Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

PM10 Related Abstracts

14 Daily Variations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Industrial Sites in an Suburban Area of Sour El Ghozlane, Algeria

Authors: Sidali Khedidji, Noureddine Yassaa, Riad Ladji

Abstract:

In this study, n-alkanes which are hazardous for the environment and human health were investigated in Sour El Ghozlane suburban atmosphere at a sampling point from April 2013 to Mai 2013. Ambient concentration measurements of n-Alkanes were carried out at a regional study of the cement industry in Sour El Ghozlane. During sampling, the airborne particulate matter was enriched onto PTFE filters by using a two medium volume samplers with or without a size-selective inlet for PM10 and TSP were used and each sampling period lasted approximately 24 h. The organic compounds were characterized using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS). Total concentrations for n-Alkanes recorded in Sour El Ghozlane suburban ranged from 42 to 69 ng m-3. Gravimeter method was applied to the black smoke concentration data for Springer seasons. The 24 h average concentrations of n-alkanes contain the PM10 and TSP of Sour El Ghozlane suburban atmosphere were found in the range 0.50–7.06 ng/m3 and 0.29–6.97 ng/m3, respectively, in the sampling period. Meteorological factors, such as (relative humidity and temperature) were typically found to be affecting PMs, especially PM10. Air temperature did not seem to be significantly affecting TSP and PM10 mass concentrations. The guide value fixed by the European Community, 40 μg/m3 was not to exceed 35 days, was exceeded in some samples. However, it should be noted that the value limit fixed by the Algerian regulations 80 μg/m3 has been exceeded in 1 sampler during the period study.

Keywords: Particulate Matter, n-alkanes, PM10, TSP, cement industry

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13 Daily Variations of Particulate Matter (PM10) in Industrial Sites in an Suburban Area of Sour El Ghozlane, Algeria

Authors: Sidali Khedidji, Noureddine Yassaa, Riad Ladji

Abstract:

In this study, particulate matter (PM10) which are hazardous for environment and human health were investigated in Sour El Ghozlane suburban atmosphere at a sampling point from March 2013 to April 2013. Ambient concentration measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were carried out at a regional study of the cement industry in Sour El Ghozlane. During sampling, the airborne particulate matter was enriched onto PTFE filters by using a two medium volume samplers with or without a size-selective inlet for PM10 and TSP were used and each sampling period lasted approximately 24 h. The organic compounds were characterized using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MSD). Total concentrations for PAHs recorded in sour el ghozlane suburban ranged from 101 to 204 ng m-3. Gravimeter method was applied to the black smoke concentration data for Springer seasons. The 24 h average concentrations of PM10 and TSP of Sour El Ghozlane suburban atmosphere were found in the range 4.76–165.76 μg/m3 and 28.63–800.14 μg/m3, respectively, in the sampling period. Meteorological factors, such as (relative humidity and temperature) were typically found to be affecting PMs, especially PM10. Air temperature did not seem to be significantly affecting TSP and PM10 mass concentrations.The guide value fixed by the European Community «40 μg/m3» not to exceed 35 days, were exceeded in some samples. However, it should be noted that the value limit fixed by the Algerian regulations «80 μg/m3» has been exceeded in 3 samplers during the period study.

Keywords: Particulate Matter, PAHs, PM10, TSP, cement industry

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12 Pattern and Trend of Open Burning Occurrence in Greater Mekong Sub-Region Countries: Case Study Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar

Authors: Nion Sirimongkonlertkun, Vivard Phonekeo

Abstract:

This research focused on open burning occurrence in Greater Mekong Sub-Region countries that influences the increase of PM10concentrations. Thailand, Myanmar, and Laos were chosen as a case study, and 2009, 2010, and 2012 were chosen as the year for case study. Hotspot detected by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Specto radiometer) sensor on board of Terra/Aqua satellites and provided by Rapid Response System was used to represent open burning location in the region. Hotspot was selected through fire confidence with confidence levels of 80-100%. The spatial analysis by GIS was used as the main tool for analyzing and defining the location of open burning at study sites as hotspot with the pixel size of 1 km by 1 km. The total hotspot counts in the study period of four years (2007, 2009, 2010, and January-April 2012) at the regional level, including Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar were 255,177 hotspots or a very high yearly average of 63,795 hotspots. The highest amount was seen in Myanmar (50%), followed by Laos (36%), and Thailand (14%). For Thailand, the majority of burning or 64% occurred in the northern region with the density of 5 hotspots per 100 km2. According to statistics of the 4 years, the increasing rate of hotspot from January to February was 10 times and from February to March was 4 times. After that period, the hotspot started to decline by 2 times from March to April. Therefore, in order to develop a policy which aims to lessen open burning conduction, the government should seriously focus on this problem during the peak period—February to March in every year when hotspot and open burning area is significantly increased.

Keywords: open burning, PM10, hotspot, greater mekong sub-region

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11 Characterization of Emissions from the open burning of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) under Tropical Environment

Authors: Anju Elizbath Peter, S. M. Shiva Nagendra, Indumathi M.Nambi

Abstract:

The deliberate fires initiated by dump managers and human scavengers to reduce the volume of waste and recovery of valuable metals/materials are common at municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal sites in developed country. A large amount of toxic gases released due to this act is responsible for the deterioration of regional and local air quality, which causes visibility impairment and acute respiratory diseases. The present study was aimed at the characterization of MSW and emission characteristics of burning of MSW in the laboratory. MSW samples were collected directly from the one of the open dumpsite located in Chennai city. Solid waste sampling and laboratory analysis were carried out according to American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Results indicated the values of moisture content, volatile solids (VS) and calorific values of solid waste samples were 16.67%,8%,9.17MJ/kg, respectively. The elemental composition showed that the municipal solid waste contains 25.84% of carbon, 3.69% of hydrogen, 1.57% of nitrogen and 0.26% of sulphur. The calorific value of MSW was found to be 9.17 MJ/Kg which is sufficient to facilitate self-combustion of waste. The characterization of emissions from the burning of 1 kg of MSW in the test chamber showed a total of 90 mg/kg of PM10 and 243 mg/kg of PM2.5. The current research study results will be useful for municipal authorities to formulate guideline and policy structure regarding the MSW management to reduce the impact of air emissions at an open dump site.

Keywords: Characterization, open burning, PM2.5, PM10, MSW

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10 Microbiological Analysis, Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects from Material Captured in PM2.5 and PM10 Filters Used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia)

Authors: Carmen E. Zapata, Natalia A. Cano, Juan Bautista, Olga Montoya, Claudia Moreno, Marisol Suarez, Alejandra Betancur, Duvan Nanclares

Abstract:

This study aims to evaluate the diversity of microorganisms in filters PM2.5 and PM10; and determine the genotoxic and cytotoxic activity of the complex mixture present in PM2.5 filters used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia). The research results indicate that particulate matter PM2.5 of different monitoring stations are bacteria; however, this study of detection of bacteria and their phylogenetic relationship is not complete evidence to connect the microorganisms with pathogenic or degrading activities of compounds present in the air. Additionally, it was demonstrated the damage induced by the particulate material in the cell membrane, lysosomal and endosomal membrane and in the mitochondrial metabolism; this damage was independent of the PM2.5 concentrations in almost all the cases.

Keywords: genotoxic, cytotoxic, PM2.5, PM10, microbiological analysis

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9 Study and Simulation of a Sever Dust Storm over West and South West of Iran

Authors: Saeed Farhadypour, Majid Azadi, Habibolla Sayyari, Mahmood Mosavi, Shahram Irani, Aliakbar Bidokhti, Omid Alizadeh Choobari, Ziba Hamidi

Abstract:

In the recent decades, frequencies of dust events have increased significantly in west and south west of Iran. First, a survey on the dust events during the period (1990-2013) is investigated using historical dust data collected at 6 weather stations scattered over west and south-west of Iran. After statistical analysis of the observational data, one of the most severe dust storm event that occurred in the region from 3rd to 6th July 2009, is selected and analyzed. WRF-Chem model is used to simulate the amount of PM10 and how to transport it to the areas. The initial and lateral boundary conditions for model obtained from GFS data with 0.5°×0.5° spatial resolution. In the simulation, two aerosol schemas (GOCART and MADE/SORGAM) with 3 options (chem_opt=106,300 and 303) were evaluated. Results of the statistical analysis of the historical data showed that south west of Iran has high frequency of dust events, so that Bushehr station has the highest frequency between stations and Urmia station has the lowest frequency. Also in the period of 1990 to 2013, the years 2009 and 1998 with the amounts of 3221 and 100 respectively had the highest and lowest dust events and according to the monthly variation, June and July had the highest frequency of dust events and December had the lowest frequency. Besides, model results showed that the MADE / SORGAM scheme has predicted values and trends of PM10 better than the other schemes and has showed the better performance in comparison with the observations. Finally, distribution of PM10 and the wind surface maps obtained from numerical modeling showed that the formation of dust plums formed in Iraq and Syria and also transportation of them to the West and Southwest of Iran. In addition, comparing the MODIS satellite image acquired on 4th July 2009 with model output at the same time showed the good ability of WRF-Chem in simulating spatial distribution of dust.

Keywords: WRF-Chem, dust storm, PM10, MADE/SORGAM scheme

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8 Accumulation of PM10 and Associated Metals Due to Opencast Coal Mining Activities and Their Impact on Human Health

Authors: Arundhuti Devi, Gitumani Devi, Krishna G. Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

The goal of this study was to assess the characteristics of the airborne dust created by opencast coal mining and its relation to population hospitalization risk for skin and lung diseases in Margherita Coalfield, Assam, India. Air samples were collected for 24 h in three 8-h periods. For the collection of particulate matter (PM10) and total suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples, respiratory dust samplers with glass microfiber filter papers were used. PM10 was analyzed for Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Zn, Ni, Fe and Pb with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). SPM and PM10 concentrations were respectively found to be as high as 1,035 and 265.85 μg/m³ in work zone air. The concentration of metals associated with PM10 showed values higher than the permissible limits. It was observed that the average concentrations of the metals Fe, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Cu were very high during the winter month of December, those of Cd and Cr were high during the month of May and Mn was high during February. The morphology of the particles studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave significant results. Due to opencast coal mining, the air in the work zone, as well as the general ambient air, was found to be highly polluted with respect to dust. More than 8000 patient records maintained by the hospital authority were collected from three hospitals in the area. The highest percentage of people suffering from lung diseases are found in Margherita Civil Hospital (~26.77%) whereas most people suffering from skin diseases reported for treatment in the ESIC hospital (47.47%). Both PM10 and SPM were alarmingly high, and the results were in conformity with the high incidence of lung and other respiratory diseases in the study area.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Respiratory Diseases, PM10, open cast coal mining

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7 Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Air Particulate Matter

Authors: Zs. Csanádi, A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, J. Erdős

Abstract:

An assessment of the air quality of Győr (Hungary) was performed by determining the ambient concentrations of PM10-bound carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (cPAHs) in different seasons. A high volume sampler was used for the collection of ambient aerosol particles, and the associated cPAH compounds (benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[a]anthracene, benzofluoranthene isomers, indeno[123-cd]pyrene and dibenzo[ah]anthracene) were analyzed by a gas chromatographic method. Higher mean concentrations of total cPAHs were detected in samples collected in winter (9.62 ng/m3) and autumn (2.69 ng/m3) compared to spring (1.05 ng/m3) and summer (0.21 ng/m3). The calculated BaP toxic equivalent concentrations have also reflected that the local population appears to be exposed to significantly higher cancer risk in the heating seasons. Moreover, the concentration levels of cPAHs determined in this study were compared to other Hungarian urban sites.

Keywords: Air, PM10, carcinogenic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)

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6 Estimating Air Particulate Matter 10 Using Satellite Data and Analyzing Its Annual Temporal Pattern over Gaza Strip, Palestine

Authors: ِAbdallah A. A. Shaheen

Abstract:

Gaza Strip faces economic and political issues such as conflict, siege and urbanization; all these have led to an increase in the air pollution over Gaza Strip. In this study, Particulate matter 10 (PM10) concentration over Gaza Strip has been estimated by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data, based on a multispectral algorithm. Simultaneously, in-situ measurements for the corresponding particulate are acquired for selected time period. Landsat and ground data for eleven years are used to develop the algorithm while four years data (2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014) have been used to validate the results of algorithm. The developed algorithm gives highest regression, R coefficient value i.e. 0.86; RMSE value as 9.71 µg/m³; P values as 0. Average validation of algorithm show that calculated PM10 strongly correlates with measured PM10, indicating high efficiency of algorithm for the mapping of PM10 concentration during the years 2000 to 2014. Overall results show increase in minimum, maximum and average yearly PM10 concentrations, also presents similar trend over urban area. The rate of urbanization has been evaluated by supervised classification of the Landsat image. Urban sprawl from year 2000 to 2014 results in a high concentration of PM10 in the study area.

Keywords: Urbanization, landsat, PM10, atmospheric reflectance, Gaza strip

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5 Association between Noise Levels, Particulate Matter Concentrations and Traffic Intensities in a Near-Highway Urban Area

Authors: Mohammad Javad Afroughi, Vahid Hosseini, Jason S. Olfert

Abstract:

Both traffic-generated particles and noise have been associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, especially in near-highway environments. Although noise and particulate matters (PM) have different mechanisms of dispersion, sharing the same emission source in urban areas (road traffics) can result in a similar degree of variability in their levels. This study investigated the temporal variation of and correlation between noise levels, PM concentrations and traffic intensities near a major highway in Tehran, Iran. Tehran particulate concentration is highly influenced by road traffic. Additionally, Tehran ultrafine particles (UFP, PM<0.1 µm) are mostly emitted from combustion processes of motor vehicles. This gives a high possibility of a strong association between traffic-related noise and UFP in near-highway environments of this megacity. Hourly average of equivalent continuous sound pressure level (Leq), total number concentration of UFPs, mass concentration of PM2.5 and PM10, as well as traffic count and speed were simultaneously measured over a period of three days in winter. Additionally, meteorological data including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction were collected in a weather station, located 3 km from the monitoring site. Noise levels showed relatively low temporal variability in near-highway environments compared to PM concentrations. Hourly average of Leq ranged from 63.8 to 69.9 dB(A) (mean ~ 68 dB(A)), while hourly concentration of particles varied from 30,800 to 108,800 cm-3 for UFP (mean ~ 64,500 cm-3), 41 to 75 µg m-3 for PM2.5 (mean ~ 53 µg m-3), and 62 to 112 µg m-3 for PM10 (mean ~ 88 µg m-3). The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed strong relationship between noise and UFP (r ~ 0.61) overall. Under downwind conditions, UFP number concentration showed the strongest association with noise level (r ~ 0.63). The coefficient decreased to a lesser degree under upwind conditions (r ~ 0.24) due to the significant role of wind and humidity in UFP dynamics. Furthermore, PM2.5 and PM10 correlated moderately with noise (r ~ 0.52 and 0.44 respectively). In general, traffic counts were more strongly associated with noise and PM compared to traffic speeds. It was concluded that noise level combined with meteorological data can be used as a proxy to estimate PM concentrations (specifically UFP number concentration) in near-highway environments of Tehran. However, it is important to measure joint variability of noise and particles to study their health effects in epidemiological studies.

Keywords: Noise, Particulate Matter, PM2.5, PM10, ultrafine particle

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4 Vehicular Emission Estimation of Islamabad by Using Copert-5 Model

Authors: Muhammad Jahanzaib, Muhammad Z. A. Khan, Junaid Khayyam

Abstract:

Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan with the population of 1.365 million people and with a vehicular fleet size of 0.75 million. The vehicular fleet size is growing annually by the rate of 11%. Vehicular emissions are major source of Black carbon (BC). In developing countries like Pakistan, most of the vehicles consume conventional fuels like Petrol, Diesel, and CNG. These fuels are the major emitters of pollutants like CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, VOCs, and particulate matter (PM10). Carbon dioxide and methane are the leading contributor to the global warming with a global share of 9-26% and 4-9% respectively. NOx is the precursor of nitrates which ultimately form aerosols that are noxious to human health. In this study, COPERT (Computer program to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport) was used for vehicular emission estimation in Islamabad. COPERT is a windows based program which is developed for the calculation of emissions from the road transport sector. The emissions were calculated for the year of 2016 include pollutants like CO, NOx, VOC, and PM and energy consumption. The different variable was input to the model for emission estimation including meteorological parameters, average vehicular trip length and respective time duration, fleet configuration, activity data, degradation factor, and fuel effect. The estimated emissions for CO, CH4, CO2, NOx, and PM10 were found to be 9814.2, 44.9, 279196.7, 3744.2 and 304.5 tons respectively.

Keywords: PM10, COPERT Model, emission estimation, vehicular emission

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3 PM₁₀ and PM2.5 Concentrations in Bangkok over Last 10 Years: Implications for Air Quality and Health

Authors: Tin Thongthammachart, Wanida Jinsart

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Atmospheric particulate matter particles with a diameter less than 10 microns (PM₁₀) and less than 2.5 microns (PM₂.₅) have adverse health effect. The impact from PM was studied from both health and regulatory perspective. Ambient PM data was collected over ten years in Bangkok and vicinity areas of Thailand from 2007 to 2017. Statistical models were used to forecast PM concentrations from 2018 to 2020. Monitoring monthly data averaged concentration of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were used as input to forecast the monthly average concentration of PM. The forecasting results were validated by root means square error (RMSE). The predicted results were used to determine hazard risk for the carcinogenic disease. The health risk values were interpolated with GIS with ordinary kriging technique to create hazard maps in Bangkok and vicinity area. GIS-based maps illustrated the variability of PM distribution and high-risk locations. These evaluated results could support national policy for the sake of human health.

Keywords: statistical models, PM2.5, PM10, atmospheric particulate matter

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2 Study of the Behavior of PM₁₀ and SO₂ in the Urban Atmosphere of Sfax: Influence of Anthropised Contributions and Special Meteorological Conditions, 2008

Authors: Allagui Mohamed

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The study of the temporal variation of the PM10 and the SO₂ in the area of Sfax during the year of 2008, showed very significant fluctuations of the contents. They depend on the transmitting sources and the weather conditions. The study of the evolutionary behavior of the PM10 and the SO₂ in a situation of the Sirocco revealed the determining influence of the Sahara which was confirmed by its strong enrichment of the atmosphere with particulate matter. The analysis of a situation of breeze of sea highlighted the increase in the contents of the PM10 of agreement with the increase the speed of the marine wind, in particular for the diurnal period, possibly testifying to the enrichment of the aerosol in a considerable maritime component. A situation of anticyclonic winter examined when with it the accumulation of the contents of the PM10 at a rate of 70 μg/m³ showed such concentrations remained weak by comparison with other studies which show contents of about 300 μg/m³.

Keywords: SO2, PM10, sea breeze, sirocco, anticyclone

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1 Human Health Risks Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution in Romania

Authors: Katalin Bodor, Zsolt Bodor, Robert Szep

Abstract:

The particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 μm are less studied due to the limited availability of PM₂.₅, and less information is available on the health effects attributable to PM₁₀ in Central-Eastern Europe. The objective of the current study was to assess the human health risk and characterize the spatial and temporal variation of PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ in eight Romanian regions between the 2009-2018 and. The PM concentrations showed high variability over time and spatial distribution. The highest concentration was detected in the Bucharest region in the winter period, and the lowest was detected in West. The relative risk caused by the PM₁₀ for all-cause mortality varied between 1.017 (B) and 1.025 (W), with an average 1.020. The results demonstrate a positive relative risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer disease due to exposure to PM₂.₅ on the national average 1.26 ( ± 0.023) and 1.42 ( ± 0.037), respectively.

Keywords: Health Effect, PM2.5, PM10, Relative risk

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