Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

point of care testing Related Abstracts

2 Exploring the Issue of Occult Hypoperfusion in the Pre-Hospital Setting

Authors: A. Fordham, A. Hudson


Background: Studies have suggested 16-25% of normotensive trauma patients with no clinical signs of shock have abnormal lactate and BD readings evidencing shock; a phenomenon known as occult hypoperfusion (OH). In light of the scarce quantity of evidence currently documenting OH, this study aimed to identify the prevalence of OH in the pre-hospital setting and explore ways to improve its identification and management. Methods: A quantitative retrospective data analysis was carried out on 75 sets of patient records for trauma patients treated by Kent Surrey Sussex Air Ambulance Trust between November 2013 and October 2014. The KSS HEMS notes and subsequent ED notes were collected. Trends between patients’ SBP on the scene, whether or not they received PRBCs on the scene as well as lactate and BD readings in the ED were assessed. Patients’ KSS HEMS notes written by the HEMS crew were also reviewed and recorded. Results: -Suspected OH was identified in 7% of the patients who did not receive PRBCs in the pre-hospital phase. -SBP heavily influences the physicians’ decision of whether or not to transfuse PRBCs in the pre-hospital phase. Preliminary conclusions: OH is an under-studied and underestimated phenomenon. We suggest a prospective trial is carried out to evaluate whether detecting trauma patients’ tissue perfusion status in the pre-hospital phase using portable devices capable of measuring serum BD and/or lactate could aid more accurate detection and management of all haemorrhaging trauma patients, including patients with OH.

Keywords: Trauma, occult hypoperfusion, PRBC transfusion, point of care testing, pre-hospital emergency medicine

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1 Blood Ketones as a Point of Care Testing in Paediatric Emergencies

Authors: Geetha Jayapathy, Lakshmi Muthukrishnan, Manoj Kumar Reddy Pulim, Radhika Raman


Introduction: Ketones are the end products of fatty acid metabolism and a source of energy for vital organs such as the brain, heart and skeletal muscles. Ketones are produced in excess when glucose is not available as a source of energy or it cannot be utilized as in diabetic ketoacidosis. Children admitted in the emergency department often have starvation ketosis which is not clinically manifested. Decision on admission of children to the emergency room with subtle signs can be difficult at times. Point of care blood ketone testing can be done at the bedside even in a primary level care setting to supplement and guide us in our management decisions. Hence this study was done to explore the utility of this simple bedside parameter as a supplement in assessing pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department. Objectives: To estimate blood ketones of children admitted in the emergency department. To analyze the significance of blood ketones in various disease conditions. Methods: Blood ketones using point of care testing instrument (ABOTTprecision Xceed Pro meters) was done in patients getting admitted in emergency room and in out-patients (through sample collection centre). Study population: Children aged 1 month to 18 years were included in the study. 250 cases (In-patients) and 250 controls (out-patients) were collected. Study design: Prospective observational study. Data on details of illness and physiological status were documented. Blood ketones were compared between the two groups and all in patients were categorized into various system groups and analysed. Results: Mean blood ketones were high in in-patients ranging from 0 to 7.2, with a mean of 1.28 compared to out-patients ranging from 0 to 1.9 with a mean of 0.35. This difference was statistically significant with a p value < 0.001. In-patients with shock (mean of 4.15) and diarrheal dehydration (mean of 1.85) had a significantly higher blood ketone values compared to patients with other system involvement. Conclusion: Blood ketones were significantly high (above the normal range) in pediatric patients who are sick requiring admission. Patients with various forms of shock had very high blood ketone values as found in diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketone values in diarrheal dehydration were moderately high correlating to the degree of dehydration.

Keywords: point of care testing, admission, blood ketones, paediatric emergencies

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