Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

plant extract Related Abstracts

10 The Green Synthesis AgNPs from Basil Leaf Extract

Authors: Wanida Wonsawat

Abstract:

Bioreduction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver ions (Ag+) using water extract of Thai basil leaf was successfully carried out. The basil leaf extract provided a reducing agent and stabilizing agent for a synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles received from cut and uncut basil leaf was compared. The resulting silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The maximum intensities of silver nanoparticle from cut and uncut basil leaf were 410 and 420, respectively. The techniques involved are simple, eco-friendly and rapid.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, Silver Nanoparticles, basil leaves, plant extract

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9 Assessing Antimicrobial Activity of Various Plant Extracts on Midgutmicroflora of Aedesaegypti

Authors: V. Baweja, K. K. Gupta, V. Dubey, C. Keshavam

Abstract:

Antimicrobial activity of six indigenous plants such as Tulsi Ocimum sanctum, Neem Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera, Turmeric Curcuma longa, Lantana Lantana camara, and Clove Syzygium aromaticum was assessed against the gut microbiota of the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, keeping in view that the presence of midgut bacteria may affect the ability of the vector to transmit pathogens. Eleven different types of bacterial clones were isolated from the midgut of lab-reared fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and were grown on LB agar medium at an optimum temperature of 25 ºC. Identification of these bacteria was done on the basis of their colony characteristic such as colony size, shape, opacity, elevation, consistency, and growth. Light microscopic studies of the gut microbiota revealed dominance of Gram-negative cocci over gram positive cocci and bacilli and Gram-negative bacilli. Identification of species was done by chemical characterization of the colonies. Crude extracts of all test plants were screened for their antimicrobial activities against gut microbiota by disc diffusion assay. The zone of exclusion seen after 24 hr of incubation in different assays revealed the most potent antibacterial activities in neem followed by clove and turmeric. Lantana and Aloe vera were least effective.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Dengue, plant extract, aedes

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8 Management of Fungal Diseases of Onion (Allium cepa L.) by Using Plant Extracts

Authors: Shobha U. Jadhav, R. S. Saler

Abstract:

Onion is most Important Vegetable crop grown throughout the world. Onion suffers from pest and fungal diseases but the fungicides cause pollution and disturb microbial balance of soil. Under integrated fungal disease management programme cost effective and eco- friendly component like plant extract are used to control plant pathogens. Alternaria porri, Fusarium oxysporium, Stemphylium vesicarium are soil borne pathogens of onion. Effect of three different plant extract (Datura metel, Pongamia pinnata, Ipomoea palmata) at five different concentration Viz, 10,25,50,75 and 100 percentage on these pathogens was studied by food poisoning techniquie. Detura metal gave 94.73% growth of Alternaria porri at 10% extract concentraton and 26.31% growth in 100% extract concentration. As compared to Fusarium oxysporium, and Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria porri give good inhibitory response. In Pongamia pinnata L. at 10% extract concentration 84.21% growth and at 100% extract concentration 36.84% growth of Stemphylium vesicarium was observed. Stemphylium vesicarium give good in inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Fusarium oxysporium. Ipomoea palmata in 10% extract concentration 92% growth and in 100% extract concentration 40% growth of Fusarium oxysporium was recorded. Fusarium oxysporium give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and, Stemphylium vesicarium.

Keywords: pathogen, plant extract, onion, Allium cepa L

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7 Solvent Effects on Anticancer Activities of Medicinal Plants

Authors: Jawad Alzeer

Abstract:

Natural products are well recognized as sources of drugs in several human ailments. To investigate the impact of variable extraction techniques on the cytotoxic effects of medicinal plant extracts, 5 well-known medicinal plants from Palestine were extracted with 90% ethanol, 80% methanol, acetone, coconut water, apple vinegar, grape vinegar or 5% acetic acid. The resulting extracts were screened for cytotoxic activities against three different cancer cell lines (B16F10, MCF-7, and HeLa) using a standard resazurin-based cytotoxicity assay and Nile Blue A as the positive control. Highly variable toxicities and tissue sensitivity were observed, depending upon the solvent used for extraction. Acetone consistently gave lower extraction yields but higher cytotoxicity, whereas other solvent systems gave much higher extraction yields with lower cytotoxicity. Interestingly, coconut water was found to offer a potential alternative to classical organic solvents; it gave consistently highest extraction yields, and in the case of S. officinalis L., highly toxic extracts towards MCF-7 cells derived from human breast cancer. These results demonstrate how the cytotoxicity of plant extracts can be inversely proportional to the yield, and that solvent selection plays an important role in both factors.

Keywords: Natural Products, Cytotoxicity, plant extract, anti cancer drug

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6 Effects of Specific Essential Oil Compounds on, Feed Intake, Milk Production, and Ruminal Environment in Dairy Cows during Heat Exposure

Authors: Kamran Reza-Yazdi, Mohammad Fallah, Mahdi Khodaparast, Farshad Kateb, Morteza Hosseini-Ghaffari

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine effect of dietary essential oil (EO) compounds, which contained cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, peppermint, coriander, cumin, lemongrass, and an organic carrier on feed intake, milk composition, and rumen fermentation of dairy cows during heat exposure. Thirty-two Holstein cows (days in milk= 60 ± 5) were assigned to one of two treatment groups: a Control and EO fed. The experiment lasted 28 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) was measured daily while and milk production was measured weekly. Our result showed that DMI and milk yield was decreased (P < 0.01) in control cows relative to EO cows. Furthermore, supplementation with EO was associated with a decrease in the molar proportion of propionate (P < 0.05) and increase (P < 0.05) in acetate to propionate ratio. In conclusion, EO supplementations in diets can be useful nutritional modification to alleviate for the decrease DMI and milk production during heat exposure in lactating dairy cows.

Keywords: eugenol, plant extract, dairy cow, feed additive

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5 Activity of Some Plant Extracts on the Larvae and Eggs of Culex quinquefasciatus in the Laboratory

Authors: A. A. El Maghrbi

Abstract:

The control of vectors like mosquitoes based on the application of chemical insecticides but due to its adverse effect on the environment, and development of resistance by most of species of mosquitoes including vectors of important diseases. Ethanol and acetone extracts of nine species of plants (Allium tuberosum, Apium leptophylum, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia cotinofolia, Melia azedarach, Ocimum canum, Ricinus common, and Tagetes erecta) were tested in respect of their influence on the eggs and larvae of Culex quinquifasciatus in concentration 100, 10 and 1 mg/L. In relation to the survival of larvae, ethanol extract of O. canum and acetone extract of A.tuberosum in 100 mg/L have larvicide activity against L4 of Cx. quinquifasciatus. For hatching of eggs, ethanol and acetone extract of A.tuberosum (100 and 10 mg/L) and acetone extract of C.citratus (100 mg/L) produced reduction in the number of eggs hatched of Cx. quinquifasciatus. Our results indicate that each extract of the plant have potential to control mosquito population and suggest that further studies are needed in this field.

Keywords: Ethanol, acetone, plant extract, Cx. quinquefasciatus, larvae, eggs

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4 Enrichment of the Antioxidant Activity of Decaffeinated Assam Green Tea by Herbal Plant: A Synergistic Effect

Authors: Abhijit Das, Runu Chakraborty

Abstract:

Tea is the most widely consumed beverage aside from water; it is grown in about 30 countries with a per capita worldwide consumption of approximately 0.12 liter per year. Green tea is of growing importance with its antioxidant contents associated with its health benefits. The various extraction methods can influence the polyphenol concentrations of green tea. The purpose of the study was to quantify the polyphenols, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of both caffeinated and decaffeinated form of tea manufactured commercially in Assam, North Eastern part of India. The results display that phenolic/flavonoid content well correlated with antioxidant activity which was performed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma) assay. After decaffeination there is a decrease in the polyphenols concentration which also affects the antioxidant activity of green tea. For the enrichment of antioxidant activity of decaffeinated tea a herbal plant extract is used which shows a synergistic effect between green tea and herbal plant phenolic compounds.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, plant extract, green tea, flavonoid content, decaffeination, phenolic content

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3 Efficacy of Some Plant Extract against Larvae and Pupae of American Bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) including the Effect on Peritropme Membrane

Authors: Deepali Lal, Sudha Summerwar, Jyoutsna Pandey

Abstract:

The resistance of pesticide by the pest is an important matter of concern.The pesticide of plant origin having nontoxic biodegradable and environmentally friendly qualities. The frequent spraying of toxic chemicals is developing resistance to the pesticide. Leaf powder of the plants like Argimone mexicana and Calotropis procera is prepared, Different doses of these plant extracts are given to the Fourth in star stages of Helicoverpa armigera through feeding methods, to find their efficacy the experimental findings will be put under analysis using various parameters. The effect on paritrophic membrane is also studied.

Keywords: Alcohol, Cotton, acetone, plant extract, distillation plant, pipette, castor leaves, grams pods, larvae of helicoverpa armigera, vails, jars

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2 The Influence of Newest Generation Butyrate Combined with Acids, Medium Chain Fatty Acids and Plant Extract on the Performance and Physiological State of Laying Hens

Authors: Vilma Sasyte, Vilma Viliene, Agila Dauksiene, Asta Raceviciute-Stupeliene, Romas Gruzauskas, Virginijus Slausgalvis, Jamal Al-Saifi

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of butyrate, acids, medium-chain fatty acids and plant extract mixture on performance, blood and gastrointestinal tract characteristics of laying hens’. For the period of 8 weeks, 24 Hisex Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments: 1) control wheat-corn-soybean meal based diet (Control group), 2) control diet supplemented with the mixture of butyrate, acids, medium chain fatty acids and plant extract (Lumance®) at the level of 1.5 g/kg of feed (Experimental group). Hens were fed with a crumbled diet at 125 g per day. Housing and feeding conditions were the same for all groups and met the requirements of growth for laying hens of Hisex Brown strain. In the blood serum total protein, bilirubin, cholesterol, DTL- and MTL- cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, GGT, GOT, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, alpha amylase, contents of c-reactive protein, uric acid, and lipase were analyzed. Development of intestines and internal organs (intestinal length, intestinal weight, the weight of glandular and muscular stomach, pancreas, heart, and liver) were determined. The concentration of short chain fatty acids in caecal content was measured using the method of HPLC. The results of the present study showed that 1.5 g/kg supplementation of feed additive affected egg production and feed conversion ratio for the production of 1 kg of egg mass. Dietary supplementation of analyzed additive in the diets increased the concentration of triglycerides, GOT, alkaline phosphatase and decreased uric acid content compared with the control group (P<0.05). No significant difference for others blood indices in comparison to the control was observed. The addition of feed additives in laying hens’ diets increased intestinal weight by 11% and liver weight by 14% compared with the control group (P<0.05). The short chain fatty acids (propionic, acetic and butyric acids) in the caecum of laying hens in experimental groups decreased compared with the control group. The supplementation of the mixture of butyrate, acids, medium-chain fatty acids and plant extract at the level of 1.5 g/kg in the laying hens’ diets had the effect on the performance, some gastrointestinal tract function and blood parameters of laying hens.

Keywords: Performance, plant extract, laying hens, acids, butyrate, MCFA, psysiological state

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1 Antibacterial Effects of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Extracts on Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Pear Orchards

Authors: Kubilay Kurtulus Bastas

Abstract:

Bacterial diseases are very destructive and cause economic losses on pears. Promising plant extracts for the management of plant diseases are environmentally safe, long-lasting and extracts of certain plants contain alkaloids, tannins, quinones, coumarins, phenolic compounds, and phytoalexins. In this study, bacteria were isolated from different parts of pear exhibiting characteristic symptoms of bacterial diseases from the Central Anatolia, Turkey. Pathogenic bacteria were identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular methods as fire blight (Erwinia amylovora (39%)), bacterial blossom blast and blister bark (Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (22%)), crown gall (Rhizobium radiobacter (1%)) from different pear cultivars, and determined virulence levels of the pathogens with pathogenicity tests. The air-dried 25 plant material was ground into fine powder and extraction was performed at room temperature by maceration with 80% (v/v) methanol/distilled water. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by using modified disc diffusion method at five different concentrations and streptomycin sulphate was used as control chemical. Bacterial suspensions were prepared as 108 CFU ml⁻¹ densities and 100 µl bacterial suspensions were spread to TSA medium. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the inhibition zones in reference to the test organisms. Among the tested plants, Origanum vulgare, Hedera helix, Satureja hortensis, Rhus coriaria, Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis, Cuminum cyminum and Thymus vulgaris showed a good antibacterial activity and they inhibited the growth of the pathogens with inhibition zone diameter ranging from 7 to 27 mm at 20% (w/v) in absolute methanol in vitro conditions. In vivo, the highest efficacy was determined as 27% on reducing tumor formation of R. radiobacter, and 48% and 41% on reducing shoot blight of E. amylovora and P. s. pv. syringae on pear seedlings, respectively. Obtaining data indicated that some plant extracts may be used against the bacterial diseases on pome fruits within sustainable and organic management programs.

Keywords: Organic, Bacteria, plant extract, pear, eco-friendly management

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