Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Plant Tissue Culture Related Abstracts

3 Simultaneous Production of Forskolin and Rosmarinic Acid in vitro Cultures of Coleus Forskohlii Briq

Authors: Ennus Tajuddin Tamboli, Madhukar Garg, Mohd. Mujeeb, Sayeed Ahmad

Abstract:

An efficient protocol for simultaneous production of forskolin and rosmarinic acid in in vitro callus derived from the leaves of Coleus forskohlii Briq. has been developed. MS media was used for the establishment of cultures and NAA + 6-BA (1.0 ppm) was found best for callus growth. The callus was further subjected to treatment with various elicitor/precursors viz. chitosan, thidiazuron and methyl jasmonate to observe their effect on production of biomass and accumulation of secondary metabolites. The content of forskolin and rosmarinic acid were estimated by HPTLC, in comparison to natural explant which showed 2 fold and 10 fold rise in forskolin and rosmarinic acid content, respectively. Methy1 jasmonate 50 µM was found best for production of forskolin, whereas thidiazuron showed best results in the yield of rosmarinic acid, separately in static culture. However, combined treatment in suspension culture showed moderated effect for increase in secondary metabolites but the biomass increased significantly as compared to static culture.

Keywords: Secondary Metabolites, Plant Tissue Culture, coleus, forskolin, rosmarinic acid, HPTLC

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2 Empirical Measures to Enhance Germination Potential and Control Browning of Tissue Cultures of Andrographis paniculata

Authors: Nidhi Jindal, Ashok Chaudhury, Manisha Mangal

Abstract:

Andrographis paniculata, (Burm f.) Wallich ex. Nees (Family Acanthaceae) popularly known as King of Bitters, is an important medicinal herb. It has an astonishingly wide range of medicinal properties such as anti-inflammatory,antidiarrhoeal, antiviral, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular, anticancer, and immunostimulatory activities. It is widely cultivated in southern Asia. Though propagation of this herb generally occurs through seeds, it has many germination problems which intrigued scientists to work out on the alternative techniques for its mass production. The potential of tissue culture techniques as an alternative tool for AP multiplication was found to be promising. However, the high mortality rate of explants caused by phenolic browning of explants is one of the difficulties reported. Low multiplication rates were reported in the proliferation phase, as well as cultures decline characterized by leaf fall and loss of overall vigor. In view of above problems, a study was undertaken to overcome seed dormancy to improve germination potential and to investigate further on the possible means for successful proliferation of cultures via preventive approaches to overcome failures caused by phenolic browning. Experiments were conducted to improve germination potential and among all the chemical and mechanical trials, scarification of seeds with sand paper proved to be the best method to enhance the germination potential (82.44%) within 7 days. Similarly, several pretreatments and media combinations were tried to overcome browning of explants leading to the conclusion that addition of 0.1% citric acid and 0.2% of ascorbic acid in the media followed by rapid sub culturing of explants controlled browning and decline of explants by 67.45%.

Keywords: Tissue Culture, Plant Tissue Culture, Germination, empirical measure

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1 In vitro Callus Production from Lantana Camara: A Step towards Biotransformation Studies

Authors: Maged El-Sayed Mohamed

Abstract:

Plant tissue culture practices are presented nowadays as the most promising substitute to a whole plant in the terms of secondary metabolites production. They offer the advantages of high production, tunability and they have less effect on plant ecosystems. Lantana camara is a weed, which is common all over the world as an ornamental plant. Weeds can adapt to any type of soil and climate due to their rich cellular machinery for secondary metabolites’ production. This characteristic is found in Lantana camara as a plant of very rich diversity of secondary metabolites with no dominant class of compounds. Aim: This trait has encouraged the author to develop tissue culture experiments for Lantana camara to be a platform for production and manipulation of secondary metabolites through biotransformation. Methodology: The plant was collected in its flowering stage in September 2014, from which explants were prepared from shoot tip, auxiliary bud and leaf. Different types of culture media were tried as well as four phytohormones and their combinations; NAA, 2,4-D, BAP and kinetin. Explants were grown in dark or in 12 hours dark and light cycles at 25°C. A metabolic profile for the produced callus was made and then compared to the whole plant profile. The metabolic profile was made using GC-MS for volatile constituents (extracted by n-hexane) and by HPLC-MS and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) for non-volatile constituents (extracted by ethanol and water). Results: The best conditions for the callus induction was achieved using MS media supplied with 30 gm sucrose and NAA/BAP (1:0.2 mg/L). Initiation of callus was favoured by incubation in dark for 20 day. The callus produced under these conditions showed yellow colour, which changed to brownish after 30 days. The rate of callus growth was high, expressed in the callus diameter, which reached to 1.15±0.2 cm in 30 days; however, the induction of callus delayed for 15 days. The metabolic profile for both volatile and non-volatile constituents of callus showed more simple background metabolites than the whole plant with two new (unresolved) peaks in the callus’ nonvolatile constituents’ chromatogram. Conclusion: Lantana camara callus production can be itself a source of new secondary metabolites and could be used for biotransformation studies due to its simple metabolic background, which allow easy identification of newly formed metabolites. The callus production gathered the simple metabolic background with the rich cellular secondary metabolite machinery of the plant, which could be elicited to produce valuable medicinally active products.

Keywords: Plant Tissue Culture, Gas Chromatography, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, metabolic profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 192