Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Plant Extracts Related Abstracts

9 Antimicrobial Activity of Some Plant Extracts against Clinical Pathogen and Candida Species

Authors: Marwan Khalil Qader, Arshad Mohammad Abdullah

Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistance is a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality globally. Seven plant extracts (Plantago mediastepposa, Quercusc infectoria, Punic granatum, Thymus lcotschyana, Ginger officeinals, Rhus angustifolia and Cinnamon) were collected from different regions of Kurdistan region of Iraq. These plants’ extracts were dissolved in absolute ethanol and distillate water, after which they were assayed in vitro as an antimicrobial activity against Candida tropicalis, Candida albicanus, Candida dublinensis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata also against 2 Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and 3 Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsilla pneumonia). The antimicrobial activity was determined in ethanol extracts and distilled water extracts of these plants. The ethanolic extracts of Q. infectoria showed the maximum activity against all species of Candida fungus. The minimum inhibition zone of the Punic granatum ethanol extracts was 0.2 mg/ml for all microorganisms tested. Klebsilla pneumonia was the most sensitive bacterial strain to Quercusc infectoria and Rhus angustifolia ethanol extracts. Among both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested with MIC of 0.2 mg/ml, the minimum inhibition zone of Ginger officeinals D. W. extracts was 0.2 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsilla pneumonia. The most sensitive bacterial strain to Thymus lcotschyana and Plantago mediastepposa D.W. extracts was S. aureus and E. coli.

Keywords: Pathogenic Bacteria, Antimicrobial activity, Plant Extracts, chemical systems engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
8 Evaluation of Anti-Leishmanial Activity of Albaha Medicinal Plants against Leishmania amazonensis

Authors: Saeed S. Al-Sokari, Nasser A. Awadh Ali, Lianet Monzote

Abstract:

Leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in at least 82 countries and considered to be a major public-health problem (1). The annual incidence of CL is 1–1.5 million cases of which 90% occur in only seven countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Brazil, Iran, Peru, Saudi Arabia and Syria (2). In Saudi Arabia, the disease was first described in 1973 by Moursy and Shoura (3). Currently, CL is common in the human population in different localities, including the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and in particular the Al-Hassa Oasis that is a known endemic area for CL (4). Five methanolic extracts obtained from Achillea biebersteinii (flower leaf), Euphorbia antiquorm, Solanum incanum (leaf and fruit extracts), collected from Albaha region and selected from ethno-botanical data, were screened for their anti-leishmanial activity against Leishmania amazonensis (6). The cytotoxic activity against normal peritoneal macrophages from normal BALB/c mice was also determined (6). The five extracts had IC50 values ranging from < 12.5 to 37.8 µg/ml against promastigotes. Achillea biebersteinii flower, Euphorbia antiquorm, Solanum incanum leaf extracts showed anti-leishmanial activities with IC50 between < 12.5 - 26.9µg/mL and acceptable selectivity indices of 8 - 5.

Keywords: Medicinal, Plant Extracts, Albaha, Leishmania amazonensis

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
7 Efficacy of Plant and Mushroom Based Bio-Products against the Red Poultry Mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae)

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan

Abstract:

Poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer) are economically deleterious parasite of hens in poultry industry in all over the world. Due to lack of proper control managements and result of poor application of commercial products, D. gallinae get resistance and severe infestation in poultry birds. Laboratory experiment was planned for the control of D. gallinae by using different mushroom and plant extracts. We used control treatment (100 ml distilled water) and nine treatments (10 gr Lentinula adobas, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus aryngii with 100 ml methanol, 1% and 2% Neemazal, 1.5% Gamma-T-ol, Echinacea Leaf , 1.5% Fungatol with neem spray and Methanol) with five replication having five mites each. Data collected after 12 and 24 hours every day till mites found dead in every treatment. The significant differences among the mean values were compared with the DUNCAN multiple range test. The efficacy (%) of each treatment was determined with the Abbott formula. All statistical analyses were conducted with the SPSS Version 12 program. Lentinula edodes (80%), Ganoderma lucidum (76%) and Fungatol+Neem spray (1.5%) (80%) were significant against D. gallinae within 3 days.

Keywords: Control, Plant Extracts, mushroom extracts, D. gallinae

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
6 Evaluation of South African Plants with Acaricide Activity against Ticks

Authors: G. Fouché, J. N. Eloff, K. Wellington

Abstract:

Acaricides are commonly used to control ticks but are toxic, harmful to the environment and too expensive to resource-limited farmers. Traditionally, many communities in South Africa rely on a wide range of indigenous practices to keep their livestock healthy. One of these health care practices includes the use of medicinal plants and this offers an alternative to conventional medicine. An investigation was conducted at the CSIR in South Africa, and selected indigenous plants used in communities were scientifically evaluated for the management of ticks in animals. 17 plants were selected from 239 plants used traditionally in South Africa. Two different organic extracts were prepared from the 17 samples, resulting in 34 plant samples. These were tested for efficacy against two tick species, namely Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The plant extracts were also screened against Vero cells and most were found to have low cytotoxicity. This study has shown that there is potential for the development of botanicals as natural acaricides against ticks that are non-toxic and environmentally benign.

Keywords: Plant Extracts, South Africa, ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
5 Comparison of Overall Sensitivity of Meloidogyne incognita to Pure Cucurbitacins and Cucurbitacin-Containing Crude Extracts

Authors: Zakheleni P. Dube, Phatu W. Mashela

Abstract:

The Curve-fitting Allelochemical Response Data (CARD) model had been adopted as a valuable tool in enhancing the understanding of the efficacy of cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides on the suppression of nematodes. In most cases, for registration purposes, the active ingredients should be in purified form. Evidence in other phytonematicides suggested that purified active ingredients were less effective in suppression of nematodes. The objective of this study was to use CARD model to compare the overall sensitivities of Meloidogyne incognita J2 hatch, mobility and mortality to Nemarioc-AL phytonematicides, cucurbitacin A, Nemafric-BL phytonematicide and cucurbitacin B. Meloidogyne incognita eggs and J2 were exposed to 0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 2.50, 3.00, 3.50, 4.00, 4.50 and 5.00% of each phytonematicide, whereas in purified form the concentrations were 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25 and 2.50 μg.mL⁻¹. The exposure period to each concentration was 24-, 48- and 72-h. The overall sensitivities of J2 hatch to Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide, cucurbitacin A, Nemafric-BL phytonematicide and cucurbitacin B were 1, 30, 5 and 2 units, respectively, whereas J2 mobiltity were 3, 17, 3 and 6 units, respectively. For J2 mortality overall sensitivities to Nemarioc-AL phytonematicide, cucurbitacin A, Nemafric-BL phytonematicide and cucurbitacin B were 2, 4, 1 and 4 units, respectively. In conclusion, the two crude extracts, Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides were generally more potent to M. incognita compared to their pure active ingredients. The crude plant extract preparation is easy, and they could be an ideal tactic for the management of nematodes in resource poor farming communities.

Keywords: Plant Extracts, Botanicals, triterpenoids, cucumin, leptodermin

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
4 Interaction of Cucurbitacin-Containing Phytonematicides and Biocontrol Agents on Cultivated Tomato Plants and Nematode Numbers

Authors: Jacqueline T. Madaure, Phatu W. Mashela

Abstract:

Interactive effects of cucurbitacin-containing phytonematicides and biocontrol agents on growth and nematode suppression on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) had not been documented. The objective of this study was to determine the interactive effects of Nemafric-BL phytonematicide, Trichoderma harzianum and Steinernema feltiae on growth of tomato plants and suppression of root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes. A 2x2x2 trial was conducted using tomato cv. ‘HTX’ on a field infested with Meloidogyne species. The treatments were applied at commercial rates. At 56 days after treatments, interactions were significant (P ≤ 0.05) for selected plant variables, without significant interactions on nematode variables. In conclusion, results of the current study did not support the combination of the test products for nematode suppression, except that some combinations improved plant growth.

Keywords: natural enemies, Plant Extracts, entomopathogenic nematodes, Cucurbitacin B, cucumis africanus, ethnobotanicals

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
3 Prospects in Development of Ecofriendly Biopesticides in Management of Postharvest Fungal Deterioration of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

Authors: Anderson Chidi Amadioha, Promise Chidi Kenkwo, A. A. Markson

Abstract:

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food and cash crop that provide cheap source of carbohydrate for food, feed and raw material for industries hence a commodity for feature economic development of developing countries. Despite the importance, its production potentials is undermined by disease agents that greatly reduce yield and render it unfit for human consumption and industrial use. Pathogenicity tests on fungal isolates from infected cassava revealed Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, and Trichodderma viride as rot-causing organisms. Water and ethanol extracts of Piper guineense, Ocimum graticimum, Cassia alata, and Tagetes erecta at 50% concentration significantly inhibited the radial growth of the pathogens in vitro and their development and spread in vivo. Low cassava rot incidence and severity was recorded when the extracts were applied before than after spray inoculating with spore suspension (1x105 spores/ml of distilled water) of the pathogenic organisms. The plant materials are readily available, and their extracts are biodegradable and cost effective. The fungitoxic potentials of extracts of these plant materials could be exploited as potent biopesticides in the management of postharvest fungal deterioration of cassava especially in developing countries where synthetic fungicides are not only scarce but also expensive for resource poor farmers who produce over 95% of the food consumed.

Keywords: Pathogens, in vivo, Biopesticides, In vitro, cassava, Plant Extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
2 Preparation of Metallic Nanoparticles with the Use of Reagents of Natural Origin

Authors: Anna Drabczyk, Sonia Kudlacik-Kramarczyk, Dagmara Malina, Bozena Tyliszczak, Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec

Abstract:

Nowadays, nano-size materials are very popular group of materials among scientists. What is more, these materials find an application in a wide range of various areas. Therefore constantly increasing demand for nanomaterials including metallic nanoparticles such as silver of gold ones is observed. Therefore, new routes of their preparation are sought. Considering potential application of nanoparticles, it is important to select an adequate methodology of their preparation because it determines their size and shape. Among the most commonly applied methods of preparation of nanoparticles chemical and electrochemical techniques are leading. However, currently growing attention is directed into the biological or biochemical aspects of syntheses of metallic nanoparticles. This is associated with a trend of developing of new routes of preparation of given compounds according to the principles of green chemistry. These principles involve e.g. the reduction of the use of toxic compounds in the synthesis as well as the reduction of the energy demand or minimization of the generated waste. As a result, a growing popularity of the use of such components as natural plant extracts, infusions or essential oils is observed. Such natural substances may be used both as a reducing agent of metal ions and as a stabilizing agent of formed nanoparticles therefore they can replace synthetic compounds previously used for the reduction of metal ions or for the stabilization of obtained nanoparticles suspension. Methods that proceed in the presence of previously mentioned natural compounds are environmentally friendly and proceed without the application of any toxic reagents. Methodology: Presented research involves preparation of silver nanoparticles using selected plant extracts, e.g. artichoke extract. Extracts of natural origin were used as reducing and stabilizing agents at the same time. Furthermore, syntheses were carried out in the presence of additional polymeric stabilizing agent. Next, such features of obtained suspensions of nanoparticles as total antioxidant activity as well as content of phenolic compounds have been characterized. First of the mentioned studies involved the reaction with DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical. The content of phenolic compounds was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu technique. Furthermore, an essential issue was also the determining of the stability of formed suspensions of nanoparticles. Conclusions: In the research it was demonstrated that metallic nanoparticles may be obtained using plant extracts or infusions as stabilizing or reducing agent. The methodology applied, i.e. a type of plant extract used during the synthesis, had an impact on the content of phenolic compounds as well as on the size and polydispersity of obtained nanoparticles. What is more, it is possible to prepare nano-size particles that will be characterized by properties desirable from the viewpoint of their potential application and such an effect may be achieved with the use of non-toxic reagents of natural origin. Furthermore, proposed methodology stays in line with the principles of green chemistry.

Keywords: Metallic Nanoparticles, Plant Extracts, green chemistry principles, stabilization of nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
1 Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs, Plant Extracts, and Characterized Microparticles to Modulate Antimicrobial Resistance of Epidemic Meca Positive S. Aureus of Dairy Origin

Authors: Amjad I. Aqib, Shanza R. Khan, Tanveer Ahmad, Syed A. R. Shah, Muhammad A. Naseer, Muhammad Shoaib, Iqra Sarwar, Muhammad F. A. Kulyar, Zeeshan A. Bhutta, Mumtaz A. Khan, Mahboob Ali, Khadija Yasmeen

Abstract:

The current study focused on resistance modulation of dairy linked epidemic mec A positive S. aureus for resistance modulation by plant extract (Eucalyptus globolus, Calotropis procera), NSAIDs, and star like microparticles. Zinc oxide {ZnO}c and {Zn (OH)₂} microparticles were synthesized by solvothermal method and characterized by calcination, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Plant extracts were prepared by the Soxhlet extraction method. The study found 34% of subclinical samples (n=200) positive for S. aureus from dairy milk having significant (p < 0.05) association of assumed risk factors with pathogen. The antimicrobial assay showed 55, 42, 41, and 41% of S. aureus resistant to oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, and enoxacin. Amoxicillin showed the highest percentage of increase in zone of inhibitions (ZOI) at 100mg of Calotropis procera extract (31.29%) followed by 1mg/mL (28.91%) and 10mg/mL (21.68%) of Eucalyptus globolus. Amoxicillin increased ZOI by 42.85, 37.32, 29.05, and 22.78% in combination with 500 ug/ml with each of diclofenac, aspirin, ibuprofen, and meloxicam, respectively. Fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) showed synergism of amoxicillin with diclofenac and aspirin and indifferent synergy with ibuprofen and meloxicam. The preliminary in vitro finding of combination of microparticles with amoxicillin proved to be synergistic, giving rise to 26.74% and 14.85% increase in ZOI of amoxicillin in combination with zinc oxide and zinc hydroxide, respectively. The modulated antimicrobial resistance incurred by NSAIDs, plant extracts, and microparticles against pathogenic S. aureus invite immediate attention to probe alternative antimicrobial sources.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Antimicrobial resistance, Plant Extracts, S. aureus, dairy milk, NSIDs, resistance modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 1