Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

PMMA Related Abstracts

14 Energy Harvesting with Zinc Oxide Based Nanogenerator: Design and Simulation Using Comsol-4.3 Software

Authors: Akanksha Rohit, Ujjwala Godavarthi, Anshua Mukherjee


Nanotechnology is one of the promising sustainable solutions in the era of miniaturization due to its multidisciplinary nature. The most interesting aspect about nanotechnology is its wide ranging applications from electronics to military and biomedical. It tries to connect individuals more closely to the environment. In this paper, concept of parasitic energy harvesting is used in designing nanogenerators using COMSOL 4.3 software. The output of the nanogenerator is optimized using following constraints: ease of availability of the material, fabrication process and cost of the material. The nanogenerator is optimized using ZnO based nanowires, PMMA as insulator and aluminum and silicon as metal electrodes. The energy harvested from the model can be used to power nanobots, several other biomedical sensors and eventually to replace batteries. Thus, advancements in this field can be very challenging but it is the future of the nano era.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Engineering, zinc oxide, piezoelectric, PMMA, parasitic energy harvesting

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13 Enhanced Cell Adhesion on PMMA by Radio Frequency Oxygen Plasma Treatment

Authors: Fatemeh Rezaei, Babak Shokri


In this study, PMMA films are modified by oxygen plasma treatment for biomedical applications. The plasma generator is capacitively coupled radio frequency (13.56 MHz) power source. The oxygen pressure and gas flow rate are kept constant at 40 mTorr and 30 sccm, respectively and samples are treated for 2 minutes. Hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of PMMA films are studied before and after treatments in different applied powers (10-80 W). In order to monitor the plasma process, the optical emission spectroscopy is used. The wettability and cellular response of samples are investigated by water contact angle (WCA) analysis and MTT assay, respectively. Also, surface free energy (SFE) variations are studied based on the contact angle measurements of three liquids. It is found that RF oxygen plasma treatment enhances the biocompatibility and also hydrophilicity of PMMA films.

Keywords: MTT assay, PMMA, cellular response, hydrophilicity, RF plasma

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12 Use of Polymeric Materials in the Architectural Preservation

Authors: F. Z. Benabid, F. Zouai, A. Douibi, D. Benachour


These Fluorinated polymers and polyacrylics have known a wide use in the field of historical monuments. PVDF provides a great easiness to processing, a good UV resistance and good chemical inertia. Although the quality of physical characteristics of the PMMA and its low price with a respect to PVDF, its deterioration against UV radiations limits its use as protector agent for the stones. On the other hand, PVDF/PMMA blend is a compromise of a great development in the field of architectural restoration, since it is the best method in term of quality and price to make new polymeric materials having enhanced properties. Films of different compositions based on the two polymers within an adequate solvent (DMF) were obtained to perform an exposition to artificial ageing and to the salted fog, a spectroscopic analysis (FTIR and UV) and optical analysis (refractive index). Based on its great interest in the field of building, a variety of standard tests has been elaborated for the first time at the central laboratory of ENAP (Souk-Ahras) in order to evaluate our blend performance. The obtained results have allowed observing the behavior of the different compositions of the blend under various tests. The addition of PVDF to PMMA enhances the properties of this last to know the exhibition to the natural and artificial ageing and to the saline fog. On the other hand, PMMA enhances the optical properties of the blend. Finally, 70/30 composition of the blend is in concordance with results of previous works and it is the adequate proportion for an eventual application.

Keywords: Preservation, PMMA, blend, PVDF, historic monuments

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11 Mechanical and Long Term Ageing Properties of PMMA Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: M. Khlifa, A. Youssef. M. Almakki


The addition of silica nanoparticles to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) can influence its mechanical and aging properties. Dispersed PMMA in colloidal and aggregated silica revealed considerable increase in modulus above the glass transition temperature when aggregated silica nanoparticles were used, whereas colloidally dispersed silica nanoparticles showed only a marginal improvement. In addition, Dispersed PMMA in both aggregated and colloidally silica nanoparticles accelerated physical ageing.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Chemical and Molecular Engineering, PMMA, physical aging

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10 The Effect of Surface Modified Nano-Hydroxyapatite Incorporation into Polymethylmethacrylate Cement on Biocompatibility and Mechanical Properties

Authors: Yu-Shan Wu, Po-Liang Lai, I-Ming Chu


Poly(methylmethacrylate)(PMMA) is the most frequently used bone void filler for vertebral augmentation in osteoporotic fracture. PMMA bone cement not only exhibits strong mechanical properties but also can fabricate according to the shape of bone defect. However, the adhesion between the PMMA-based cement and the adjacent bone is usually weak and as PMMA bone cement is inherently bioinert. The combination of bioceramics and polymers as composites may increase cell adhesion and improve biocompatibility. The nano-hydroxyapatite(HAP) not only plays a significant role in maintaining the properties of the natural bone but also offers a favorable environment for osteoconduction, protein adhesion, and osteoblast proliferation. However, defects and cracks can form at the polymer/ceramics interface, resulting in uneven distribution of stress and subsequent inferior mechanical strength. Surface-modified HAP nano-crystals were prepared by chemically grafting poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL) on surface-modified nano-HAP surface to increase the affinity of polymer/ceramic phases .Thus, incorporation of surface-modified nano-hydroxyapatite (EC-HAP) may not only improve the interfacial adhesion between cement and bone and between nanoparticles and cement, but also increase biocompatibility. In this research, PMMA mixing with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 wt% EC-HAP were examined. MC3T3-E1 cells were used for the biological evaluation of the response to the cements in vitro. Morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of HAP/PMMA and EC-HAP/PMMA cement were investigated by compression test. Surface wettability of the cements was measured by contact angles.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Nano-Hydroxyapatite, polycaprolactone, PMMA, bone cement, surface grafting

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9 Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)/Graphene Microparticles Having a Core/Shell Structure Prepared with Carboxylated Graphene as a Pickering Stabilizer

Authors: Gansukh Erdenedelger, Doljinsuren Sukhbaatar, Trung Dung Dao, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Han Mo Jeong


Two kinds of carboxylated thermally reduced graphenes (C-TRGs) having different lateral sizes are examined as a Pickering stabilizer in the suspension polymerization of methyl methacrylate. The size and the shape of the prepared composite particles are irregular due to agglomeration, more evidently when the larger C-TRG is used. In addition, C-TRG is distributed not only on the surface but also inside the composite particles. It indicates that the C-TRG alone is not a stable Pickering agent. However, a very small dosage of acrylic acid remedies all these issues, because acrylic acid interacts with C-TRG and synergizes the stabilizing effect. The compression molded composite of the core/shell poly(methyl methacrylate)/C-TRG particles exhibits a very low percolation threshold of electrical conductivity of 0.03 vol%. It demonstrates that the C-TRG shells of the composite particles effectively form a segregated conductive network throughout the composite.

Keywords: Graphene, Polymerization, PMMA, pickering

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8 Assessment of Solid Insulating Material Using Partial Discharge Characteristics

Authors: Qasim Khan, Furkan Ahmad, Asfar A. Khan, M. Saad Alam, Faiz Ahmad


In this paper, partial discharge analysis is performed in cavities artificially created in insulation. The setup is according with Cigre-II Method. Circular Samples created from Perspex Sheet with different configuration with changing number of cavities. Assessment of insulation health can be performed by Partial Discharge measurement as this has been found to be important means of condition monitoring. The experiments are done using MPD 540, which is a modern partial discharge measurement system. By analyzing the PD activity obtained for various voids/cavities, it is observed that the PD voltages show variation for cavity’s diameter, depth even for its ratios. This can be employed for scrutiny of insulation system.

Keywords: Condition Monitoring, Partial discharges, PMMA, insulation defects, degradation and corrosion

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7 Study on Intensity Modulated Non-Contact Optical Fiber Vibration Sensors of Different Configurations

Authors: Dinkar Dantala, Kishore Putha, Padmavathi Manchineelu


Optical fibers are widely used in the measurement of several physical parameters like temperature, pressure, vibrations etc. Measurement of vibrations plays a vital role in machines. In this paper, three fiber optic non-contact vibration sensors were discussed, which are designed based on the principle of light intensity modulation. The Dual plastic optical fiber, Fiber optic fused 1x2 coupler and Fiber optic fused 2x2 coupler vibration sensors are compared based on range of frequency, resolution and sensitivity. It is to conclude that 2x2 coupler configuration shows better response than other two sensors.

Keywords: fiber optic, PMMA, vibration sensor, intensity-modulated

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6 Dimensional Accuracy of CNTs/PMMA Parts and Holes Produced by Laser Cutting

Authors: A. Karimzad Ghavidel, M. Zadshakouyan


Laser cutting is a very common production method for cutting 2D polymeric parts. Developing of polymer composites with nano-fibers makes important their other properties like laser workability. The aim of this research is investigation of the influence different laser cutting conditions on the dimensional accuracy of parts and holes from poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) material. Experiments were carried out by considering of CNTs (in four level 0,0.5, 1 and 1.5% wt.%), laser power (60, 80, and 100 watt) and cutting speed 20, 30, and 40 mm/s as input variable factors. The results reveal that CNTs adding improves the laser workability of PMMA and the increasing of power has a significant effect on the part and hole size. The findings also show cutting speed is effective parameter on the size accuracy. Eventually, the statistical analysis of results was done, and calculated mathematical equations by the regression are presented for determining relation between input and output factor.

Keywords: Laser Cutting, PMMA, dimensional accuracy, CNTs

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5 Synthesis of KCaVO4:Sm³⁺/PMMA Luminescent Nanocomposites and Their Optical Property Measurements

Authors: Sumara Khursheed, Jitendra Sharma


The present work reports synthesis of nanocomposites (NCs) of phosphor (KCaVO4:Sm3+) embedded poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) using solution casting method and their optical properties measurements for their possible application in making flexible luminescent films. X-ray diffraction analyses were employed to obtain the structural parameters as crystallinity, shape and size of the obtained NCs. The emission and excitation spectra were obtained using Photoluminescence spectroscopy to quantify the spectral properties of these fluorescent polymer/phosphor films. Optical energy gap has been estimated using UV-VIS spectroscopy while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was exploited to measure the thermal properties of the NC films in terms of their thermal stability, glass transition temperature and degree of crystallinity etc.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Luminescence, XRD, PMMA

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4 A Review on Development of Pedicle Screws and Characterization of Biomaterials for Fixation in Lumbar Spine

Authors: Shri Dubey, Jamal Ghorieshi


Instability of the lumbar spine is caused by various factors that include degenerative disc, herniated disc, traumatic injuries, and other disorders. Pedicle screws are widely used as a main fixation device to construct rigid linkages of vertebrae to provide a fully functional and stable spine. Various technologies and methods have been used to restore the stabilization. However, loosening of pedicle screws is the main cause of concerns for neurosurgeons. This could happen due to poor bone quality with osteoporosis as well as types of pedicle screw used. Compatibilities and stabilities of pedicle screws with bone depend on design (thread design, length, and diameter) and material. Grip length and pullout strength affect the motion and stability of the spine when it goes through different phases such as extension, flexion, and rotation. Pullout strength of augmented pedicle screws is increased in both primary and salvage procedures by 119% (p = 0.001) and 162% (p = 0.01), respectively. Self-centering pedicle screws at different trajectories (0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°) show the same pullout strength as insertion in a straight-ahead trajectory. The outer cylindrical and inner conical shape of pedicle screws show the highest pullout strength in Grades 5 and 15 foams (synthetic bone). An outer cylindrical and inner conical shape with a V-shape thread exhibit the highest pullout strength in all foam grades. The maximum observed pullout strength is at axial pullout configuration at 0°. For Grade 15 (240 kg/m³) foam, there is a decline in pull out strength. The largest decrease in pullout strength is reported for Grade 10 (160 kg/m³) foam. The maximum pullout strength of 2176 N (0.32-g/cm³ Sawbones) on all densities. Type 1 Pedicle screw shows the best fixation due to smaller conical core diameter and smaller thread pitch (Screw 2 with 2 mm; Screws 1 and 3 with 3 mm).

Keywords: cps, PMMA, PEEK, polymethylmethacrylate, classical pedicle screws, expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell, EPEEKS, includes translaminar facet screw, TLFS, poly-ether-ether-ketone, transfacetopedicular screw, TFPS

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3 Music Aptitude and School Readiness in Indonesian Children

Authors: Diella Gracia Martauli


This study investigated the relationship between music aptitude and school readiness in Indonesian children. Music aptitude is described as children’s music potential, whereas school readiness is defined as a condition in which a child is deemed ready to enter the formal education system. This study presents a hypothesis that music aptitude is correlated with school readiness. This is a correlational research study of 17 children aged 5-6 years old (M = 6.10, SD = 0.33) who were enrolled in a kindergarten school in Jakarta, Indonesia. Music aptitude scores were obtained from Primary Measures of Music Audiation, whereas School readiness scores were obtained from Bracken School Readiness Assessment Third Edition. The analysis of the data was performed using Pearson Correlation. The result found no correlation between music aptitude and school readiness (r = 0.196, p = 0.452). Discussions regarding the results, perspective from the measures and cultures are presented. Further study is recommended to establish links between music aptitude and school readiness.

Keywords: PMMA, school readiness, BSRA, music aptitude

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2 Rheological and Morphological Properties of Investment Casting Pattern Material Based on Paraffin Wax Fortified with Linear Low-Density Polyethylene and Filled with Poly Methyl Methacrylate

Authors: Robert Kimutai Tewo, Hilary Limo Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng


The rheological and morphological properties of paraffin wax, linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microbeads formulations were prepared via an extrusion process. The blends were characterized by rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the viscosity of the blends increased as compared to that of neat wax. SEM confirmed that LLDPE alters the wax crystal habit at higher concentrations. The rheological experimental data fitted with predicted data using the modified Krieger and Dougherty expression. The SEM micrograph of wax/LLDPE/PMMA revealed a near-perfect spherical nature for the filler particles in the wax/EVA polymer matrix. The FT-IR spectra show the deformation vibrations stretch of a long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbon (C-H) and also the presence of carbonyls absorption group denoted by -C=O- stretch.

Keywords: rheological properties, PMMA, LLDPE, investment casting pattern, paraffin wax, modified Krieger and Dougherty expression

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1 Aging Time Effect of 58s Microstructure

Authors: Nattawipa Pakasri


58S (60SiO2-36CaO-4P2O5), three-dimensionally ordered macroporous bioactive glasses (3DOM-BGs) were synthesized by the sol-gel method using dual templating methods. non-ionic surfactant Brij56 used as templates component produced mesoporous and the spherical PMMA colloidal crystals as one template component yielded either three-dimensionally ordered microporous products or shaped bioactive glass nanoparticles. The bioactive glass with aging step for 12 h at room temperature, no structure transformation occurred and the 3DOM structure was produced (Figure a) due to no shrinkage process between the aging step. After 48 h time of o 3DOM structure remained and, nanocube with ∼120 nm edge lengths and nanosphere particle with ∼50 nm was obtained (Figure c, d). PMMA packing templates have octahedral and tetrahedral holes to make 2 final shapes of 3DOM-BGs which is rounded and cubic, respectively. The ageing time change from 12h, 24h and 48h affected to the thickness of interconnecting macropores network. The wall thickness was gradually decrease after increase aging time.

Keywords: Sol-Gel Method, Bioactive Glass, PMMA, three-dimensionally ordered macroporous bioactive glasses

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