Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

plasma Related Abstracts

32 Technology of Thermal Spray Coating Machining

Authors: Jana Petrů, Tomáš Zlámal, Robert Čep, Lenka Čepová

Abstract:

This article is focused on the thermal spray coating machining issue. Those are irreplaceable in many areas of nowadays industrial branches such as aerospace industry, mostly thanks to their excellent qualities in production and also in renovation of machinery parts. The principals of thermal spraying and elementary diversification are described in introduction. Plasma coating method of composite materials -cermets- is described more thoroughly. The second part describes thermal spray coating machining and grinding in detail. This part contains suggestion of appropriate grinding tool and assessment of cutting conditions used for grinding a given part. Conclusion describes a problem which occurred while grinding a cermet thermal spray coating with a specially designed grindstone and a way to solve this problem.

Keywords: Aerospace, plasma, Coating, Grinding

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31 Efficient Compact Micro Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Reactor for Ozone Generation for Industrial Application in Liquid and Gas Phase Systems

Authors: D. Kuvshinov, A. Siswanto, J. Lozano-Parada, W. Zimmerman

Abstract:

Ozone is well known as a powerful fast reaction rate oxidant. The ozone based processes produce no by-product left as a non-reacted ozone returns back to the original oxygen molecule. Therefore an application of ozone is widely accepted as one of the main directions for a sustainable and clean technologies development. There are number of technologies require ozone to be delivered to specific points of a production network or reactors construction. Due to space constrains, high reactivity and short life time of ozone the use of ozone generators even of a bench top scale is practically limited. This requires development of mini/micro scale ozone generator which can be directly incorporated into production units. Our report presents a feasibility study of a new micro scale rector for ozone generation (MROG). Data on MROG calibration and indigo decomposition at different operation conditions are presented. At selected operation conditions with residence time of 0.25 s the process of ozone generation is not limited by reaction rate and the amount of ozone produced is a function of power applied. It was shown that the MROG is capable to produce ozone at voltage level starting from 3.5kV with ozone concentration of 5.28E-6 (mol/L) at 5kV. This is in line with data presented on numerical investigation for a MROG. It was shown that in compare to a conventional ozone generator, MROG has lower power consumption at low voltages and atmospheric pressure. The MROG construction makes it applicable for emerged and dry systems. With a robust compact design MROG can be used as incorporated unit for production lines of high complexity.

Keywords: plasma, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), micro reactor, ozone

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30 Dry Modifications of PCL/Chitosan/PCL Tissue Scaffolds

Authors: Ozan Ozkan, Hilal Turkoglu Sasmazel

Abstract:

Natural polymers are widely used in tissue engineering applications, because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability and solubility in the physiological medium. On the other hand, synthetic polymers are also widely utilized in tissue engineering applications, because they carry no risk of infectious diseases and do not cause immune system reaction. However, the disadvantages of both polymer types block their individual usages as tissue scaffolds efficiently. Therefore, the idea of usage of natural and synthetic polymers together as a single 3D hybrid scaffold which has the advantages of both and the disadvantages of none has been entered to the literature. On the other hand, even though these hybrid structures support the cell adhesion and/or proliferation, various surface modification techniques applied to the surfaces of them to create topographical changes on the surfaces and to obtain reactive functional groups required for the immobilization of biomolecules, especially on the surfaces of synthetic polymers in order to improve cell adhesion and proliferation. In a study presented here, to improve the surface functionality and topography of the layer by layer electrospun 3D poly-epsilon-caprolactone/chitosan/poly-epsilon-caprolactone hybrid tissue scaffolds by using atmospheric pressure plasma method, thus to improve cell adhesion and proliferation of these tissue scaffolds were aimed. The formation/creation of the functional hydroxyl and amine groups and topographical changes on the surfaces of scaffolds were realized by using two different atmospheric pressure plasma systems (nozzle type and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) type) carried out under different gas medium (air, Ar+O2, Ar+N2). The plasma modification time and distance for the nozzle type plasma system as well as the plasma modification time and the gas flow rate for DBD type plasma system were optimized with monitoring the changes in surface hydrophilicity by using contact angle measurements. The topographical and chemical characterizations of these modified biomaterials’ surfaces were carried out with SEM and ESCA, respectively. The results showed that the atmospheric pressure plasma modifications carried out with both nozzle type plasma and DBD plasma caused topographical and functionality changes on the surfaces of the layer by layer electrospun tissue scaffolds. However, the shelf life studies indicated that the hydrophilicity introduced to the surfaces was mainly because of the functionality changes. Therefore, according to the optimized results, samples treated with nozzle type air plasma modification applied for 9 minutes from a distance of 17 cm and Ar+O2 DBD plasma modification applied for 1 minute under 70 cm3/min O2 flow rate were found to have the highest hydrophilicity compared to pristine samples.

Keywords: plasma, Hybrid, Biomaterial, chitosan

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29 Micro-Arc Oxidation Titanium and Post Treatment by Cold Plasma and Graft Polymerization of Acrylic Acid for Biomedical Application

Authors: Shu-Chuan Liao, Chia-Ti Chang, Ko-Shao Chen

Abstract:

Titanium and its alloy are widely used in many fields such as dentistry or orthopaedics. Due to their high strength low elastic modulus that chemical inertness and bio inert. The micro-arc oxidation used to formation a micro porous ceramic oxide layer film on Titanium surface and also to improve the resistance corrosion. For improving the biocompatibility, micro-arc oxidation surfaces bio-inert need to introduce reactive group. We introduced boundary layer by used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and organic active layer by UV light graft reactive monomer acrylic acid (AAc) therefore we can immobilize Chondroitin sulphate on surface easily by crosslinking EDC/NHS. The surface properties and composition of the modified layer were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and water contact angle. Water contact angle of the plasma-treated Ti surface decreases from 60° to 38°, which is an indication of hydrophilicity. The results of electrochemical polarization analysis showed that the sample plasma treated at micro-arc oxidation after plasma treatment has the best corrosion resistance. The result showed that we can immobilize chondroitin sulfate successful by a series of modification and MTT assay indicated the biocompatibility has been improved in this study.

Keywords: plasma, Biomedical Application, MAO, graft polymerization

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28 Growth of Droplet in Radiation-Induced Plasma of Own Vapour

Authors: P. Selyshchev

Abstract:

The theoretical approach is developed to describe the change of drops in the atmosphere of own steam and buffer gas under irradiation. It is shown that the irradiation influences on size of stable droplet and on the conditions under which the droplet exists. Under irradiation the change of drop becomes more complex: the not monotone and periodical change of size of drop becomes possible. All possible solutions are represented by means of phase portrait. It is found all qualitatively different phase portraits as function of critical parameters: rate generation of clusters and substance density.

Keywords: Evolution, plasma, steam, irradiation, cluster formation, liquid droplets

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27 Nitriding of Super-Ferritic Stainless Steel by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation in Radio Frequency and Microwave Plasma System

Authors: H. Bhuyan, S. Mändl, M. Favre, M. Cisternas, A. Henriquez, E. Wyndham, M. Walczak, D. Manova

Abstract:

The 470 Li-24 Cr and 460Li-21 Cr are two alloys belonging to the next generation of super-ferritic nickel free stainless steel grades, containing titanium (Ti), niobium (Nb) and small percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). The addition of Ti and Nb improves in general the corrosion resistance while the low interstitial content of C and N assures finer precipitates and greater ductility compared to conventional ferritic grades. These grades are considered an economic alternative to AISI 316L and 304 due to comparable or superior corrosion. However, since 316L and 304 can be nitrided to improve the mechanical surface properties like hardness and wear; it is hypothesize that the tribological properties of these super-ferritic stainless steels grades can also be improved by plasma nitriding. Thus two sets of plasma immersion ion implantation experiments have been carried out, one with a high pressure capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma at PUC Chile and the other using a low pressure microwave plasma at IOM Leipzig, in order to explore further improvements in the mechanical properties of 470 Li-24 Cr and 460Li-21 Cr steel. Nitrided and unnitrided substrates have been subsequently investigated using different surface characterization techniques including secondary ion mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, Vickers hardness, wear resistance, as well as corrosion test. In most of the characterizations no major differences have been observed for nitrided 470 Li-24 Cr and 460Li-21 Cr. Due to the ion bombardment, an increase in the surface roughness is observed for higher treatment temperature, independent of the steel types. The formation of chromium nitride compound takes place only at a treatment temperature around 4000C-4500C, or above. However, corrosion properties deteriorate after treatment at higher temperatures. The physical characterization results show up to 25 at.% of nitrogen for a diffusion zone of 4-6 m, and a 4-5 times increase in hardness for different experimental conditions. The samples implanted with temperature higher than 400 °C presented a wear resistance around two orders of magnitude higher than the untreated substrates. The hardness is apparently affected by the different roughness of the samples and their different profile of nitrogen.

Keywords: plasma, Ion implantation, stainless steel, RF and microwave plasma

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26 Electrotechnology for Silicon Refining: Plasma Generator and Arc Furnace Installations and Theoretical Base

Authors: Ashot Navasardian, Mariam Vardanian, Vladik Vardanian

Abstract:

The photovoltaic and the semiconductor industries are in growth and it is necessary to supply a large amount of silicon to maintain this growth. Since silicon is still the best material for the manufacturing of solar cells and semiconductor components so the pure silicon like solar grade and semiconductor grade materials are demanded. There are two main routes for silicon production: metallurgical and chemical. In this article, we reviewed the electrotecnological installations and systems for semiconductor manufacturing. The main task is to design the installation which can produce SOG Silicon from river sand by one work unit.

Keywords: plasma, refining, metallurgical grade silicon, solar grade silicon, impurity

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25 Wettability of Superhydrophobic Polymer Layers Filled with Hydrophobized Silica on Glass

Authors: Diana Rymuszka, Konrad Terpiłowski, Lucyna Hołysz, Elena Goncharuk, Iryna Sulym

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Superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit extremely high water repellency. The commonly accepted basic criterion for such surfaces is a water contact angle larger than 150°, low contact angle hysteresis and low sliding angle. These surfaces are of special interest, because properties such as anti-sticking, anti-contamination and self-cleaning are expected. These properties are attractive for many applications such as anti-sticking of snow for antennas and windows, anti-biofouling paints for boats, waterproof clothing, self-cleaning windshields for automobiles, dust-free coatings or metal refining. The various methods for the preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces since last two decades have been reported, such as phase separation, electrochemical deposition, template method, plasma method, chemical vapor deposition, wet chemical reaction, sol-gel processing, lithography and so on. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of modified colloidal silica, used as a filler, on the hydrophobicity of the polymer film deposited on the glass support activated with plasma. On prepared surfaces water advancing (ӨA) and receding (ӨR) contact angles were measured and then their total apparent surface free energy was determined using the contact angle hysteresis approach (CAH). The structures of deposited films were observed with the help of an optical microscope. Topographies of selected films were also determined using an optical profilometer. It was found that plasma treatment influence glass surface wetting and energetic properties that is observed in higher adhesion between polymer/filler film and glass support. Using the colloidal silica particles as a filler for the polymer thin film deposited on the glass support, it is possible to produce strongly adhering layers of superhydrophobic properties. The best superhydrophobic properties were obtained for surfaces of the film glass/polimer + modified silica covered in 89 and 100%. The advancing contact angle measured on these surfaces amounts above 150° that leads to under 2 mJ/m2 value of the apparent surface free energy. Such films may have many practical applications, among others, as dust-free coatings or anticorrosion protection.

Keywords: plasma, Contact angle, superhydrophobic, surface free energy

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24 Plasma Chemical Gasification of Solid Fuel with Mineral Mass Processing

Authors: V. E. Messerle, O. A. Lavrichshev, A. B. Ustimenko

Abstract:

Currently and in the foreseeable future (up to 2100), the global economy is oriented to the use of organic fuel, mostly, solid fuels, the share of which constitutes 40% in the generation of electric power. Therefore, the development of technologies for their effective and environmentally friendly application represents a priority problem nowadays. This work presents the results of thermodynamic and experimental investigations of plasma technology for processing of low-grade coals. The use of this technology for producing target products (synthesis gas, hydrogen, technical carbon, and valuable components of mineral mass of coals) meets the modern environmental and economic requirements applied to basic industrial sectors. The plasma technology of coal processing for the production of synthesis gas from the coal organic mass (COM) and valuable components from coal mineral mass (CMM) is highly promising. Its essence is heating the coal dust by reducing electric arc plasma to the complete gasification temperature, when the COM converts into synthesis gas, free from particles of ash, nitrogen oxides and sulfur. At the same time, oxides of the CMM are reduced by the carbon residue, producing valuable components, such as technical silicon, ferrosilicon, aluminum and carbon silicon, as well as microelements of rare metals, such as uranium, molybdenum, vanadium, titanium. Thermodynamic analysis of the process was made using a versatile computation program TERRA. Calculations were carried out in the temperature range 300 - 4000 K and a pressure of 0.1 MPa. Bituminous coal with the ash content of 40% and the heating value 16,632 kJ/kg was taken for the investigation. The gaseous phase of coal processing products includes, basically, a synthesis gas with a concentration of up to 99 vol.% at 1500 K. CMM components completely converts from the condensed phase into the gaseous phase at a temperature above 2600 K. At temperatures above 3000 K, the gaseous phase includes, basically, Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Na, and compounds of SiO, SiH, AlH, and SiS. The latter compounds dissociate into relevant elements with increasing temperature. Complex coal conversion for the production of synthesis gas from COM and valuable components from CMM was investigated using a versatile experimental plant the main element of which was plug and flow plasma reactor. The material and thermal balances helped to find the integral indicators for the process. Plasma-steam gasification of the low-grade coal with CMM processing gave the synthesis gas yield 95.2%, the carbon gasification 92.3%, and coal desulfurization 95.2%. The reduced material of the CMM was found in the slag in the form of ferrosilicon as well as silicon and iron carbides. The maximum reduction of the CMM oxides was observed in the slag from the walls of the plasma reactor in the areas with maximum temperatures, reaching 47%. The thusly produced synthesis gas can be used for synthesis of methanol, or as a high-calorific reducing gas instead of blast-furnace coke as well as power gas for thermal power plants. Reduced material of CMM can be used in metallurgy.

Keywords: plasma, Processing, gasification, mineral mass, organic mass, solid fuel, synthesis gas, valuable components

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23 Plasma Pretreatment for Improving the Durability of Antibacterial Activity of Cotton Using ZnO Nanoparticles

Authors: Sheila Shahidi, Hootan Rezaee, Abosaeed Rashidi, Mahmood Ghoranneviss

Abstract:

Plasma treatment has an explosive increase in interest and use in industrial applications as for example in medical, biomedical, automobile, electronics, semiconductor and textile industry. A lot of intensive basic research has been performed in the last decade in the field of textiles along with technical textiles. Textile manufacturers and end-users alike have been searching for ways to improve the surface properties of natural and man-made fibers. Specifically, there is a need to improve adhesion and wettability. Functional groups may be introduced onto the fiber surface by using gas plasma treatments, improving fiber surface properties without affecting the fiber’s bulk properties. In this research work, ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were insitue synthesized by sonochemical method at room temperature on both untreated and plasma pretreated cotton woven fabric. Oxygen and nitrogen plasmas were used for pre-functionalization of cotton fabric. And the effect of oxygen and nitrogen pre-functionalization on adhesion properties between ZnO nanoparticles and cotton surface were studied. The results show that nanoparticles with average sizes of 20-100 nm with different morphologies have been created on the surface of samples. Synthesis of ZnO-NPs was varied in the morphological transformation by changes in zinc acetate dehydrate concentration. Characterizations were carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) and Spectrophotometery. The antibacterial activities of the fabrics were assessed semi-quantitatively by the colonies count method. The results show that the finished fabric demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus in antibacterial test. The wash fastness of both untreated and plasma pretreated samples after 30 times of washing was investigated. The results showed that the parameters of plasma reactor plays very important role for improving the antibacterial durability.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, plasma, Cotton, Fabric, antibacterial activity

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22 Effect of Plasma Treatment on UV Protection Properties of Fabrics

Authors: Sheila Shahidi

Abstract:

UV protection by fabrics has recently become a focus of great interest, particularly in connection with environmental degradation or ozone layer depletion. Fabrics provide simple and convenient protection against UV radiation (UVR), but not all fabrics offer sufficient UV protection. To describe the degree of UVR protection offered by clothing materials, the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) is commonly used. UV-protective fabric can be generated by application of a chemical finish using normal wet-processing methodologies. However, traditional wet-processing techniques are known to consume large quantities of water and energy and may lead to adverse alterations of the bulk properties of the substrate. Recently, usage of plasmas to generate physicochemical surface modifications of textile substrates has become an intriguing approach to replace or enhance conventional wet-processing techniques. In this research work the effect of plasma treatment on UV protection properties of fabrics was investigated. DC magnetron sputtering was used and the parameters of plasma such as gas type, electrodes, time of exposure, power and, etc. were studied. The morphological and chemical properties of samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Furrier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The transmittance and UPF values of the original and plasma-treated samples were measured using a Shimadzu UV3101 PC (UV–Vis–NIR scanning spectrophotometer, 190–2, 100 nm range). It was concluded that, plasma which is an echo-friendly, cost effective and dry technique is being used in different branches of the industries, and will conquer textile industry in the near future. Also it is promising method for preparation of UV protection textile.

Keywords: plasma, Textile, Fabric, UV protection

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21 The Plasma Additional Heating Systems by Electron Cyclotron Waves

Authors: Ghoutia Naima Sabri, Tayeb Benouaz

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The interaction between wave and electron cyclotron movement when the electron passes through a layer of resonance at a fixed frequency results an Electron Cyclotron (EC) absorption in Tokamak plasma and dependent magnetic field. This technique is the principle of additional heating (ECRH) and the generation of non-inductive current drive (ECCD) in modern fusion devices. In this paper we are interested by the problem of EC absorption which used a microscopic description of kinetic theory treatment versus the propagation which used the cold plasma description. The power absorbed depends on the optical depth which in turn depends on coefficient of absorption and the order of the excited harmonic for O-mode or X-mode. There is another possibility of heating by dissipation of Alfven waves, based on resonance of cold plasma waves, the shear Alfven wave (SW) and the compressional Alfven wave (FW). Once the (FW) power is coupled to (SW), it stays on the magnetic surface and dissipates there, which cause the heating of bulk plasmas.

Keywords: plasma, Heating, tokamak, electron cyclotron

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20 The Soliton Solution of the Quadratic-Cubic Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation

Authors: Sarun Phibanchon, Yuttakarn Rattanachai

Abstract:

The quadratic-cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation can be explained the weakly ion-acoustic waves in magnetized plasma with a slightly non-Maxwellian electron distribution by using the Madelung's fluid picture. However, the soliton solution to the quadratic-cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is determined by using the direct integration. By the characteristics of a soliton, the solution can be claimed that it's a soliton by considering its time evolution and their collisions between two solutions. These results are shown by applying the spectral method.

Keywords: plasma, spectral method, soliton, ion-acoustic waves

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19 Mineral Status of Feeds and Fodder and Its Subsequent Effect on Plasma of Livestock and Its Products in Red Lateritic Zone of West Bengal, India

Authors: S. K. Pyne, M. Mondal, G. Samanta

Abstract:

A survey was carried out in red lateritic zone of West Bengal to compare the mineral status in plasma of livestock grazing over red lateritic region. Sufficient number of samples of soil, feeds, fodder and blood were collected from four districts of red lateritic zone namely, West Midnapore, Birbhum, Bankura and Purulia respectively. The samples were analysed for Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn) and Iron (Fe). Concentration of Cu, Mn and Fe in soil were above the minimum critical level, whereas, Zn deficiency is wide spread in red lateritic soil. Paddy straw is deficient in Ca, P, Zn and Mn in the region. Green fodders are also deficient in P, Cu, Zn. The richness of iron (Fe) in soil, feeds, fodder and tree leaves is the characteristics of this region. Phosphorus is deficient in plasma of all categories of livestock with the exception of bullock. Cu is deficient in plasma of calf. Plasma Mn and Fe were higher (p<0.01) in the animals of red lateritic zone. The study reveals that the overall deficiency of phosphorus in different categories of livestock and there is need of dietary supplementation.

Keywords: plasma, Mineral, red lateritic zone, grazing livestock

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18 Enhanced Field Emission from Plasma Treated Graphene and 2D Layered Hybrids

Authors: R. Khare, R. V. Gelamo, M. A. More, D. J. Late, Chandra Sekhar Rout

Abstract:

Graphene emerges out as a promising material for various applications ranging from complementary integrated circuits to optically transparent electrode for displays and sensors. The excellent conductivity and atomic sharp edges of unique two-dimensional structure makes graphene a propitious field emitter. Graphene analogues of other 2D layered materials have emerged in material science and nanotechnology due to the enriched physics and novel enhanced properties they present. There are several advantages of using 2D nanomaterials in field emission based devices, including a thickness of only a few atomic layers, high aspect ratio (the ratio of lateral size to sheet thickness), excellent electrical properties, extraordinary mechanical strength and ease of synthesis. Furthermore, the presence of edges can enhance the tunneling probability for the electrons in layered nanomaterials similar to that seen in nanotubes. Here we report electron emission properties of multilayer graphene and effect of plasma (CO2, O2, Ar and N2) treatment. The plasma treated multilayer graphene shows an enhanced field emission behavior with a low turn on field of 0.18 V/μm and high emission current density of 1.89 mA/cm2 at an applied field of 0.35 V/μm. Further, we report the field emission studies of layered WS2/RGO and SnS2/RGO composites. The turn on field required to draw a field emission current density of 1μA/cm2 is found to be 3.5, 2.3 and 2 V/μm for WS2, RGO and the WS2/RGO composite respectively. The enhanced field emission behavior observed for the WS2/RGO nanocomposite is attributed to a high field enhancement factor of 2978, which is associated with the surface protrusions of the single-to-few layer thick sheets of the nanocomposite. The highest current density of ~800 µA/cm2 is drawn at an applied field of 4.1 V/μm from a few layers of the WS2/RGO nanocomposite. Furthermore, first-principles density functional calculations suggest that the enhanced field emission may also be due to an overlap of the electronic structures of WS2 and RGO, where graphene-like states are dumped in the region of the WS2 fundamental gap. Similarly, the turn on field required to draw an emission current density of 1µA/cm2 is significantly low (almost half the value) for the SnS2/RGO nanocomposite (2.65 V/µm) compared to pristine SnS2 (4.8 V/µm) nanosheets. The field enhancement factor β (~3200 for SnS2 and ~3700 for SnS2/RGO composite) was calculated from Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plots and indicates emission from the nanometric geometry of the emitter. The field emission current versus time plot shows overall good emission stability for the SnS2/RGO emitter. The DFT calculations reveal that the enhanced field emission properties of SnS2/RGO composites are because of a substantial lowering of work function of SnS2 when supported by graphene, which is in response to p-type doping of the graphene substrate. Graphene and 2D analogue materials emerge as a potential candidate for future field emission applications.

Keywords: Doping, plasma, Graphene, field emission, layered material

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17 Self-Assembled Tin Particles Made by Plasma-Induced Dewetting

Authors: Han Joo Choe, Soon-Ho Kwon, Jung-Joong Lee

Abstract:

Tin particles of various size and distribution were self-assembled by plasma treating tin film deposited on silicon oxide substrates. Plasma treatment was conducted using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. A range of ICP power and topographic templated substrates were evaluated to observe changes in particle size and particle distribution. Scanning electron microscopy images of the particles were analyzed using computer software. The evolution of tin film dewetting into particles initiated from the hole nucleation in grain boundaries. Increasing ICP power during plasma treatment produced larger number of particles per area and smaller particle size and particle-size distribution. Topographic templates were also effective in positioning and controlling the size of the particles. By combining the effects of ICP power and topographic templates, particles of similar size and well-ordered distribution were obtained.

Keywords: plasma, Particles, tin, dewetting

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16 Effect of Ionized Plasma Medium on the Radiation of a Rectangular Microstrip Antenna on Ferrite Substrate

Authors: Ayman Al Sawalha

Abstract:

This paper presents theoretical investigations on the radiation of rectangular microstrip antenna printed on a magnetized ferrite substrate Ni0.62Co0.02Fe1.948O4 in the presence of ionized plasma medium. The theoretical study of rectangular microstrip antenna in free space is carried out by applying the transmission line model combining with potential function techniques while hydrodynamic theory is used for it is analysis in plasma medium. By taking the biased and unbiased ferrite cases, far-field radiation patterns in free space and plasma medium are obtained which in turn are applied in computing radiated power, directivity, quality factor and bandwidth of antenna. It is found that the presence of plasma medium affects the performance of rectangular microstrip antenna structure significantly.

Keywords: plasma, Radiation, ferrite, microstrip antenna

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15 Cold Plasma Surface Modified Electrospun Microtube Array Membrane for Chitosan Immobilization and Their Properties

Authors: Ko-Shao Chen, Yun Tsao, Chia-Hsuan Tsen, Chien-Chung Chen, Shu-Chuan Liao

Abstract:

Electrospun microtube array membranes (MTAMs) made of PLLA (poly-L-lactic acid) have wide potential applications in tissue engineering. However, their surface hydrophobicity and poor biocompatability have limited their further usage. In this study, the surface of PLLA MTAMs were made hydrophilic by introducing extra functional groups, such as peroxide, via an acetic acid plasma (AAP). UV-graft polymerization of acrylic acid (G-AAc) was then used to produce carboxyl group on MTAMs surface, which bonded covalently with chitosan through EDC / NHS crosslinking agents. To evaluate the effects of the surface modification on PLLA MTAMs, water contact angle (WCA) measurement and cell compatibility tests were carried out. We found that AAP treated electrospun PLLA MTAMs grafted with AAc and, finally, with chitosan immobilized via crosslinking agent, exhibited improved hydrophilic and cell compatibility.

Keywords: plasma, chitosan, EDC/NHS, UV grafting, microtube array membrane (MTAMs)

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14 Production of Nanocomposite Electrical Contact Materials Ag-SnO2, W-Cu and Cu-C in Thermal Plasma

Authors: A. V. Samokhin, A. A. Fadeev, M. A. Sinaiskii, N. V. Alekseev, A. V. Kolesnikov

Abstract:

Composite materials where metal matrix is reinforced by ceramic or metal particles are of great interest for use in the manufacturing of electrical contacts. Significant improvement of the composite physical and mechanical properties as well as increase of the performance parameters of composite-based products can be achieved if the nanoscale structure in the composite materials is obtained by using nanosized powders as starting components. The results of nanosized composite powders synthesis (Ag-SnO2, W-Cu and Cu-C) in the DC thermal plasma flows are presented in this paper. The investigations included the following processes: - Recondensation of micron powder mixture Ag + SnO2 in a nitrogen plasma; - The reduction of the oxide powders mixture (WO3 + CuO) in a hydrogen-nitrogen plasma; - Decomposition of the copper formate and copper acetate powders in nitrogen plasma. The calculations of equilibrium compositions of multicomponent systems Ag-Sn-O-N, W-Cu-O-H-N and Cu-O-C-H-N in the temperature range of 400-5000 K were carried to estimate basic process characteristics. Experimental studies of the processes were performed using a plasma reactor with a confined jet flow. The plasma jet net power was in the range of 2 - 13 kW, and the feedstock flow rate was up to 0.35 kg/h. The obtained powders were characterized by TEM, HR-TEM, SEM, EDS, ED-XRF, XRD, BET and QEA methods. Nanocomposite Ag-SnO2 (12 wt. %). Processing of the initial powder mixture (Ag-SnO2) in nitrogen thermal plasma stream allowed to produce nanopowders with a specific surface area up to 24 m2/g, consisting predominantly of particles with size less than 100 nm. According to XRD results, tin was present in the obtained products as SnO2 phase, and also as intermetallic phases AgxSn. Nanocomposite W-Cu (20 wt .%). Reduction of (WO3+CuO) mixture in the hydrogen-nitrogen plasma provides W-Cu nanopowder with particle sizes in the range of 10-150 nm. The particles have mainly spherical shape and structure tungsten core - copper shell. The thickness of the shell is about several nanometers, the shell is composed of copper and its oxides (Cu2O, CuO). The nanopowders had 1.5 wt. % oxygen impurity. Heat treatment in a hydrogen atmosphere allows to reduce the oxygen content to less than 0.1 wt. %. Nanocomposite Cu-C. Copper nanopowders were found as products of the starting copper compounds decomposition. The nanopowders primarily had a spherical shape with a particle size of less than 100 nm. The main phase was copper, with small amount of Cu2O and CuO oxides. Copper formate decomposition products had a specific surface area 2.5-7 m2/g and contained 0.15 - 4 wt. % carbon; and copper acetate decomposition products had the specific surface area 5-35 m2/g, and carbon content of 0.3 - 5 wt. %. Compacting of nanocomposites (sintering in hydrogen for Ag-SnO2 and electric spark sintering (SPS) for W-Cu) showed that the samples having a relative density of 97-98 % can be obtained with a submicron structure. The studies indicate the possibility of using high-intensity plasma processes to create new technologies to produce nanocomposite materials for electric contacts.

Keywords: Synthesis, plasma, Material, nanocomposite, electrical contact

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13 Comparison of Cyclone Design Methods for Removal of Fine Particles from Plasma Generated Syngas

Authors: Mareli Hattingh, I. Jaco Van der Walt, Frans B. Waanders

Abstract:

A waste-to-energy plasma system was designed by Necsa for commercial use to create electricity from unsorted municipal waste. Fly ash particles must be removed from the syngas stream at operating temperatures of 1000 °C and recycled back into the reactor for complete combustion. A 2D2D high efficiency cyclone separator was chosen for this purpose. During this study, two cyclone design methods were explored: The Classic Empirical Method (smaller cyclone) and the Flow Characteristics Method (larger cyclone). These designs were optimized with regard to efficiency, so as to remove at minimum 90% of the fly ash particles of average size 10 μm by 50 μm. Wood was used as feed source at a concentration of 20 g/m3 syngas. The two designs were then compared at room temperature, using Perspex test units and three feed gases of different densities, namely nitrogen, helium and air. System conditions were imitated by adapting the gas feed velocity and particle load for each gas respectively. Helium, the least dense of the three gases, would simulate higher temperatures, whereas air, the densest gas, simulates a lower temperature. The average cyclone efficiencies ranged between 94.96% and 98.37%, reaching up to 99.89% in individual runs. The lowest efficiency attained was 94.00%. Furthermore, the design of the smaller cyclone proved to be more robust, while the larger cyclone demonstrated a stronger correlation between its separation efficiency and the feed temperatures. The larger cyclone can be assumed to achieve slightly higher efficiencies at elevated temperatures. However, both design methods led to good designs. At room temperature, the difference in efficiency between the two cyclones was almost negligible. At higher temperatures, however, these general tendencies are expected to be amplified so that the difference between the two design methods will become more obvious. Though the design specifications were met for both designs, the smaller cyclone is recommended as default particle separator for the plasma system due to its robust nature.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Design, plasma, waste processing, Cyclone, solid separation

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12 Characteristics of Plasma Synthetic Jet Actuator in Repetitive Working Mode

Authors: Haohua Zong, Marios Kotsonis

Abstract:

Plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) is a new concept of zero net mass flow actuator which utilizes pulsed arc/spark discharge to rapidly pressurize gas in a small cavity under constant-volume conditions. The unique combination of high exit jet velocity (>400 m/s) and high actuation frequency (>5 kHz) provides a promising solution for high-speed high-Reynolds-number flow control. This paper focuses on the performance of PSJA in repetitive working mode which is more relevant to future flow control applications. A two-electrodes PSJA (cavity volume: 424 mm3, orifice diameter: 2 mm) together with a capacitive discharge circuit (discharge energy: 50 mJ-110 mJ) is designed to enable repetitive operation. Time-Resolved Particle Imaging Velocimetry (TR-PIV) system working at 10 kHz is exploited to investigate the influence of discharge frequency on performance of PSJA. In total, seven cases are tested, covering a wide range of discharge frequencies (20 Hz-560 Hz). The pertinent flow features (shock wave, vortex ring and jet) remain the same for single shot mode and repetitive working mode. Shock wave is issued prior to jet eruption. Two distinct vortex rings are formed in one cycle. The first one is produced by the starting jet whereas the second one is related with the shock wave reflection in cavity. A sudden pressure rise is induced at the throat inlet by the reflection of primary shock wave, promoting the shedding of second vortex ring. In one cycle, jet exit velocity first increases sharply, then decreases almost linearly. Afterwards, an alternate occurrence of multiple jet stages and refresh stages is observed. By monitoring the dynamic evolution of exit velocity in one cycle, some integral performance parameters of PSJA can be deduced. As frequency increases, the jet intensity in steady phase decreases monotonically. In the investigated frequency range, jet duration time drops from 250 µs to 210 µs and peak jet velocity decreases from 53 m/s to approximately 39 m/s. The jet impulse and the expelled gas mass (0.69 µN∙s and 0.027 mg at 20 Hz) decline by 48% and 40%, respectively. However, the electro-mechanical efficiency of PSJA defined by the ratio of jet mechanical energy to capacitor energy doesn’t show significant difference (o(0.01%)). Fourier transformation of the temporal exit velocity signal indicates two dominant frequencies. One corresponds to the discharge frequency, while the other accounts for the alternation frequency of jet stage and refresh stage in one cycle. The alternation period (300 µs approximately) is independent of discharge frequency, and possibly determined intrinsically by the actuator geometry. A simple analytical model is established to interpret the alternation of jet stage and refresh stage. Results show that the dynamic response of exit velocity to a small-scale disturbance (jump in cavity pressure) can be treated as a second-order under-damping system. Oscillation frequency of the exit velocity, namely alternation frequency, is positively proportional to exit area, but inversely proportional to cavity volume and throat length. Theoretical value of alternation period (305 µs) agrees well with the experimental value.

Keywords: plasma, Actuator, synthetic jet, frequency effect

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11 Towards the Rapid Synthesis of High-Quality Monolayer Continuous Film of Graphene on High Surface Free Energy Existing Plasma Modified Cu Foil

Authors: Maddumage Don Sandeepa Lakshad Wimalananda, Jae-Kwan Kim, Ji-Myon Lee

Abstract:

Graphene is an extraordinary 2D material that shows superior electrical, optical, and mechanical properties for the applications such as transparent contacts. Further, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique facilitates to synthesizing of large-area graphene, including transferability. The abstract is describing the use of high surface free energy (SFE) and nano-scale high-density surface kinks (rough) existing Cu foil for CVD graphene growth, which is an opposite approach to modern use of catalytic surfaces for high-quality graphene growth, but the controllable rough morphological nature opens new era to fast synthesis (less than the 50s with a short annealing process) of graphene as a continuous film over conventional longer process (30 min growth). The experiments were shown that high SFE condition and surface kinks on Cu(100) crystal plane existing Cu catalytic surface facilitated to synthesize graphene with high monolayer and continuous nature because it can influence the adsorption of C species with high concentration and which can be facilitated by faster nucleation and growth of graphene. The fast nucleation and growth are lowering the diffusion of C atoms to Cu-graphene interface, which is resulting in no or negligible formation of bilayer patches. High energy (500W) Ar plasma treatment (inductively Coupled plasma) was facilitated to form rough and high SFE existing (54.92 mJm-2) Cu foil. This surface was used to grow the graphene by using CVD technique at 1000C for 50s. The introduced kink-like high SFE existing point on Cu(100) crystal plane facilitated to faster nucleation of graphene with a high monolayer ratio (I2D/IG is 2.42) compared to another different kind of smooth morphological and low SFE existing Cu surfaces such as Smoother surface, which is prepared by the redeposit of Cu evaporating atoms during the annealing (RRMS is 13.3nm). Even high SFE condition was favorable to synthesize graphene with monolayer and continuous nature; It fails to maintain clean (surface contains amorphous C clusters) and defect-free condition (ID/IG is 0.46) because of high SFE of Cu foil at the graphene growth stage. A post annealing process was used to heal and overcome previously mentioned problems. Different CVD atmospheres such as CH4 and H2 were used, and it was observed that there is a negligible change in graphene nature (number of layers and continuous condition) but it was observed that there is a significant difference in graphene quality because the ID/IG ratio of the graphene was reduced to 0.21 after the post-annealing with H2 gas. Addition to the change of graphene defectiveness the FE-SEM images show there was a reduction of C cluster contamination of the surface. High SFE conditions are favorable to form graphene as a monolayer and continuous film, but it fails to provide defect-free graphene. Further, plasma modified high SFE existing surface can be used to synthesize graphene within 50s, and a post annealing process can be used to reduce the defectiveness.

Keywords: Morphology, plasma, Graphene, chemical vapor deposition, surface free energy

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10 Development and Validation Method for Quantitative Determination of Rifampicin in Human Plasma and Its Application in Bioequivalence Test

Authors: Endang Lukitaningsih, Fathul Jannah, Arief R. Hakim, Ratna D. Puspita, Zullies Ikawati

Abstract:

Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifamycin B produced by Streptomyces mediterranei. RIF has been used worldwide as first line drug-prescribed throughout tuberculosis therapy. This study aims to develop and to validate an HPLC method couple with a UV detection for determination of rifampicin in spiked human plasma and its application for bioequivalence study. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an RP-C18 column (LachromHitachi, 250 x 4.6 mm., 5μm), utilizing a mobile phase of phosphate buffer/acetonitrile (55:45, v/v, pH 6.8 ± 0.1) at a flow of 1.5 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 337 nm by using spectrophotometer. The developed method was statistically validated for the linearity, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, precise and specifity. The specifity of the method was ascertained by comparing chromatograms of blank plasma and plasma containing rifampicin; the matrix and rifampicin were well separated. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.7 µg/mL and 2.3 µg/mL, respectively. The regression curve of standard was linear (r > 0.999) over a range concentration of 20.0 – 100.0 µg/mL. The mean recovery of the method was 96.68 ± 8.06 %. Both intraday and interday precision data showed reproducibility (R.S.D. 2.98% and 1.13 %, respectively). Therefore, the method can be used for routine analysis of rifampicin in human plasma and in bioequivalence study. The validated method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study of rifampicin tablet in a limited number of subjects (under an Ethical Clearance No. KE/FK/6201/EC/2015). The mean values of Cmax, Tmax, AUC(0-24) and AUC(o-∞) for the test formulation of rifampicin were 5.81 ± 0.88 µg/mL, 1.25 hour, 29.16 ± 4.05 µg/mL. h. and 29.41 ± 4.07 µg/mL. h., respectively. Meanwhile for the reference formulation, the values were 5.04 ± 0.54 µg/mL, 1.31 hour, 27.20 ± 3.98 µg/mL.h. and 27.49 ± 4.01 µg/mL.h. From bioequivalence study, the 90% CIs for the test formulation/reference formulation ratio for the logarithmic transformations of Cmax and AUC(0-24) were 97.96-129.48% and 99.13-120.02%, respectively. According to the bioequivamence test guidelines of the European Commission-European Medicines Agency, it can be concluded that the test formulation of rifampicin is bioequivalence with the reference formulation.

Keywords: plasma, Validation, HPLC, Bioequivalence

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9 Distinguishing between Bacterial and Viral Infections Based on Peripheral Human Blood Tests Using Infrared Microscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: H. Agbaria, A. Salman, M. Huleihel, G. Beck, D. H. Rich, S. Mordechai, J. Kapelushnik

Abstract:

Viral and bacterial infections are responsible for variety of diseases. These infections have similar symptoms like fever, sneezing, inflammation, vomiting, diarrhea and fatigue. Thus, physicians may encounter difficulties in distinguishing between viral and bacterial infections based on these symptoms. Bacterial infections differ from viral infections in many other important respects regarding the response to various medications and the structure of the organisms. In many cases, it is difficult to know the origin of the infection. The physician orders a blood, urine test, or 'culture test' of tissue to diagnose the infection type when it is necessary. Using these methods, the time that elapses between the receipt of patient material and the presentation of the test results to the clinician is typically too long ( > 24 hours). This time is crucial in many cases for saving the life of the patient and for planning the right medical treatment. Thus, rapid identification of bacterial and viral infections in the lab is of great importance for effective treatment especially in cases of emergency. Blood was collected from 50 patients with confirmed viral infection and 50 with confirmed bacterial infection. White blood cells (WBCs) and plasma were isolated and deposited on a zinc selenide slide, dried and measured under a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to obtain their infrared absorption spectra. The acquired spectra of WBCs and plasma were analyzed in order to differentiate between the two types of infections. In this study, the potential of FTIR microscopy in tandem with multivariate analysis was evaluated for the identification of the agent that causes the human infection. The method was used to identify the infectious agent type as either bacterial or viral, based on an analysis of the blood components [i.e., white blood cells (WBC) and plasma] using their infrared vibrational spectra. The time required for the analysis and evaluation after obtaining the blood sample was less than one hour. In the analysis, minute spectral differences in several bands of the FTIR spectra of WBCs were observed between groups of samples with viral and bacterial infections. By employing the techniques of feature extraction with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), a sensitivity of ~92 % and a specificity of ~86 % for an infection type diagnosis was achieved. The present preliminary study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy of WBCs is a potentially feasible and efficient tool for the diagnosis of the infection type.

Keywords: plasma, Infrared spectroscopy, Bacterial Infection, Viral Infection, linear discriminant analysis, white blood cells

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8 A Study on the Water and Oil Repellency Characteristics of Plasma-Treated Pet and Pet/Elastane Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan

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New orientations have emerged in the textile sector as a result of increasing global competition and environmental problems. Under the scope of new understandings, it is required to bring forward multi-functional, simple and environmentally friendly methods that will meet tight economic and ecological demands of today. Plasma technology has become a significant alternative in this sense. This technology may provide great advantages in case it is developed, however, it does not receive adequate consideration. In this study, plasma treatment was applied by using glow discharge plasma system to 100% polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and 95% PET/5% elastane fabrics and then the effects of plasma polymerization on fabric surface was tested and analyzed using water and oil repellent finishes.

Keywords: plasma, polyester, oil repellency, water repellency, elastane

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7 Role of SiOx Interlayer on Lead Oxide Electrodeposited on Stainless Steel for Promoting Electrochemical Treatment of Wastewater Containing Textile Dye

Authors: Hanene Akrout, Ines Elaissaoui, Sabrina Grassini, Daniele Fulginiti, Latifa Bousselmi

Abstract:

The main objective of this work is to investigate the efficiency of depollution power related to PbO₂ layer deposited onto a stainless steel (SS) substrate with SiOx as interlayer. The elaborated electrode was used as anode for anodic oxidation of wastewater containing Amaranth dye, as recalcitrant organic pollutant model. SiOx interlayer was performed using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition ‘PECVD’ in plasma fed with argon, oxygen, and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS, Si precursor) in different ratios, onto the SS substrate. PbO₂ layer was produced by pulsed electrodeposition on SS/SiOx. The morphological of different surfaces are depicted with Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and the composition of the lead oxide layer was investigated by X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD). The results showed that the SiOx interlayer with more rich oxygen content improved better the nucleation of β-PbO₂ form. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements undertaken on different interfaces (at optimized conditions) revealed a decrease of Rfilm while CPE film increases for SiOx interlayer, characterized by a more inorganic nature and deposited in a plasma fed by higher O2-to-TEOS ratios. Quantitative determinations of the Amaranth dye degradation rate were performed in terms of colour and COD removals, reaching a 95% and an 80% respectively removal at pH = 2 in 300 min. Results proved the improvement of the degradation wastewater containing the amaranth dye. During the electrolysis, the Amaranth dye solution was sampled at 30 min intervals and analyzed by ‘High-performance Liquid Chromatography’ HPLC. The gradual degradation of the Amaranth dye confirmed by the decrease in UV absorption using the SS/SiOx(20:20:1)/PbO₂ anode, the reaction exhibited an apparent first-order kinetic for electrolysis time of 5 hours, with an initial rate constant of about 0.02 min⁻¹.

Keywords: plasma, electrochemical treatment, COD removal, PbO₂ anodes

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
6 Multi-Analyte Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide-Based Dielectric Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor Sensing Membranes

Authors: Chyuan Haur Kao, Hsiang Chen, Yu Sheng Tsai, Chen Hao Hung, Yu Shan Lee

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Dielectric electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor sensing membranes-based biosensors have been intensively investigated because of their simple fabrication, low cost, and fast response. However, to enhance their sensing performance, it is worthwhile to explore alternative materials, distinct processes, and novel treatments. An ISFET can be viewed as a variation of MOSFET with the dielectric oxide layer as the sensing membrane. Then, modulation on the work function of the gate caused by electrolytes in various ion concentrations could be used to calculate the ion concentrations. Recently, owing to the advancement of CMOS technology, some high dielectric materials substrates as the sensing membranes of electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structures. The EIS with a stacked-layer of SiO₂ layer between the sensing membrane and the silicon substrate exhibited a high pH sensitivity and good long-term stability. IGZO is a wide-bandgap (~3.15eV) semiconductor of the III-VI semiconductor group with several preferable properties, including good transparency, high electron mobility, wide band gap, and comparable with CMOS technology. IGZO was sputtered by reactive radio frequency (RF) on a p-type silicon wafer with various gas ratios of Ar:O₂ and was treated with rapid thermal annealing in O₂ ambient. The sensing performance, including sensitivity, hysteresis, and drift rate was measured and XRD, XPS, and AFM analyses were also used to study the material properties of the IGZO membrane. Moreover, IGZO was used as a sensing membrane in dielectric EIS bio-sensor structures. In addition to traditional pH sensing capability, detection for concentrations of Na+, K+, urea, glucose, and creatinine was performed. Moreover, post rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment was confirmed to improve the material properties and enhance the multi-analyte sensing capability for various ions or chemicals in solutions. In this study, the IGZO sensing membrane with annealing in O₂ ambient exhibited a higher sensitivity, higher linearity, higher H+ selectivity, lower hysteresis voltage and lower drift rate. Results indicate that the IGZO dielectric sensing membrane on the EIS structure is promising for future bio-medical device applications.

Keywords: plasma, IGZO, dielectric sensing membrane, hydrogen ion, rapid thermal annealing

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5 Thermodynamic Analysis of Hydrogen Plasma Reduction of TiCl₄

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

With increasing demands for high performance materials, intensive interest on the Ti has been focused. Especially, low cost production process of Ti has been extremely necessitated from wide parts and various industries. Tetrachloride (TiCl₄) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO₂ feedstock and used as an intermediate product for the production of metal titanium sponge. Reduction of TiCl₄ is usually conducted by Kroll process using magnesium as a reduction reagent, producing metallic Ti in the shape of sponge. The process is batch type and takes very long time including post processes treating sponge. As an alternative reduction reagent, hydrogen in the state of plasma has long been strongly recommended. Experimental confirmation has not been completely reported yet and more strict analysis is required. In the present study, hydrogen plasma reduction process has been thermodynamically analyzed focusing the effects of temperature, pressure and concentration. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage® thermodynamical software.

Keywords: plasma, Hydrogen, Titanium, Reduction, thermodynamic calculation, TiCl₄

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
4 Plasma Gasification as a Sustainable Way for Energy Recovery from Scrap Tyre

Authors: Gloria James, S. K. Nema, T. S. Anantha Singh, P. Vadivel Murugan

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The usage of tyre has increased enormously in day to day life. The used tyre and rubber products pose major threat to the environment. Conventional thermal techniques such as low temperature pyrolysis and incineration produce high molecular organic compounds (condensed and collected as aromatic oil) and carbon soot particles. Plasma gasification technique can dispose tyre waste and generate combustible gases and avoid the formation of high molecular aromatic compounds. These gases generated in plasma gasification process can be used to generate electricity or as fuel wherever required. Although many experiments have been done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres, very little work has been done on plasma gasification of tyres. In this work plasma gasification of waste tyres have been conducted in a fixed bed reactor having graphite electrodes and direct current (DC) arc plasma system. The output of this work has been compared with the previous work done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres by different authors. The aim of this work is to compare different process based on gas generation, efficiency of the process and explore the most effective option for energy recovery from waste tyres.

Keywords: plasma, gasification, syngas, tyre waste

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3 Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration Produced by Cold Atmospheric Plasma on Inactivation of Escherichia Coli in Water

Authors: Zohreh Rashmei

Abstract:

Introduction: Plasma inactivation is one of the emerging technologies in biomedical field and has been applied to the inactivation of microorganisms in water. The inactivation effect has been attributed to the presence of active plasma species, i.e. OH, O, O3, H2O2, UV and electric fields, generated by the discharge of plasma. Material and Method: To evaluate germicidal effects of plasma, the electric spark discharge device was used. After the effect of the plasma samples were collected for culture medium agar plate count. In addition to biological experiments, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide was also measured. Results: The results showed that Plasma is able to inactivate a high concentration of E. coli. After a short period of plasma radiation on the surface of water, the amount log8 reduced the microbial load. Starting plasma radiation on the surface of the water, the measurements show of production and increasing the amount of hydrogen peroxide in water. So that at the end of the experiment, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide to about 100 mg / l increased. Conclusion: Increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is directly related to the reduction of microbial load. The results of E. coli culture in media containing certain concentrations of H2O2 showed that E. coli can not to grow in a medium containing more than 2/5 mg/l of H2O2. Surely we can say that the main cause of killing bacteria is a molecule of H2O2.

Keywords: plasma, Hydrogen Peroxide, E. coli, disinfection

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