Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Pipeline Related Abstracts

12 Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of the Harmfulness of Defects in Oil Pipes

Authors: B. Medjadji, L. Aminallah, B. Serier, M. Benlebna


In this study, the finite element method in 3-D is used to calculate the integral J in the semi-elliptical crack in a pipe subjected to internal pressure. The stress-strain curve of the pipe has been determined experimentally. The J-integral was calculated in two fronts crack (Ф = 0 and Ф = π/2). The effect of the configuration of the crack on the J integral is analysed. The results show that an external longitudinal crack in a pipe is the most dangerous. It also shows that the increase in the applied pressure causes a remarkable increase of the integral J. The effect of the depth of the crack becomes important when the ratio between the depth of the crack and the thickness of the pipe (a / t) tends to 1.

Keywords: Pipeline, crack, J integral, MEF

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11 Implementation of a Baseline RISC for the Realization of a Dynamically Reconfigurable Processor

Authors: Hajer Najjar, Riad Bourguiba, Jaouhar Mouine


Reduced instruction set computer (RISC) processors are widely used because of their multiple advantages. In fact, they are based on a simple instruction set so that they increase the speed of the processor and reduce its energy consumption. In this paper, we will present a basic RISC architecture processor that will be developed later to converge to a new architecture with runtime reconfiguration.

Keywords: Processor, Pipeline, RISC, DLX, runtime reconfiguration

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10 Quantitative Analysis of Multiprocessor Architectures for Radar Signal Processing

Authors: Deepak Kumar, Debasish Deb, Reena Mamgain


Radar signal processing requires high number crunching capability. Most often this is achieved using multiprocessor platform. Though multiprocessor platform provides the capability of meeting the real time computational challenges, the architecture of the same along with mapping of the algorithm on the architecture plays a vital role in efficiently using the platform. Towards this, along with standard performance metrics, few additional metrics are defined which helps in evaluating the multiprocessor platform along with the algorithm mapping. A generic multiprocessor architecture can not suit all the processing requirements. Depending on the system requirement and type of algorithms used, the most suitable architecture for the given problem is decided. In the paper, we study different architectures and quantify the different performance metrics which enables comparison of different architectures for their merit. We also carried out case study of different architectures and their efficiency depending on parallelism exploited on algorithm or data or both.

Keywords: Hybrid, Parallel, Efficiency, Radar Signal Processing, Pipeline, load imbalance, multiprocessor architecture, buffer requirement, cluster of processors (COPs)

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9 Sustainable Technologies for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

Authors: Ahmed Stifi, Sascha Gentes


The German nuclear industry, while implementing the German policy, believes that the journey towards the green-field, namely phasing out of nuclear energy, should be achieved through green techniques. The most important techniques required for the wide range of decommissioning activities are decontamination techniques, cutting techniques, radioactivity measuring techniques, remote control techniques, techniques for worker and environmental protection and techniques for treating, preconditioning and conditioning nuclear waste. Many decontamination techniques are used for removing contamination from metal, concrete or other surfaces like the scales inside pipes. As the pipeline system is one of the important components of nuclear power plants, the process of decontamination in tubing is of more significance. The development of energy sectors like oil sector, gas sector and nuclear sector, since the middle of 20th century, increased the pipeline industry and the research in the decontamination of tubing in each sector is found to serve each other. The extraction of natural products and material through the pipeline can result in scale formation. These scales can be radioactively contaminated through an accumulation process especially in the petrochemical industry when oil and gas are extracted from the underground reservoir. The radioactivity measured in these scales can be significantly high and pose a great threat to people and the environment. At present, the decontamination process involves using high pressure water jets with or without abrasive material and this technology produces a high amount of secondary waste. In order to overcome it, the research team within Karlsruhe Institute of Technology developed a new sustainable method to carry out the decontamination of tubing without producing any secondary waste. This method is based on vibration technique which removes scales and also does not require any auxiliary materials. The outcome of the research project proves that the vibration technique used for decontamination of tubing is environmental friendly in other words a sustainable technique.

Keywords: Sustainable Technologies, decontamination, Pipeline, nuclear industry

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8 Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Graphene-Modified Epoxy Resin for Pipeline Repair

Authors: Siti Nur Afifah Azraai, Lim Kar Sing, Nordin Yahaya, Norhazilan Md Noor


This experimental study consists of a characterization of epoxy grout where an amount of 2% of graphene nanoplatelets particles were added to commercial epoxy resin to evaluate their behavior regarding neat epoxy resin. Compressive tests, tensile tests and flexural tests were conducted to study the effect of graphene nanoplatelets on neat epoxy resin. By comparing graphene-based and neat epoxy grout, there is no significant increase of strength due to weak interface in the graphene nanoplatelets/epoxy composites. From this experiment, the tension and flexural strength of graphene-based epoxy grouts is slightly lower than ones of neat epoxy grout. Nevertheless, the addition of graphene has produced more consistent results according to a smaller standard deviation of strength. Furthermore, the graphene has also improved the ductility of the grout, hence reducing its brittle behaviour. This shows that the performance of graphene-based grout is reliably predictable and able to minimize sudden rupture. This is important since repair design of damaged pipeline is of deterministic nature.

Keywords: Composite, Pipeline, epoxy resin, graphene nanoplatelets

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7 An Overview of Corroded Pipe Repair Techniques Using Composite Materials

Authors: Lim Kar Sing, Siti Nur Afifah Azraai, Norhazilan Md Noor, Nordin Yahaya


Polymeric composites are being increasingly used as repair material for repairing critical infrastructures such as building, bridge, pressure vessel, piping and pipeline. Technique in repairing damaged pipes is one of the major concerns of pipeline owners. Considerable researches have been carried out on the repair of corroded pipes using composite materials. This article attempts a short review of the subject matter to provide insight into various techniques used in repairing corroded pipes, focusing on a wide range of composite repair systems. These systems including pre-cured layered, flexible wet lay-up, pre-impregnated, split composite sleeve and flexible tape systems. Both advantages and limitations of these repair systems were highlighted. Critical technical aspects have been discussed through the current standards and practices. Research gaps and future study scopes in achieving more effective design philosophy are also presented.

Keywords: Composite Materials, Polymers, Pipeline, repair technique

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6 A Pipeline for Detecting Copy Number Variation from Whole Exome Sequencing Using Comprehensive Tools

Authors: Cheng-Yang Lee, Petrus Tang, Tzu-Hao Chang


Copy number variations (CNVs) have played an important role in many kinds of human diseases, such as Autism, Schizophrenia and a number of cancers. Many diseases are found in genome coding regions and whole exome sequencing (WES) is a cost-effective and powerful technology in detecting variants that are enriched in exons and have potential applications in clinical setting. Although several algorithms have been developed to detect CNVs using WES and compared with other algorithms for finding the most suitable methods using their own samples, there were not consistent datasets across most of algorithms to evaluate the ability of CNV detection. On the other hand, most of algorithms is using command line interface that may greatly limit the analysis capability of many laboratories. We create a series of simulated WES datasets from UCSC hg19 chromosome 22, and then evaluate the CNV detective ability of 19 algorithms from OMICtools database using our simulated WES datasets. We compute the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in each algorithm for validation of the exome-derived CNVs. After comparison of 19 algorithms from OMICtools database, we construct a platform to install all of the algorithms in a virtual machine like VirtualBox which can be established conveniently in local computers, and then create a simple script that can be easily to use for detecting CNVs using algorithms selected by users. We also build a table to elaborate on many kinds of events, such as input requirement, CNV detective ability, for all of the algorithms that can provide users a specification to choose optimum algorithms.

Keywords: Pipeline, whole exome sequencing, copy number variations, omictools

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5 Estimation of Elastic Modulus of Soil Surrounding Buried Pipeline Using Multi-Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Won Mog Choi, Seong Kyeong Hong, Seok Young Jeong


The stress on the buried pipeline under pavement is significantly affected by vehicle loads and elastic modulus of the soil surrounding the pipeline. The correct elastic modulus of soil has to be applied to the finite element model to investigate the effect of the vehicle loads on the buried pipeline using finite element analysis. The purpose of this study is to establish the approach to calculating the correct elastic modulus of soil using the optimization process. The optimal elastic modulus of soil, which minimizes the difference between the strain measured from vehicle driving test at the velocity of 35km/h and the strain calculated from finite element analyses, was calculated through the optimization process using multi-response surface methodology. Three elastic moduli of soil (road layer, original soil, dense sand) surrounding the pipeline were defined as the variables for the optimization. Further analyses with the optimal elastic modulus at the velocities of 4.27km/h, 15.47km/h, 24.18km/h were performed and compared to the test results to verify the applicability of multi-response surface methodology. The results indicated that the strain of the buried pipeline was mostly affected by the elastic modulus of original soil, followed by the dense sand and the load layer, as well as the results of further analyses with optimal elastic modulus of soil show good agreement with the test.

Keywords: Optimization, Pipeline, response surface methodology, elastic modulus of soil

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4 An Environmental Method for Renovation of Sewer Systems in Building Structures

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi


Degradation of building materials particularly pipelines causes environmental damage during the renovation or replacement, disturbance for people living in the buildings, is time-consuming and last but not least is very costly. Rehabilitation by composite materials is a solution for renovation of degraded pipeline in residential buildings and any other structures which is less costly, faster and causes less damage to the environment. This study provides a brief state of technology, methods, and materials which are being used in Nordic and some other European countries and an investigation on the performance of the relined pipes after they have been in working condition. The investigation was carried by different analyses in laboratory as well as numerous field inspections.

Keywords: Polymer Materials, Rehabilitation, Buildings, Pipeline

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3 3-D Numerical Model for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around an Offshore Pipeline

Authors: Zuodong Liang, Dong-Sheng Jeng


Seabed instability around an offshore pipeline is one of key factors that need to be considered in the design of offshore infrastructures. Unlike previous investigations, a three-dimensional numerical model for the wave-induced soil response around an offshore pipeline is proposed in this paper. The numerical model was first validated with 2-D experimental data available in the literature. Then, a parametric study will be carried out to examine the effects of wave, seabed characteristics and confirmation of pipeline. Numerical examples demonstrate significant influence of wave obliquity on the wave-induced pore pressures and the resultant seabed liquefaction around the pipeline, which cannot be observed in 2-D numerical simulation.

Keywords: Pore Pressure, Pipeline, seabed liquefaction

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2 Supply Chain of Energy Resources and Its Alternatives Due to the Arab Spring: The Case of Egyptian Natural Gas Flow to Jordan

Authors: Moh’d Anwer Al-Shboul


The year 2011 was a challenging year for Jordanian economy, which felt a variety of effects from the Arab Spring which took place in neighboring countries. Since February, 5th 2012, the Arab Gas Supply Pipeline, which carries natural gas from Egypt through the Sinai Peninsula and to Jordan and Israel, has been attacked more than 39 times. Jordan imported about 80 percent of its necessity of natural gas (about 250 million cubic feet of natural gas per day) from Egypt to generate particularly electricity, with the reminder of being produced locally. Jordan has utilized multiple alternatives to address the interruption of available natural gas supply from Egypt. The Jordanian distributed power plants now rely on the use of heavy fuel oil and diesel for electricity generation, in this case, it costs Jordan about four times than natural gas. The substitution of Egyptian natural gas supplies by fuel oil and diesel, coupled with the 32 percent rise in global fuel prices, has increased Jordan’s energy import bill by over 50 percent in 2011, reaching more than 16 percent of the 2011 GDP. The increase in the cost of electricity generation pushed the Jordanian economy to borrow from multiple internal and external resource channels, thus increasing the public debt. The Jordanian government’s short-term solution to the reduced natural gas supply from Egypt was alternatively purchasing the necessary quantities from some Gulf countries such as Qatar and/or Saudi Arabia, which can be imported with two possible methods. The first method is to rent a ship equipped with a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal, which is currently operating. The second method requires equipping the Aqaba port with an LNG terminal, which also currently is operating. In the long-term, a viable solution to depending on importing expensive and often unreliable natural gas supplies from surrounding countries is to depend more heavily on renewable supply energy, including solar, wind, and water energy.

Keywords: arab spring, Liquefied Natural Gas, Pipeline, jordan, energy supply resources

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1 Experimental Stress Analysis on Pipeline in Condition of Frost Heave and Thaw Settlement

Authors: Zhiqiang Cheng, Qingliang He, Lu Li, Jie Ren


The safety of pipelines in the condition of frost heave or thaw settlement is necessarily evaluated. A full-scale experiment pipe with the typical structure configuration in station pipeline is constructed, the residual stress is tested with X-ray residual stress device, and the residual stress field of pipe is analyzed. The evolution of pipe strain with pressure in the scope of maximum allowable operation pressure (MAOP) is investigated by both strain gauge and X-ray methods. Load caused by frost heave or thaw settlement is simulated by two ways of lifting jack. The relation of maximum stress of pipe and clearances between supporter and pipe is studied in case of frost heave. The relation of maximum stress of pipe and maximum deformation of pipe on the ground is studied in case of thaw settlement. The study methods and results are valuable for safety assessment of station pipeline according to clearances or deformation in the condition of frost heave or thaw settlement.

Keywords: stress analysis, Pipeline, frost heave, thaw settlement

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