Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

pKa Related Abstracts

2 Determination and Qsar Modelling of Partitioning Coefficients for Some Xenobiotics in Soils and Sediments

Authors: Alaa El-Din Rezk

Abstract:

For organic xenobiotics, sorption to Aldrich humic acid is a key process controlling their mobility, bioavailability, toxicity and fate in the soil. Hydrophobic organic compounds possessing either acid or basic groups can be partially ionized (deprotonated or protonated) within the range of natural soil pH. For neutral and ionogenicxenobiotics including (neutral, acids and bases) sorption coefficients normalized to organic carbon content, Koc, have measured at different pH values. To this end, the batch equilibrium technique has been used, employing SPME combined with GC-MSD as an analytical tool. For most ionogenic compounds, sorption has been affected by both pH and pKa and can be explained through Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. The results demonstrate that when assessing the environmental fate of ionogenic compounds, their pKa and speciation under natural conditions should be taken into account. A new model has developed to predict the relationship between log Koc and pH with full statistical evaluation against other existing predictive models. Neutral solutes have displayed a good fit with the classical model using log Kow as log Koc predictor, whereas acidic and basic compounds have displayed a good fit with the LSER approach and the new proposed model. Measurement limitations of the Batch technique and SPME-GC-MSD have been found with ionic compounds.

Keywords: Humic Acid , log Koc, pKa, SPME-GCMSD

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1 Chloride Ion Channels Play a Role in Mediating Immune Response during Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

Authors: Hani M. Alothaid, Louise Robson, Richmond Muimo

Abstract:

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease that affects respiratory function and in EU it affects about 1 in 2,500 live births with an average 40-year life expectancy. This disease caused by mutations within the gene encoding the CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) chloride channel leading to dysregulation of epithelial fluid transport and chronic lung inflammation, suggesting functional alterations of immune cells. In airways, CFTR been found to form a functional complex with S100A10 and AnxA2 in a cAMP/PKA dependent manner. The multiprotein complex of AnxA2-S100A10 and CFTR is also regulated by calcineurin. The aim of this study was i) to investigate whether chloride ion (Cl−) channels are activated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS from PA), ii) if this activation is regulated by cAMP/PKA/calcineurin pathway and iii) to investigate the role of LPS-activated Cl− channels in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by immune cells. Human peripheral blood monocytes were used in the study. Whole-cell patch records showed that LPS from PA can activate Cl− channels, including CFTR and outwardly-rectifying Cl− channel (ORCC). This activation appears to require an intact PKA/calcineurin signalling pathway. The Gout in the presence of LPS was significantly inhibited by diisothiocyanatostilbene-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an ORCC blocker (p<0.001). The Gout was further suppressed by CFTR(inh)-172, a specific inhibitor for CFTR channels (p<0.001). Monocytes pre-incubated with PKA inhibitor or calcineurin inhibitor before stimulated with LPS from PA that were resulted in DIDS and CFTR(inh)-172 insensitive currents. Activation of both ORCC and CFTR was however, observed in response to monocytes exposure to LPS. Additionally, ELISA showed that the CFTR and ORCC play a role in mediating the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β upon exposure of monocytes to LPS. However, this secretion was significantly inhibited due to CFTR and ORCC inhibition. However, Cl− may play a role in IL-1β release independent of cAMP/PKA/calcineurin signalling due to the enhancement of IL-1β secretion even when cAMP/PKA/calcineurin pathway was inhibited. In conclusion, our data confirmed that LPS from PA activates Cl− channels in human peripheral blood monocytes. Our data also confirmed that Cl− channels were involved in IL-1β release in monocytes upon exposure to LPS. However, it has been found that PKA and calcineurin does not seem to influence the Cl− dependent cytokine release.

Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pKa, annexin A2, CFTR, S100A10, PP2B, outwardly-rectifying Cl− channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 37