Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

pile group Related Abstracts

6 The Pile Group Efficiency for Different Embedment Lengths in Dry Sand

Authors: Mohamed M. Shahin

Abstract:

This study investigated the design of the pile foundation to support heavy structures-especially bridges for highways-in the Sahara, which contains many dunes of medium dense sand in different levels, where the foundation is supposed to be piles. The base resistance of smooth model pile groups in sand under static loading is investigated experimentally in a pile soil test apparatus. Improvement were made to the sand around the piles in order to increase the shaft resistance of the single pile and the pile groups, and also base resistance especially for the central pile in pile groups. The study outlines the behaviour of a single-pile, 4-, 5-, and 9- pile groups arranged in a doubly symmetric [square] layout with different embedment lengths and pile spacing in loose dry sand [normal] and dense dry sand [compacted] around the piles. This study evaluate the variation of the magnitude and the proportion of end bearing capacity of individual piles in different pile groups. Also to investigate the magnitude of the efficiency coefficient in the case of different pile groups.

Keywords: pile group, base resistance, efficiency coefficient, pile spacing, pile-soil interaction

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5 Effects of Axial Loads and Soil Density on Pile Group Subjected to Triangular Soil Movement

Authors: Ihsan Al-Abboodi, Tahsin Toma-Sabbagh

Abstract:

Laboratory tests have been carried out to investigate the response of 2x2 pile group subjected to triangular soil movement. The pile group was instrumented with displacement and tilting devices at the pile cap and strain gauges on two piles of the group. In this paper, results from four model tests were presented to study the effects of axial loads and soil density on the lateral behavior of piles. The responses in terms of bending moment, shear force, soil pressure, deflection, and rotation of piles were compared. Test results indicate that increasing the soil strength could increase the measured moment, shear, soil pressure, and pile deformations. Most importantly, adding loads to the pile cap induces additional moment to the head of front-pile row unlike the back-pile row which was influenced insignificantly.

Keywords: pile group, passive piles, lateral soil movement, soil density, axial loads

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4 Collapse Load Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Pile Group in Liquefying Soils under Lateral Loading

Authors: Pavan K. Emani, Shashank Kothari, V. S. Phanikanth

Abstract:

The ultimate load analysis of RC pile groups has assumed a lot of significance under liquefying soil conditions, especially due to post-earthquake studies of 1964 Niigata, 1995 Kobe and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The present study reports the results of numerical simulations on pile groups subjected to monotonically increasing lateral loads under design amounts of pile axial loading. The soil liquefaction has been considered through the non-linear p-y relationship of the soil springs, which can vary along the depth/length of the pile. This variation again is related to the liquefaction potential of the site and the magnitude of the seismic shaking. As the piles in the group can reach their extreme deflections and rotations during increased amounts of lateral loading, a precise modeling of the inelastic behavior of the pile cross-section is done, considering the complete stress-strain behavior of concrete, with and without confinement, and reinforcing steel, including the strain-hardening portion. The possibility of the inelastic buckling of the individual piles is considered in the overall collapse modes. The model is analysed using Riks analysis in finite element software to check the post buckling behavior and plastic collapse of piles. The results confirm the kinds of failure modes predicted by centrifuge test results reported by researchers on pile group, although the pile material used is significantly different from that of the simulation model. The extension of the present work promises an important contribution to the design codes for pile groups in liquefying soils.

Keywords: Liquefaction, pile group, collapse load analysis, inelastic buckling

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3 Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Deep Excavation on Adjacent Pile Groups Subjected to Inclined Loading

Authors: Ashkan Shafee, Ahmad Fahimifar

Abstract:

There is a growing demand for construction of high-rise buildings and infrastructures in large cities, which sometimes require deep excavations in the vicinity of pile foundations. In this study, a two-dimensional finite element analysis is used to gain insight into the response of pile groups adjacent to deep excavations in sand. The numerical code was verified by available experimental works, and a parametric study was performed on different working load combinations, excavation depth and supporting system. The results show that the simple two-dimensional plane strain model can accurately simulate the excavation induced changes on adjacent pile groups. It was found that further excavation than pile toe level and also inclined loading on adjacent pile group can severely affect the serviceability of the foundation.

Keywords: pile group, deep excavation, inclined loading, lateral deformation

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2 Evaluation of Natural Frequency of Single and Grouped Helical Piles

Authors: Maryam Shahbazi, Amy B. Cerato

Abstract:

The importance of a systems’ natural frequency (fn) emerges when the vibration force frequency is equivalent to foundation's fn which causes response amplitude (resonance) that may cause irreversible damage to the structure. Several factors such as pile geometry (e.g., length and diameter), soil density, load magnitude, pile condition, and physical structure affect the fn of a soil-pile system; some of these parameters are evaluated in this study. Although experimental and analytical studies have assessed the fn of a soil-pile system, few have included individual and grouped helical piles. Thus, the current study aims to provide quantitative data on dynamic characteristics of helical pile-soil systems from full-scale shake table tests that will allow engineers to predict more realistic dynamic response under motions with variable frequency ranges. To evaluate the fn of single and grouped helical piles in dry dense sand, full-scale shake table tests were conducted in a laminar box (6.7 m x 3.0 m with 4.6 m high). Two different diameters (8.8 cm and 14 cm) helical piles were embedded in the soil box with corresponding lengths of 3.66m (excluding one pile with length of 3.96) and 4.27m. Different configurations were implemented to evaluate conditions such as fixed and pinned connections. In the group configuration, all four piles with similar geometry were tied together. Simulated real earthquake motions, in addition to white noise, were applied to evaluate the wide range of soil-pile system behavior. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of measured time history responses using installed strain gages and accelerometers were used to evaluate fn. Both time-history records using accelerometer or strain gages were found to be acceptable for calculating fn. In this study, the existence of a pile reduced the fn of the soil slightly. Greater fn occurred on single piles with larger l/d ratios (higher slenderness ratio). Also, regardless of the connection type, the more slender pile group which is obviously surrounded by more soil, yielded higher natural frequencies under white noise, which may be due to exhibiting more passive soil resistance around it. Relatively speaking, within both pile groups, a pinned connection led to a lower fn than a fixed connection (e.g., for the same pile group the fn’s are 5.23Hz and 4.65Hz for fixed and pinned connections, respectively). Generally speaking, a stronger motion causes nonlinear behavior and degrades stiffness which reduces a pile’s fn; even more, reduction occurs in soil with a lower density. Moreover, fn of dense sand under white noise signal was obtained 5.03 which is reduced by 44% when an earthquake with the acceleration of 0.5g was applied. By knowing the factors affecting fn, the designer can effectively match the properties of the soil to a type of pile and structure to attempt to avoid resonance. The quantitative results in this study assist engineers in predicting a probable range of fn for helical pile foundations under potential future earthquake, and machine loading applied forces.

Keywords: Stiffness, natural frequency, pile group, shake table, helical pile

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1 Numerical Investigations on Group Piles’ Lateral Bearing Capacity Considering Interaction of Soil and Structure

Authors: Mahdi Sadeghian, Mahmoud Hassanlourad, Alireza Ardakani, Reza Dinarvand

Abstract:

In this research, the behavior of monopiles, under lateral loads, was investigated with vertical and oblique piles by Finite Element Method. In engineering practice when soil-pile interaction comes to the picture some simplifications are applied to reduce the design time. As a simplified replacement of soil and pile interaction analysis, pile could be replaced by a column. The height of the column would be equal to the free length of the pile plus a portion of the embedded length of it. One of the important factors studied in this study was that columns with an equivalent length (free length plus a part of buried depth) could be used instead of soil and pile modeling. The results of the analysis show that the more internal friction angle of the soil increases, the more the bearing capacity of the soil is achieved. This additional length is 6 to 11 times of the pile diameter in dense soil although in loose sandy soil this range might increase.

Keywords: Soil-Structure Interaction, pile group, lateral bearing capacity, Depth of fixity, Oblique pile

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