequate for other stakeholders to use as a basis for informed decisions. Having reviewed the appropriate materials in a significant number of cases careful examination of the heart and brain is likely adequate. Channelopathy testing should be considered in some cases, however it may be considered cost prohibitive (aprox $3000). Law enforcement agencies may want to consider establishing a reserve fund to help manage such rare cases. The expense may stay the enormous costs associated with incident-precipitated litigation.

Keywords: Police, ARD, CEW, TASER

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6 Polish Police in the Fight against Terrorism and Cyberterrorism

Authors: Izabela Nowicka, Jacek Dworzecki

Abstract:

The paper will be presented to selected legal and organizational solutions for the prevention and combating of terrorism by the police in Poland. Development will include information on the organization and functioning of the police anti-terrorist sub-units, whose officers are on the front line of the fight against terrorism. They will be presented to the conditions and cases of use of firearms by police officers in the course of special operations aimed against organizations and terrorist groups, and the perpetrators of criminal acts of terrorism as well as the legal foundation for the Polish police to take immediate counterterrorism operations. Article will be prepared in the context of an international research project entitled. Understand the Dimensions of Organised Crime and Terrorist Networks for Developing Effective and Efficient Security Solutions for First-line-practitioners and Professionals [Project: H2020-FCT-2015, No: 700688].

Keywords: Police, Poland, the fight against terrorism, takedown

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5 Cultural Competence of Philippine National Police Personnel

Authors: Nestor C. Nabe, Melvie F. Bayog

Abstract:

The cultural competence of police officers can lead to effective law enforcement and gain respect to their organization. This study evaluated the level of cultural competence of Philippine National Police Personnel in Midsayap, Cotabato, Philippines. Descriptive survey research design was used in this study. The survey utilized an adapted questionnaire to measure the level of cultural competence of the respondents. Questionnaires were administered to 305 ethnic minorities coming from the four major ethnic tribes in Midsayap, Cotabato, Philippines. The data gathered were treated using Percentage, Mean, T-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The findings are as follows: the level of cultural competence of police personnel is moderate; and, there is no significant difference in the cultural competence of the police personnel when analyzed by age, gender, civil status and, occupation while there is a significant difference analyzed by educational attainment and ethnic tribe. Based on the findings, the following conclusions were drawn: the level of cultural competence of police personnel is only manifested sometimes; and, civil status, and occupation has no significant difference in the cultural competence of police personnel while educational attainment and ethnic tribe has a significant difference.

Keywords: Cultural, Police, Competence, Philippines

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4 Enhancing Police Accountability through the Malawi Independent Police Complaints Commission: Prospects and Challenges That Lie Ahead

Authors: Esther Gumboh

Abstract:

The police play a critical role in society and are an integral aspect of the rule of law. Equally, respect for human rights is an integral part of professional policing. In view of the vast powers that the police enjoy and the attendant risk of abuse and resulting human rights violations, the need for police accountability and civilian police oversight is internationally and regionally recognised. Policing oversight springs from the duty to investigate human rights violations. Those implicated in perpetrating or covering up violations must be disciplined or prosecuted to ensure effective accountability. Police accountability is particularly important in Malawi given the dark history of policing in the country during the 30-year dictatorial era under President Kamuzu Banda. Described as one of the most repressive regimes in Africa, the Banda administration was characterised by gross state-sponsored violence, repressive policing and human rights violations. Indeed, the police were involved in various forms of human rights abuse including arbitrary arrests and unlawful detentions, torture, and excessive use of force in conducting arrests and public order policing. This situation flourished within a culture of police impunity bolstered in part by the absence of clear oversight mechanisms for police accountability. In turn, there was immense public mistrust of the police. Unsurprisingly, the criminal justice system was one of the priority areas for reform when Malawi adopted its first democratic Constitution in 1994. Section 153 of the Constitution envisions a police service that is, for all intents and purposes, there to provide for the protection of public safety and the rights of persons in Malawi according to the prescriptions of the Constitution and any other law. This position reflects the view that the duty to protect and promote human rights is not incompatible with effective policing. Despite this, the police continue to engage in questionable behaviour in public order policing, excessive use of force, deaths in police custody, ill-treatment, torture and other forms of abuse including sexual abuse. Perpetrators of abuses are occasionally punished, but investigations are often delayed, abandoned, or remain inconclusive. Police accountability remains largely elusive. Commendably, the law does subject the police to significant oversight both internally and externally. However, until 2010, Malawi lacked a wholly independent civilian oversight mechanism specifically mandated to monitor the activities of the Malawi Police Service and held it accountable. This void has since been filled by the Independent Complaints Commission established under the Police Act. This is a positive development that reiterates Malawi’s commitment to the investigation of human rights violations by the police and to ending police impunity. This contribution examines the legal framework for this Commission to project the effectiveness of the Commission. While the framework looks promising on various fronts, there are potential challenges that lie ahead. Malawi must pre-emptively deal with these challenges carefully if the Commission is to have any practical significance in transforming police accountability in the country. Drawing on lessons from other jurisdictions like South Africa, the paper makes recommendations for legislative reform to strengthen the Commission’s framework.

Keywords: Police, Policing, Malawi, civilian policing oversight, police accountability, policing oversight

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3 The Role of Police in Counterinsurgency: A Case Study of Tripura

Authors: Yagnik Patel

Abstract:

This paper will analyze and explain two main objectives. First, it will examine the emergence of the insurgency in the state of Tripura. The State of Tripura was facing the full blow of insurgency problem since 1978 after the formation of Tripura National Volunteers (TNV). But, the roots of this insurgency were found even before 1978. This study will analyze the roots and trajectory of insurgency in the Tripura. Second, it will examine the role played by the police in counterinsurgency in the State of Tripura. Even though state police are mandated for the maintenance of the law and order and public order (like every police), the state police of Tripura have played a significant role in curbing the insurgency by enhancing their counterinsurgency (COIN) capabilities and re-structuring the new comprehensive COIN doctrine. And by the end of May 2015, the State Government has lifted The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) from the State of Tripura, as declaiming of the violence. The fight against the insurgency, usually done by the military or para-military, but nowadays the police organization is also becoming a vital state apparatus. After Punjab police and Andhra Pradesh police, Tripura police have also successfully curbed the insurgency from the state. This was the third time when successful counterinsurgency did by the state police in India. This has shown the importance of the police in the fight against the insurgency. In this regard, this paper will use both quantitative and qualitative research methods for an explanatory case study to analyze and explain the roots, causes and the trajectory of insurgency in the state of Tripura and the role played by the police in COIN in Tripura. Along with this, the paper will also examine the successful ‘Police Model of Tripura’.

Keywords: Police, Insurgency, Counterinsurgency, Tripura state rifles

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2 Consolidating a Regime of State Terror: A Historical Analysis of Necropolitics and the Evolution of Policing Practices in California as a Former Colony, Frontier, and Late-Modern Settler Society

Authors: Peyton M. Provenzano

Abstract:

This paper draws primarily upon the framework of necropolitics and presents California as itself a former frontier, colony, and late-modern settler society. The convergence of these successive and overlapping regimes of state terror is actualized and traceable through an analysis of historical and contemporary police practices. At the behest of the Spanish Crown and with the assistance of the Spanish military, the Catholic Church led the original expedition to colonize California. The indigenous populations of California were subjected to brutal practices of confinement and enslavement at the missions. After the annex of California by the United States, the western-most territory became an infamous frontier where new settlers established vigilante militias to enact violence against indigenous populations to protect their newly stolen land. Early mining settlements sought to legitimize and fund vigilante violence by wielding the authority of rudimentary democratic structures. White settlers circulated petitions for funding to establish a volunteer company under California’s Militia Law for ‘protection’ against the local indigenous populations. The expansive carceral practices of Los Angelinos at the turn of the 19th century exemplify the way in which California solidified its regime of exclusion as a white settler society. Drawing on recent scholarship that queers the notion of biopower and names police as street-level sovereigns, the police murder of Kayla Moore is understood as the latest manifestation of a carceral regime of exclusion and genocide. Kayla Moore was an African American transgender woman living with a mental health disability that was murdered by Berkeley police responding to a mental health crisis call in 2013. The intersectionality of Kayla’s identity made her hyper-vulnerable to state-sanctioned violence. Kayla was a victim not only of the explicitly racial biopower of police, nor the regulatory state power of necropolitics but of the ‘asphyxia’ that was intended to invisibilize both her life and her murder.

Keywords: Police, Genocide, California, asphyxia, biopower, carceral state, necropolitics, police violence

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1 Community Policing: Exploring the Police and Community Participation for Crime Control in Bia West of Ghana

Authors: Obed Asamoah, Bertha Korang Gyimah, Kenross, T. Asamoah

Abstract:

In every human community, crimes or offenses cannot be eliminated, but as crimes are expected, there should be bodies that will control and prevent the crimes. There has been an increasing rate of crime, such as armed robbery, kidnapping, murder, and other forms of violence in the country. Community participation in crime control cannot be left out in Ghana. Several works have been conducted to deal with the importance of community participation in policing, but the causes of communities not fully participating in community policing have been left out. The main aim of the research was to assess the impact of community policing and why the communities are reluctant to partake in community policing to help control crime in Bia West. There have been perceptions about Police that, they expose informant after they give the police tip-off which put the whistleblower life in danger. This has made the community not to get involved in security issues in the community they live in. This situation has posed a serious threat to the Ghana Police Service and its ability to position itself strategically in order to carry out a perfect investigation to bring the perpetrators into custody and to protect their lives and property, as well as the maintenance of law and order. Due to less data on community participation in the Ghana Police Service, the research adopted an interpretative framework to assess the meaning connoted to community policing from the perspectives of the stakeholders themselves. The qualitative research method was used. There was an engagement of the police and community where focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews were organized in the randomly selected communities in the district. Key informant interviews were used to solicit views of the people why they are reluctant to give information to the police to help them take the perpetrators to book. In the data collected, it was observed that most of the people have been under threats of offenders after they come back from the prisons, it was also observed that some of the unprofessional police personnel’s expose the whistleblowers who put their lives in danger. The data obtained were analyzed using simple Analytical tool SPSS and Excel. Based on the analysis, it was observed that a high number of people in the communities contacted had not made their mind to participate in any security issues. Based on the views of the community, there should be a high level of professionalism in the recruitment system of the Ghana police service to come out with professional police officers who can abide by the rules and regulations governing the profession.

Keywords: Police, Community, Participation, Ghana, bia west

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