Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

poisoning Related Abstracts

13 Poisoning Admission in Pediatrics Benghazi Hospital in Libya: Three Years Review of Medical Record

Authors: Mudafara Bengleil

Abstract:

Estimation of the magnitude and causes of poisoning was the objective of the current study. A retrospective study of medical records of all poisoning children admitted to Benghazi Children Hospital in Libya from January 2008 up to December 2010. Number of children admitted was 244; the age ranged from less than one to 13 years old. Most of cases were admitted with mild symptom and the majority of them were boys. Only few cases admitted to intensive care unit and there was no mortality recorded through the period of study. Age group 1 to 3 years (50.8%) had the highest frequency of admission and the peak of admission was during summer. The most common cause of admission was due to ingestion of medication (53.69%), House hold product exposure (26.64%) was the second causes of admission while, 19.67% of admissions were due to Food poisoning. Almost all admitted cases were accidental and medicines were the most consumed substances in addition, improper storage of toxic agents were the first risk factor of poisoning. Present results indicated that, children poisoning seems to be a common pediatric care problem which need to control and prevent.

Keywords: hospital, Medical, Children, poisoning

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12 Civil Protection in Mass Methanol Poisoning in the Czech Republic

Authors: Michaela Vašková, Jiří Barta, Josef Kellner, Jan Hrdlička, Otakar J. Mika

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the method to solutions the crisis situation in the Czech Republic associated with the mass methanol poisoning. The emphasis is put on tasks of individual state bodies and of Integrated Rescue System during the handling of the crisis. The theoretical part describes poisonings, ways of intoxication, types of intoxicants and cases of mass poisoning by dangerous substances in the world. The practical part describes the development, causes and solutions of extraordinary event, mass methanol poisoning in the Czech Republic. The main emphasis was put on the crisis management of the Czech Republic in solving this situation.

Keywords: Crisis Management, methanol, Hazardous Substances, poisoning, extraordinary event

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11 The Role of Pharmacist in The Community: A Study of Methanol Toxicity Disaster in Tripoli Libya During March 2013

Authors: Abdurrahim A. Elouzi, Abdurrauf M. Gusbi, Mahmud H. Arhima, Ebtisam A. Benomran, Salsabeela Elmezwghi, Aram Elhatan, Nafesa Elgusbi

Abstract:

Mass poisonings with methanol are rare but occur regularly both in developed and in non-developing countries. As a result of the tragedy that happened in the city of Tripoli Libya in March during year 2013 a number of patients were admitted to Tripoli Medical Center and Tripoli Central Hospital suffering from poisoning following ingestion of methanol by mistake. Our aims have been formulated to collect Information about those cases as much as we can from the archiving departments from the two hospitals including the number of cases that had been admitted, recovered patients and died victims. This retrospective study was planned to find out the reasons which allow those patients to drink methanol in our Muslim community and also the role of pharmacist to prevent such a disaster that claimed the lives of many people. During this tragedy 291 ospitalized patients their ages between 16-32 years old were admitted to both hospitals, total number of died 189 (121 at Tripoli medical center) and (68 at Tripoli central hospital), demographic data also shows that most of them are male (97%) and (3% female), about 4% of the patients foreigners and 96% were Libyans. There were a lot of obstacles and poor facilities at the time of patient admission as recognized in many cases including lack of first line of treatment. The morbidity was high due to the lack of antidote and availability of dialysis machines at this two main hospitals in Tripoli also according to survey done to the medical staff and also a random number of medical students shows about 28% have no idea about the first aid procedure used for methanol poisoning cases and this due to the absence of continuing education for all medical staff through the establishment of training courses on first aid, rapid diagnosis of poisoning and follow the written procedures to dealing with such cases.

Keywords: methanol, Ethanol, poisoning, fomepizole

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10 Poisoning in Morocco: Evolution and Risk Factors

Authors: El Khaddam Safaa, Soulaymani Abdelmajid, Mokhtari Abdelghani, Ouammi Lahcen, Rachida Soulaymani-Beincheikh

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The poisonings represent a problem of health in the world and Morocco, The exact dimensions of this phenomenon are still poorly recorded that we see the lack of exhaustive statistical data. The objective of this retrospective study of a series of cases of the poisonings declared at the level of the region of Tadla-Azilal and collected by the Moroccan Poison Control and Pharmacovigilance Center. An epidemiological profile of the poisonings was to raise, to determine the risk factors influencing the vital preview of the poisoned And to follow the evolution of the incidence, the lethality, and the mortality. During the period of study, we collected and analyzed 9303 cases of poisonings by different incriminated toxic products with the exception of the scorpion poisonings. These poisonings drove to 99 deaths. The epidemiological profile which we raised, showed that the poisoned were of any age with an average of 24.62±16.61 years, The sex-ratio (woman/man) was 1.36 in favor of the women. The difference between both sexes is highly significant (χ2 = 210.5; p<0,001). Most of the poisoned which declared to be of urban origin (60.5 %) (χ2=210.5; p<0,001). Carbon monoxide was the most incriminated among the cases of poisonings (24.15 %), them putting in head, followed by some pesticides and farm produces (21.44 %) and food (19.95 %). The analysis of the risk factors showed that the grown-up patients whose age is between 20 and 74 years have twice more risk of evolving towards the death (RR=1,57; IC95 % = 1,03-2,38) than the other age brackets, so the male genital organ was the most exposed (explained) to the death that the female genital organ (RR=1,59; IC95 % = 1,07-2,38) The patients of rural origin had presented 5 times more risk (RR=4,713; IC95 % = 2,543-8,742). Poisoned by the mineral products had presented the maximum of risk on the vital preview death (RR=23,19, IC95 % = 2,39-224,1). The poisonings by pesticides produce a risk of 9 (RR=9,31; IC95 % = 6,10-14,18). The incidence was 3,3 cases of 10000 inhabitants, and the mortality was 0,004 cases of 1000 inhabitants (that is 4 cases by 1000 000 inhabitants). The rate of lethality registered annually was 10.6 %. The evolution of the indicators of health according to the years showed that the rate of statement measured by the incidence increased by a significant way. We also noted an improvement in the coverage which (who) ended up with a decrease in the rate of the lethality and the mortality during last years. The fight anti-toxic is a work of length time. He asks for a lot of work various levels. It is necessary to attack the delay accumulated by our country on the various legal, institutional and technical aspects. The ideal solution is to develop and to set up a national strategy.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, poisoning, indicators of health, Tadla-Azilal grated by anti-toxic fight

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9 Rice Tablet Poisoning in Iran

Authors: Samaneh Nabavi, Somayeh Khanjani, Shirin Jalili

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Aluminum phosphide (ALP) is an inorganic phosphide used to control insects and is a highly effective insecticide and rodenticide used frequently to protect stored grain. Acute poisoning with this compound is common in some countries including India and Iran, and is a serious health problem. In Iran it was known as "rice tablet", for its use to preserve rice. Two kinds of rice tablets one being herbal while other containing 3g aluminum phosphide (AlP) are available for use in Iranian households to protect stored food grains from pests and rodents. The toxicity of Aluminum phosphide is attributed to the liberation of phosphine gas in contact with water or weak acid and is the major cause of poisoning and deaths. Rice tablet (Aluminum Phosphid) poisoning may be associated with serious and sometimes incurable complications. In 61.3% of patients were shown uniform ingestion. Vomiting was the most common symptoms reported by 96.4% patients. Agitation was reported in 36.9% and felling of thirsty in 27.9 %. Although many complications such as Hypotension, Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Acute Renal Failure (ARF) AND Multi Organ Failure (MOF) were the common complications observed in these patients, but the most lethal complication was Cardiac Arrhythmias occurred in 36.9% of cases. Abdominal pain in 31.4% of the patients, nausea in 79.4% of the patients and 41.1% of the patients showed metabolic acidosis. Suicidal intention was the most common cause of poisoning leading to deaths in 18.6% of the patients. Aluminum phosphide can cause either elevation, decrease or no change in electrolytes, bicarbonate and blood glucose level. The possible mechanism for changes in blood glucose levels are complex and depend on the balance of factors which increase its concentration and those which reduce it. AlP poisoning has been postulated to stimulate cortisol which leads to increasing blood level of cortisol, also it may cause stimulation of glucagon, and Adrenaline secretion; in addition, it can inhibit insulin synthesis which may lead to hyperglycemia. Another suggested mechanism of hyperglycemia is rennin activity in some cases, an increase in magnesium level of plasma and that of tissues, and high phosphate level. Although hyperglycemia is most frequent in this poisoning and also is known as a marker of poor prognostic, hypoglycemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning is a rare finding which may be so dangerous. Patients showed sever hypotension and sever acidosis in addition to sever hypoglycemia. The presenting features of AlP intoxication are rapid onset of shock, severe metabolic acidosis, cardiac dysrhythmias and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Keywords: poisoning, aluminum phosphide (ALP), rice tablet, phosphine gas

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8 Recovery of Hydrogen Converter Efficiency Affected by Poisoning of Catalyst with Increasing of Temperature

Authors: Enayat Enayati, Reza Behtash

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The purpose of the H2 removal system is to reduce a content of hydrogen and other combustibles in the CO2 feed owing to avoid developing a possible explosive condition in the synthesis. In order to reduce the possibility of forming an explosive gas mixture in the synthesis as much as possible, the hydrogen percent in the fresh CO2, will be removed in hydrogen converter. Therefore the partly compressed CO2/Air mixture is led through Hydrogen converter (Reactor) where the H2, present in the CO2, is reduced by catalytic combustion to values less than 50 ppm (vol). According the following exothermic chemical reaction: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O + Heat. The catalyst in hydrogen converter consist of platinum on a aluminum oxide carrier. Low catalyst activity maybe due to catalyst poisoning. This will result in an increase of the hydrogen content in the CO2 to the synthesis. It is advised to shut down the plant when the outlet of hydrogen converter increased above 100 ppm, to prevent undesirable gas composition in the plant. Replacement of catalyst will be time exhausting and costly so as to prevent this, we increase the inlet temperature of hydrogen converter according to following Arrhenius' equation: K=K0e (-E_a/RT) K is rate constant of a chemical reaction where K0 is the pre-exponential factor, E_a is the activation energy, and R is the universal gas constant. Increment of inlet temperature of hydrogen converter caused to increase the rate constant of chemical reaction and so declining the amount of hydrogen from 125 ppm to 70 ppm.

Keywords: temperature, Catalyst, poisoning, converter

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7 L-Carnitine vs Extracorporeal Elimination for Acute Valproic Acid Intoxication: A Systemic Review

Authors: Byung Keun Yang, Jae Eun Ku, Young Seon Joo, Je Sung You, Sung Phil Chung, Hahn Shick Lee

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The purpose of this study is to review the evidence comparing the efficacy and safety between L-carnitine and extracorporeal elimination therapy in the management of acute valproic acid L-carnitine vs Extracorporeal Elimination for Acute Valproic acid Intoxication. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, Web of Science, KoreaMed, KMbase, and KISS were searched, using the terms carnitine and valproic acid. All studies, regardless of design, reporting efficacy or safety endpoints were included. Reference citations from identified publications were reviewed. Both English and Korean languages were included. Two authors extracted primary data elements including poisoning severity, presenting features, clinical management, and outcomes. Thirty two articles including 33 cases were identified. Poisoning severity was classified as 3 mild, 11 moderate, and 19 severe cases. Nine cases were treated with L-carnitine while 24 cases received extracorporeal therapy without L-carnitine. All patients except one expired patient treated with hemodialysis recovered clinically and no adverse effects were noted. A case report comparing two patients who ingested the same amount of valproic acid showed increased ICU stay (3 vs. 11 days) in case of delayed extracorporeal therapy. Published evidence comparing L-carnitine with extracorporeal therapy is limited. Based on the available evidence, it is reasonable to consider L-carnitine for patients with acute valproic acid overdose. In case of severe poisoning, extracorporeal therapy would also be considered in the early phase of treatment.

Keywords: Renal Dialysis, carnitine, poisoning, overdose, valproic acid

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6 Evaluating the Characteristics of Paediatric Accidental Poisonings

Authors: Grace Fangmin Tan, Elaine Yiling Tay, Elizabeth Huiwen Tham, Andrea Wei Ching Yeo

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Background: While accidental poisonings in children may seem unavoidable, knowledge of circumstances surrounding such incidents and identification of risk factors is important in the development of secondary prevention strategies. Some risk factors include age of the child, lack of adequate supervision and improper storage of substances. The aim of this study is to assess risk factors and circumstances influencing outcomes in these children. Methodology: A retrospective medical record review of all accidental poisoning cases presenting to the Children’s Emergency at National University Hospital (NUH), Singapore between January 2014 and December 2015 was conducted. Information on demographics, poisoning circumstances and clinical outcomes were collected. Results: Ninety-nine of a total of 186 poisoning cases were accidental ingestions, with a mean age of 4.7 (range 0.4 to 18.3 years). The gender distribution is rather equal with 52(52.5%) females and 47(47.5%) males. Seventy-nine (79.8%) were self-administered by the child and in 20 cases (20.2%), the substance was administered erroneously by caregivers 12/20 (60.0%) of whom were given the wrong drug dose while 8/20 (40.0%) were given the wrong substance. Self-administration was associated with presentation to the ED within 12 hours (p=0.027, OR 6.65, 95% CI 1.24-35.72). Notably, 94.9% of the cases involved substances kept within reach of the child. Sixty-nine (82.1%) had the substance kept in the original container, 3(3.6%) in food containers, 8(9.5%) in other containers and 4(4.8%) without a container. Of the 50 cases with information on labelling, 40/50(80.0%) were accurately labelled, 2/50 (4.0%) wrongly labelled, and 8/50 (16.0%) were unlabelled. Implicated substances included personal care products (11.1%), household cleaning products (3.0%), and different classes of drugs such as paracetamol (22.2%), antihistamines (17.2%) and sympathomimetics (8.1%). Children < 3 years of age were 4.8 times more likely to be poisoned by household substances than children >3 years of age (p=0.009, 95% CI 1.48-15.77). Prehospital interventions were more likely to have been done in poisoning with household substances (p=0.005, OR 6.12 95% CI 1.73-21.68). Fifty-nine (59.6%) were asymptomatic, 34 (34.3%) had a Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) grade of 1 (minor) and 6 (6.1%) grade 2 (moderate). Older children were 9.3 times more likely to be symptomatic (p<0.001, 95% CI 3.15-27.25). Thirty (32%) required admission. Conclusion: A significant proportion of accidental poisoning cases were due to medication administration errors by caregivers, which should be preventable. Risk factors for accidental poisoning included lack of adequate caregiver supervision, improper labelling and young age of the child. There is an urgent need to improve caregiver counselling during medication dispensing as well as to educate caregivers on basic child safety measures in the home to prevent future accidental poisonings.

Keywords: Paediatrics, poisoning, caregiver, accidental

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5 A Study on Pattern of Acute Poisoning in Patients Admitted to Emergency Wards in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Sathvika Reddy, Devi Revathi

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Background: In India, deliberate self-harm (DSH) with poisoning agents carries a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Changes in the patterns of poisoning vary across various geographical locations. It is important to know the patterns in a given region in order to facilitate rapid clinical diagnosis, appropriate treatment to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Aim and Objective: To study the patterns, treatment outcomes of acute poisoning in patients admitted to emergency wards in a tertiary care hospital and to provide poison information services. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at M.S Ramaiah Memorial and Teaching Hospital from November 2016 to March 2017. The patient’s data was obtained from patient case sheet, interaction with health care professionals, interviewing patients and their caretakers (if possible), and were documented in a suitably designed form. Results: The study involved 131 patients with a mean age of 27.76 ± 15.5 years. Majority of the patients were in the age group 21-30 years, literates (n=53) dwelling in urban (n=113) areas belonging to upper middle class (n=50). Analgesics and antipyretics were commonly utilized in intentional drug overdosage (n=49). Envenomation constituted n=21(16.03%). Furthermore, a significant relationship was observed between marital status and self-poisoning (n=64) (P < 0.001) which commonly occurred through oral ingestion. The outcomes were correlated with the GCS and PSS system and n=85 recovered, n=17 were discharged against medical advice, and n=4 died, and n=4 were lost to follow up respectively. The poison information queries include drug overdose (n=29) and management related queries (n=22) provided majorly by residents (n=45) to update knowledge (n=11) and for better patient care (n=40). Conclusion: The trend in poisoning is dynamic. Medications were identified as the main cause of poisoning in urban areas of India. Educational programs with more emphasis on preventive measures are necessary to create awareness among the general public.

Keywords: clinical pharmacist, poisoning, suicides, envenomation, poison information services

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4 The Retrospective Investigation of the Impacts of Alien Taxa on Human Health: A Case Study of Two Poison Information Centers

Authors: Moleseng Claude Moshobane

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Alien species cause considerable negative impacts on biodiversity, economy and public health. Impacts of alien species on public health have received a degree of attention worldwide, largely in developed countries, but scarce in developing countries. Here, we provide a review of human exposures and poisonings cases from native and alien plant species reported to poison information centers. A retrospective review of the Tygerberg Poison Information Centre (TPIC) and Poisons Information Centre (PIC) at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RCWMCH) was conducted over approximately 2-year period (1 June 2015 through to 06 March 2017). Combined, TPIC and PIC handled 626 cases during the 2-year period. Toxicity cases were more abundant in Gauteng (47.1%), followed by Western Cape (29.4%). The primary mechanism of injury was ingestion (96.7%), and all cases were predominantly accidental. Most reported cases involved infants (20.6%), with few fully-grown adults related cases (5.8%). Adults presented minor to moderate toxicity, while infants none to minor toxicity. We conclude that reported toxicity cases on human health are biased towards few alien species and that several cases relate to unknown species of mushrooms. Public awareness is essential to reducing the poisoning incidences.

Keywords: Public Health, Invasive Species, poisoning, alien species

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3 Protective Effects of Sinapic Acid on Organophosphate Poisoning

Authors: Ayhan Bozkurt, Turker Yardan, Bahattin Avci, S. Sirri Bilge

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Sinapic acid (SA) is a phenylpropanoid compound with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activities. The purpose of this study was to characterize the possible protective effect of sinapic acid on chlorpyrifos (CPF), a common organophosphorus pesticide used worldwide, induced toxicity in rats. Forty male and female rats (240-270 g) were used in this study. Each group was composed of 5 male and 5 female rats. Sinapic acid (20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg) or vehicle (olive oil, 1 ml ⁄ rat) were given orally for 5 days. CPF (279 mg/kg) or vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml ⁄ kg, s.c.) was administered on the sixth day, immediately after the recording of the body weight of the animals. Twenty four hours following CPF administration body weight, body temperature and locomotor activity values were recorded before decapitation of the animals. Trunk blood, brain, and liver samples were collected for biochemical examinations. Chlorpyrifos administration decreased butyrylcholinesterase activity in blood, brain, and liver, while it increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) (p < 0.01 - 0.001). Additionally, CPF administration reduced the body weight, body temperature, and locomotor activity values of the animals (p < 0.01 - 0.001). All these physiological and biochemical changes induced by CPF were reduced with the 40 mg/kg dose of SA (p < 0.05 - 0.001). Our results suggest that SA administration ameliorates CPF induced toxicity in rats, possibly by supporting the antioxidant mechanism.

Keywords: antioxidant, poisoning, chlorpyrifos, sinapic acid

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2 The Evaluation of Caustic and Corrosive Poisoning in Children

Authors: Sabiha Sahin

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Introduction: We have planned this study because of the increasing number of corrosive substance poisoning who admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department. Method: 636 corrosive substance poisoning cases applied to the Osmangazi University PED between 1 January 2015 - 31 December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 438 (69%) cases were male.The poisoning rate of groups 0-4 was significantly higher and occurred by accident. A total of 616 cases (96.9%) were poisoned by the oral route, and 20 cases were poisoned by inhalation.462 Patients were admitted to the hospital within an hour (72.8%). Of the 134 patients who had only erosion and redness around the mouth, 24 patients had salivation and dysphagia symptoms besides these. Of the 28 cases of 158 patients with symptoms, eusaphegeal stenosis was detected. on third day examination. Although there was no statistically significant correlation between esophageal stenosis and erosion and redness around the mouth, there was a statistically significant correlation between dysphagia and salivation between esophageal stenosis Conclusion: The increased salivation and the dysphagia are important signs of risk of devoloping esophageal stenosis at first examination corrosive poisoning in children.

Keywords: Children, poisoning, caustic, corrosive

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1 Raising Antibodies against Epoxyscillirosidine, the Toxic Principle Contained in Moraea pallida Bak. in Rabbits

Authors: Hamza I. Isa, Gezina C. H. Ferreira, Jan E. Crafford, Christoffel J. Botha

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Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulip) poisoning is the most important plant-induced cardiac glycoside toxicosis in South Africa. Cardiac glycoside poisonings collectively account for about 33 and 10 % mortalities due to plants, in large and small stock respectively, in South Africa. The toxic principle is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine, a bufadienolide. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine. Epoxyscillirosidine and the related bufadienolides proscillaridin and bufalin, which are commercially available, were conjugated to the carrier proteins [Hen ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)], rendering them immunogenic. Adult male New Zealand White rabbits were immunized. In Trials 1 and 2, rabbits (n=6) were, each assigned to two groups. Experimental animals (n=3; n=4) were vaccinated with epoxyscillirosidine-OVA conjugate, while the control (n=3; n=2) were vaccinated with OVA, using Freund’s complete and incomplete and Montanide adjuvants, for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. In Trial 3, rabbits (n=15), randomly allocated to 5 equal groups (I, II, III, IV and V), were vaccinated with proscillaridin-BSA, bufalin-BSA, epoxyscillirosidine-KLH, epoxyscillirosidine-BSA conjugates, and BSA respectively, using Montanide as adjuvant. Vaccination was on Days 0, 21 and 42. Additional vaccinations were done on Day 56 and 63 for Trial 1. Vaccination was by intradermal injection of 0.4 ml of the immunogen (4 mg/ml [Trial 1] and 8 mg/ml for Trials 2 and Trial 3, respectively). Blood was collected pre-vaccination and at 3 week intervals following each vaccination. Antibody response was determined using an indirect ELISA. There was poor immune response associated with the dose (0.4 mg per rabbit) and adjuvant used in Trial 1. Antibodies were synthesized against the conjugate administered in Trial 2. For Trail 3, antibodies against the immunogens were successfully raised in rabbits with epoxyscillirosidine-KLH inducing the highest immune response. The antibodies raised against proscillaridin and bufalin cross-reacted with epoxyscillirosidine when used as antigen in the ELISA. The study successfully demonstrated the synthesis of antibodies against the bufadienolide conjugates administered. The cross-reactivity of proscillaridin and bufalin with epoxyscillirosidine could potentially be utilized as alternative to epoxyscillirosidine in future studies to prevent yellow tulp poisoning by vaccination.

Keywords: Antibodies, poisoning, bufadienolides, cross-reactivity, epoxyscillirosidine, Moraea pallida

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