Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Piles Related Abstracts

9 Wetting-Drying Cycles Effect on Piles Embedded in a Very High Expansive Soil

Authors: Bushra Suhail, Laith Kadim

Abstract:

The behavior of model piles embedded in a very high expansive soil was investigated, a specially manufactured saturation-drying tank was used to apply three cycles of wetting and drying to the expansive soil surrounding the model straight shaft and under reamed piles, the relative movement of the piles with respect to the soil surface was recorded with time, also the exerted uplift pressure of the piles due to soil swelling was recorded. The behavior of unloaded straight shaft and under reamed piles was investigated. Two design charts were presented for straight shaft and under reamed piles one for the required pile depth for zero upward movement due to soil swelling, the other for the required pile depth to exert zero uplift pressure when the soil swells. Under reamed piles showed a decrease in upward movement of 20% to 40%, and an uplift pressure decrease of 10% to 30%.

Keywords: Piles, expansive soil, under reamed, structural and geotechnical engineering

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8 Influence of Nonlinearity of Concrete and Reinforcement Using Micropiles on the Seismic Interaction of Soil-Piles-Bridge

Authors: Mohanad Alfach, Amjad Al Helwani

Abstract:

Post-seismic observations of recent devastating earthquakes have shown that the behavior of the soil-pile-structure shows strong nonlinearity of soil and concrete under intensive seismic loading. Many of pile ruptures recently observed after the strong earthquake due to structural reasons (development of plastic hinges in the piles). The most likely reason for this rupture is the exceeding of maximum bending moment supported by the pile at several points. An analysis of these problems is necessary to take into account the nonlinearity of concrete, the strategy of strengthening the damaged piles and the interaction of these piles with the proposed strengthening by using micropiles. This study aims to investigate the interaction aspects for soil-piles- micropiles-structure using a global approach with a three dimensional finite difference code Flac 3D (Fast lagrangian analysis of continua in 3 dimensions).

Keywords: Concrete, Seismic, Interaction, Nonlinear, Piles, micropiles, three-dimensional

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7 A Simple Computational Method for the Gravitational and Seismic Soil-Structure-Interaction between New and Existent Buildings Sites

Authors: Ion MIERLUS MAZILU, Nicolae Daniel Stoica

Abstract:

This work is one of numerical research and aims to address the issue of the design of new buildings in a 3D location of existing buildings. In today's continuous development and congestion of urban centers is a big question about the influence of the new buildings on an already existent vicinity site. Thus, in this study, we tried to focus on how existent buildings may be affected by any newly constructed buildings and in how far this influence is really decreased. The problem of modeling the influence of interaction between buildings is not simple in any area in the world, and neither in Romania. Unfortunately, most often the designers not done calculations that can determine how close to reality these 3D influences nor the simplified method and the more superior methods. In the most literature making a "shield" (the pilots or molded walls) is absolutely sufficient to stop the influence between the buildings, and so often the soil under the structure is ignored in the calculation models. The main causes for which the soil is neglected in the analysis are related to the complexity modeling of interaction between soil and structure. In this paper, based on a new simple but efficient methodology we tried to determine for a lot of study cases the influence, in terms of assessing the interaction land structure on the behavior of structures that influence a new building on an existing one. The study covers additional subsidence that may occur during the execution of new works and after its completion. It also highlighted the efforts diagrams and deflections in the soil for both the original case and the final stage. This is necessary to see to what extent the expected impact of the new building on existing areas.

Keywords: Interaction, Soil, Structure, Earthquakes, Piles

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6 Finite Element Modelling of Mechanical Connector in Steel Helical Piles

Authors: Ramon Omar Rosales-Espinoza

Abstract:

Pile-to-pile mechanical connections are used if the depth of the soil layers with sufficient bearing strength exceeds the original (“leading”) pile length, with the additional pile segment being termed “extension” pile. Mechanical connectors permit a safe transmission of forces from leading to extension pile while meeting strength and serviceability requirements. Common types of connectors consist of an assembly of sleeve-type external couplers, bolts, pins, and other mechanical interlock devices that ensure the transmission of compressive, tensile, torsional and bending stresses between leading and extension pile segments. While welded connections allow for a relatively simple structural design, mechanical connections are advantageous over welded connections because they lead to shorter installation times and significant cost reductions since specialized workmanship and inspection activities are not required. However, common practices followed to design mechanical connectors neglect important aspects of the assembly response, such as stress concentration around pin/bolt holes, torsional stresses from the installation process, and interaction between the forces at the installation (torsion), service (compression/tension-bending), and removal stages (torsion). This translates into potentially unsatisfactory designs in terms of the ultimate and service limit states, exhibiting either reduced strength or excessive deformations. In this study, the experimental response under compressive forces of a type of mechanical connector is presented, in terms of strength, deformation and failure modes. The tests revealed that the type of connector used can safely transmit forces from pile to pile. Using the results from the compressive tests, an analysis model was developed using the finite element (FE) method to study the interaction of forces under installation and service stages of a typical mechanical connector. The response of the analysis model is used to identify potential areas for design optimization, including size, gap between leading and extension piles, number of pin/bolts, hole sizes, and material properties. The results show the design of mechanical connectors should take into account the interaction of forces present at every stage of their life cycle, and that the torsional stresses occurring during installation are critical for the safety of the assembly.

Keywords: steel, FEA, Piles, mechanical connector

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5 Behavior of the Foundation of Bridge Reinforced by Rigid and Flexible Inclusions

Authors: T. Karech A. Noui, T. Bouzid

Abstract:

This article presents a comparative study by numerical analysis of the behavior of reinforcements of clayey soils by flexible columns (stone columns) and rigid columns (piles). The numerical simulation was carried out in 3D for an assembly of foundation, columns and a pile of a bridge. Particular attention has been paid to take into account the installation of the columns. Indeed, in practice, due to the compaction of the column, the soil around it sustains a lateral expansion and the horizontal stresses are increased. This lateral expansion of the column can be simulated numerically. This work represents a comparative study of the interaction between the soil on one side, and the two types of reinforcement on the other side, and their influence on the behavior of the soil and of the pile of a bridge.

Keywords: Interaction, Settlement, Piles, foundation, consolidation, stone columns

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4 Effect of Installation Method on the Ratio of Tensile to Compressive Shaft Capacity of Piles in Dense Sand

Authors: A. C. Galvis-Castro, R. D. Tovar, R. Salgado, M. Prezzi

Abstract:

It is generally accepted that the shaft capacity of piles in the sand is lower for tensile loading that for compressive loading. So far, very little attention has been paid to the role of the influence of the installation method on the tensile to compressive shaft capacity ratio. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of installation method on the tensile to compressive shaft capacity of piles in dense sand as observed in tests on half-circular model pile tests in a half-circular calibration chamber with digital image correlation (DIC) capability. Model piles are either monotonically jacked, jacked with multiple strokes or pre-installed into the dense sand samples. Digital images of the model pile and sand are taken during both the installation and loading stages of each test and processed using the DIC technique to obtain the soil displacement and strain fields. The study provides key insights into the mobilization of shaft resistance in tensile and compressive loading for both displacement and non-displacement piles.

Keywords: Sand, Piles, digital image correlation, shaft resistance

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3 Curative Effect of Blumea lacera Leaves on Experimental Haemorrhoids in Rats

Authors: Priyanka Sharma, Tarkewshwar Dubey, Hemalatha Siva

Abstract:

Hemorrhoids are one of the most common anorectal diseases around the world. Severalfactors are involved in causing hemorrhoids including irregularbowel function (constipation, diarrhea), exercise, gravity, low fiberdiet, pregnancy, obesity, high abdominal pressure, prolongedsitting, genetic factors, and aging. Pain, bleeding, itching,swelling and anal discharge are the symptoms of the disease. Due to limitedmodern pharmacotherapeutic options available for treatment, theherbal medicines remain the choice of therapy. Blumea lacera (Burm f.) DC. belonging to the Asteraceae family is a common plain land weed of Bangladesh. Traditionally it has been used for treatment of hemorrhoids.Considering the above fact, present study was aimed to validate the ethnomedicinal use of B. lacera leaves on experimental hemorrhoids in rats. The anti-hemorrhoid activity was performed by using croton oil induced rat models. The parameters studied were assessment of TNF-α and IL-6, Evans blue exudation, macroscopic severity score, recto-anal coefficient, histomorphological scores. Also, in vivo antioxidant parameters and histopathological studies were also performed. All paramaters exhibited significant anti-hemorrhoid activity. Moreover ethanolic extract of B. lacera (EBL) leaves 400mg/kg showed ameliorative effect oncroton oil induced hemorrhoids.In conclusion, EBL exhibitedbeneficial effect on croton oil- induced hemorrhoids and validates its ethnomedicinal use in treatment of piles.

Keywords: Piles, IL-6, TNF-α, haemorrhoids

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2 Solar Photovoltaic Foundation Design

Authors: Daniel John Avutia

Abstract:

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) development is reliant on the sunlight hours available in a particular region to generate electricity. A potential area is assessed through its inherent solar radiation intensity measured in watts per square meter. Solar energy development involves the feasibility, design, construction, operation and maintenance of the relevant infrastructure, but this paper will focus on the design and construction aspects. Africa and Australasia have the longest sunlight hours per day and the highest solar radiation per square meter, 7 sunlight hours/day and 5 kWh/day respectively. Solar PV support configurations consist of fixed-tilt support and tracker system structures, the differentiation being that the latter was introduced to improve the power generation efficiency of the former due to the sun tracking movement capabilities. The installation of Solar PV foundations involves rammed piles, drilling/grout piles and shallow raft reinforced concrete structures. This paper presents a case study of 2 solar PV projects in Africa and Australia, discussing the foundation design consideration and associated construction cost implications of the selected foundations systems. Solar PV foundations represent up to one fifth of the civil works costs in a project. Therefore, the selection of the most structurally sound and feasible foundation for the prevailing ground conditions is critical towards solar PV development. The design wind speed measured by anemometers govern the pile embedment depth for rammed and drill/grout foundation systems. The lateral pile deflection and vertical pull out resistance of piles increase proportionally with the embedment depth for uniform pile geometry and geology. The pile driving rate may also be used to anticipate the lateral resistance and skin friction restraining the pile. Rammed pile foundations are the most structurally suitable due to the pile skin friction and ease of installation in various geological conditions. The competitiveness of solar PV projects within the renewable energy mix is governed by lowering capital expenditure, improving power generation efficiency and power storage technological advances. The power generation reliability and efficiency are areas for further research within the renewable energy niche.

Keywords: Design, Solar, Foundations, Piles

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1 An Analytical Approach to Calculate Thermo-Mechanical Stresses in Integral Abutment Bridge Piles

Authors: Jafar Razmi

Abstract:

Integral abutment bridges are bridges that do not have joints. If these bridges are subject to large seasonal and daily temperature variations, the expansion and contraction of the bridge slab is transferred to the piles. Since the piles are deep into the soil, displacement induced by slab can cause bending and stresses in piles. These stresses cause fatigue and failure of piles. A complex mechanical interaction exists between the slab, pile, soil and abutment. This complex interaction needs to be understood in order to calculate the stresses in piles. This paper uses a mechanical approach in developing analytical equations for the complex structure to determine the stresses in piles. The solution to these analytical solutions is developed and compared with finite element analysis results and experimental data. Our comparison shows that using analytical approach can accurately predict the displacement in piles. This approach offers a simplified technique that can be utilized without the need for computationally extensive finite element model.

Keywords: Piles, integral abutment bridges, thermo-mechanical stress, stress and strains

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