Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

piezoelectric Related Abstracts

23 Development of a New Piezoelectrically Actuated Micropump for Liquid and Gas

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chih-Jer Lin, Chun-Ying Lee, Chiang-Ho Cheng

Abstract:

This paper aims to present the design, fabrication and test of a novel piezoelectric actuated, check-valves embedded micropump having the advantages of miniature size, light weight and low power consumption. This device is designed to pump gases and liquids with the capability of performing the self-priming and bubble-tolerant work mode by maximizing the stroke volume of the membrane as well as the compression ratio via minimization of the dead volume of the micropump chamber and channel. By experiment apparatus setup, we can get the real-time values of the flow rate of micropump, the displacement of the piezoelectric actuator and the deformation of the check valve, simultaneously. The micropump with check valve 0.4 mm in thickness obtained higher output performance under the sinusoidal waveform of 120 Vpp. The micropump achieved the maximum pumping rates of 42.2 ml/min and back pressure of 14.0 kPa at the corresponding frequency of 28 and 20 Hz. The presented micropump is able to pump gases with a pumping rate of 196 ml/min at operating frequencies of 280 Hz under the sinusoidal waveform of 120 Vpp.

Keywords: Actuator, check-valve, micropump, piezoelectric

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22 Energy Harvesting with Zinc Oxide Based Nanogenerator: Design and Simulation Using Comsol-4.3 Software

Authors: Akanksha Rohit, Ujjwala Godavarthi, Anshua Mukherjee

Abstract:

Nanotechnology is one of the promising sustainable solutions in the era of miniaturization due to its multidisciplinary nature. The most interesting aspect about nanotechnology is its wide ranging applications from electronics to military and biomedical. It tries to connect individuals more closely to the environment. In this paper, concept of parasitic energy harvesting is used in designing nanogenerators using COMSOL 4.3 software. The output of the nanogenerator is optimized using following constraints: ease of availability of the material, fabrication process and cost of the material. The nanogenerator is optimized using ZnO based nanowires, PMMA as insulator and aluminum and silicon as metal electrodes. The energy harvested from the model can be used to power nanobots, several other biomedical sensors and eventually to replace batteries. Thus, advancements in this field can be very challenging but it is the future of the nano era.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Engineering, zinc oxide, piezoelectric, PMMA, parasitic energy harvesting

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21 Optimization of Energy Harvesting Systems for RFID Applications

Authors: P. Chambe, B. Canova, A. Balabanian, M. Pele, N. Coeur

Abstract:

To avoid battery assisted tags with limited lifetime batteries, it is proposed here to replace them by energy harvesting systems, able to feed from local environment. This would allow total independence to RFID systems, very interesting for applications where tag removal from its location is not possible. Example is here described for luggage safety in airports, and is easily extendable to similar situation in terms of operation constraints. The idea is to fix RFID tag with energy harvesting system not only to identify luggage but also to supply an embedded microcontroller with a sensor delivering luggage weight making it impossible to add or to remove anything from the luggage during transit phases. The aim is to optimize the harvested energy for such RFID applications, and to study in which limits these applications are theoretically possible. Proposed energy harvester is based on two energy sources: piezoelectricity and electromagnetic waves, so that when the luggage is moving on ground transportation to airline counters, the piezo module supplies the tag and its microcontroller, while the RF module operates during luggage transit thanks to readers located along the way. Tag location on the luggage is analyzed to get best vibrations, as well as harvester better choice for optimizing the energy supply depending on applications and the amount of energy harvested during a period of time. Effects of system parameters (RFID UHF frequencies, limit distance between the tag and the antenna necessary to harvest energy, produced voltage and voltage threshold) are discussed and working conditions for such system are delimited.

Keywords: Energy harvesting, piezoelectric, RFID tag, EM waves

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20 Prediction of the Performance of a Bar-Type Piezoelectric Vibration Actuator Depending on the Frequency Using an Equivalent Circuit Analysis

Authors: J. H. Kim, J. H. Kwon, J. S. Park, K. J. Lim

Abstract:

This paper has investigated a technique that predicts the performance of a bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency. This paper has been proposed an equivalent circuit that can be easily analyzed for the bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator. In the dynamic analysis, rigidity and resonance frequency, which are important mechanical elements, were derived using the basic beam theory. In the equivalent circuit analysis, the displacement and bandwidth of the piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency were predicted. Also, for the reliability of the derived equations, the predicted performance depending on the shape change was compared with the result of a finite element analysis program.

Keywords: Performance, Actuator, piezoelectric, unimorph

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19 Optimal Design of Polymer Based Piezoelectric Actuator with Varying Thickness and Length Ratios

Authors: Geetika Srivastava, Vineet Tiwari, R. K. Dwivedi

Abstract:

Piezoelectric cantilevers are exploited for their use in sensors and actuators. In this study, a unimorph cantilever beam is considered as a study element with a piezoelectric polymer Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) layer bonded to a substrate layer. The different substrates like polysilicon, stainless steel and silicon nitride are tried for the study. An effort has been made to optimize and study the effect of the various parameters of the device in order to achieve maximum tip deflection. The variation of the tip displacement of the cantilever with respect to the length ratio of the nonpiezoelectric layer to the piezoelectric layer has been studied. The electric response of this unimorph cantilever beam is simulated with the help of finite element analysis software COMSOL Multiphysics.

Keywords: Sensors, Actuators, piezoelectric, cantilever, PVDF

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18 Development of Piezoelectric Gas Micropumps with the PDMS Check Valve Design

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Ming-Yu Lai, Hon-Yi Cheng

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and fabrication of a novel piezoelectric actuator for a gas micropump with check valve having the advantages of miniature size, light weight and low power consumption. The micropump is designed to have eight major components, namely a stainless steel upper cover layer, a piezoelectric actuator, a stainless steel diaphragm, a PDMS chamber layer, two stainless steel channel layers with two valve seats, a PDMS check valve layer with two cantilever-type check valves and an acrylic substrate. A prototype of the gas micropump, with a size of 52 mm × 50 mm × 5.0 mm, is fabricated by precise manufacturing. This device is designed to pump gases with the capability of performing the self-priming and bubble-tolerant work mode by maximizing the stroke volume of the membrane as well as the compression ratio via minimization of the dead volume of the micropump chamber and channel. By experiment apparatus setup, we can get the real-time values of the flow rate of micropump and the displacement of the piezoelectric actuator, simultaneously. The gas micropump obtained higher output performance under the sinusoidal waveform of 250 Vpp. The micropump achieved the maximum pumping rates of 1185 ml/min and back pressure of 7.14 kPa at the corresponding frequency of 120 and 50 Hz.

Keywords: micropump, piezoelectric, PDMS, check valve

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17 Development of a Sprayable Piezoelectric Material for E-Textile Applications

Authors: K. Yang, Y. Wei, M. Zhang, S. Yong, R. Torah, J. Tudor, S. Beeby

Abstract:

E-textiles are traditional textiles with integrated electronic functionality. It is an emerging innovation with numerous applications in fashion, wearable computing, health and safety monitoring, and the military and medical sectors. The piezoelectric effect is a widespread and versatile transduction mechanism used in sensor and actuator applications. Piezoelectric materials produce electric charge when stressed. Conversely, mechanical deformation occurs when an electric field is applied across the material. Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) is a widely used piezoceramic material which has been used to fabricate e-textiles through screen printing, electro spinning and hydrothermal synthesis. This paper explores an alternative fabrication process: Spray coating. Spray coating is a straightforward and cost effective fabrication method applicable on both flat and curved surfaces. It can also be applied selectively by spraying through a stencil which enables the required design to be realised on the substrate. This work developed a sprayable PZT based piezoelectric ink consisting of a binder (Fabink-Binder-01), PZT powder (80 % 2 µm and 20 % 0.8 µm) and acetone as a thinner. The optimised weight ratio of PZT/binder is 10:1. The components were mixed using a SpeedMixer DAC 150. The fabrication processes is as follows: 1) Screen print a UV-curable polyurethane interface layer on the textile to create a smooth textile surface. 2) Spray one layer of a conductive silver polymer ink through a pre-designed stencil and dry at 90 °C for 10 minutes to form the bottom electrode. 3) Spray three layers of the PZT ink through a pre-designed stencil and dry at 90 °C for 10 minutes for each layer to form a total thickness of ~250µm PZT layer. 4) Spray one layer of the silver ink through a pre-designed stencil on top of the PZT layer and dry at 90 °C for 10 minutes to form the top electrode. The domains of the PZT elements were aligned by polarising the material at an elevated temperature under a strong electric field. A d33 of 37 pC/N has been achieved after polarising at 90 °C for 6 minutes with an electric field of 3 MV/m. The application of the piezoelectric textile was demonstrated by fabricating a pressure sensor to switch an LED on/off. Other potential applications on e-textiles include motion sensing, energy harvesting, force sensing and a buzzer.

Keywords: PZT, piezoelectric, spray coating, pressure sensor, e-textile

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16 Design and Fabrication of an Array Microejector Driven by a Shear-Mode Piezoelectric Actuator

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Hong-Yih Cheng, Tung-Hsun Hsu

Abstract:

This paper reports a novel actuating design that uses the shear deformation of a piezoelectric actuator to deflect a bulge-diaphragm for driving an array microdroplet ejector. In essence, we employed a circular-shaped actuator poled radial direction with remnant polarization normal to the actuating electric field for inducing the piezoelectric shear effect. The array microdroplet ejector consists of a shear type piezoelectric actuator, a vibration plate, two chamber plates, two channel plates and a nozzle plate. The vibration, chamber and nozzle plate components are fabricated using nickel electroforming technology, whereas the channel plate is fabricated by etching of stainless steel. The diaphragm displacement was measured by the laser two-dimensional scanning vibrometer. The ejected droplets of the microejector were also observed via an optic visualization system.

Keywords: Actuator, nozzle, piezoelectric, microejector

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15 Dependence of Dielectric Properties on Sintering Conditions of Lead Free KNN Ceramics Modified With Li-Sb

Authors: K. Chandramani Singh, Radhapiyari Laishram, Roopam Gaur

Abstract:

In order to produce lead free piezoceramics with optimum piezoelectric and dielectric properties, KNN modified with Li+ (as an A site dopant) and Sb5+ (as a B site dopant) (K0.49Na0.49Li0.02) (Nb0.96Sb0.04) O3 (referred as KNLNS in this paper) have been synthesized using solid state reaction method and conventional sintering technique. The ceramics were sintered in the narrow range of 10500C-10900C for 2-3 hours to get precise information about sintering parameters. Detailed study of dependence of microstructural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties on sintering conditions was then carried out. The study suggests that the volatility of the highly hygroscopic KNN ceramics is not only sensitive to sintering temperatures but also to sintering durations. By merely reducing the sintering duration for a given sintering temperature we saw an increase in the density of the samples which was supported by the increase in dielectric constants of the ceramics. And since density directly or indirectly affects almost all the associated properties, other dielectric and piezoelectric properties were also enhanced as we approached towards the most suitable sintering temperature and duration combination.

Keywords: piezoelectric, kNN, dielectric, conventional sintering

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14 Piezoelectric Approach on Harvesting Acoustic Energy

Authors: Eng Hwa Yap, Khin Fai Chen, Jee-Hou Ho

Abstract:

An acoustic micro-energy harvester (AMEH) is developed to convert wasted acoustical energy into useful electrical energy. AMEH is mathematically modeled using lumped element modelling (LEM) and Euler-Bernoulli beam (EBB) modelling. An experiment is designed to validate the mathematical model and assess the feasibility of AMEH. Comparison of theoretical and experimental data on critical parameter value such as Mm, Cms, dm and Ceb showed the variances are within 1% to 6%, which is reasonably acceptable. Hence, AMEH mathematical model is validated. Then, AMEH undergoes bandwidth tuning for performance optimization for further experimental work. The AMEH successfully produces 0.9 V⁄(m⁄s^2) and 1.79 μW⁄(m^2⁄s^4) at 60Hz and 400kΩ resistive load which only show variances about 7% compared to theoretical data. By integrating a capacitive load of 200µF, the discharge cycle time of AMEH is 1.8s and the usable energy bandwidth is available as low as 0.25g. At 1g and 60Hz resonance frequency, the averaged power output is about 2.2mW which fulfilled a range of wireless sensors and communication peripherals power requirements. Finally, the design for AMEH is assessed, validated and deemed as a feasible design.

Keywords: acoustic, piezoelectric, energy harvester

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13 Analog Voltage Inverter Drive for Capacitive Load with Adaptive Gain Control

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Tae-Sam Kang, Ki-Seok Kim, Yong-Ho Cho

Abstract:

Piezoelectric actuator is treated as RC load when it is modeled electrically. For some piezoelectric actuator applications, arbitrary voltage is required to actuate. Especially for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, some special inverter with circuit that can charge and discharge the capacitive energy can be used. In this case, the difference between power supply level and the object voltage level for RC load is varied. Because the control gain is constant, the controlled output is not uniform according to the voltage difference. In this paper, for charge and discharge circuit for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator, the controller gain is controlled according to the voltage difference. With the proposed simple idea, the load voltage can have controlled smoothly although the voltage difference is varied. The appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, piezoelectric, analog voltage inverter, capacitive load, gain control, voltage waveform

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12 Braille Code Matrix

Authors: Mohammed E. A. Brixi Nigassa, Nassima Labdelli, Ahmed Slami, Arnaud Pothier, Sofiane Soulimane

Abstract:

According to the world health organization (WHO), there are almost 285 million people with visual disability, 39 million of these people are blind. Nevertheless, there is a code for these people that make their life easier and allow them to access information more easily; this code is the Braille code. There are several commercial devices allowing braille reading, unfortunately, most of these devices are not ergonomic and too expensive. Moreover, we know that 90 % of blind people in the world live in low-incomes countries. Our contribution aim is to concept an original microactuator for Braille reading, as well as being ergonomic, inexpensive and lowest possible energy consumption. Nowadays, the piezoelectric device gives the better actuation for low actuation voltage. In this study, we focus on piezoelectric (PZT) material which can bring together all these conditions. Here, we propose to use one matrix composed by six actuators to form the 63 basic combinations of the Braille code that contain letters, numbers, and special characters in compliance with the standards of the braille code. In this work, we use a finite element model with Comsol Multiphysics software for designing and modeling this type of miniature actuator in order to integrate it into a test device. To define the geometry and the design of our actuator, we used physiological limits of perception of human being. Our results demonstrate in our study that piezoelectric actuator could bring a large deflection out-of-plain. Also, we show that microactuators can exhibit non uniform compression. This deformation depends on thin film thickness and the design of membrane arm. The actuator composed of four arms gives the higher deflexion and it always gives a domed deformation at the center of the deviceas in case of the Braille system. The maximal deflection can be estimated around ten micron per Volt (~ 10µm/V). We noticed that the deflection according to the voltage is a linear function, and this deflection not depends only on the voltage the voltage, but also depends on the thickness of the film used and the design of the anchoring arm. Then, we were able to simulate the behavior of the entire matrix and thus display different characters in Braille code. We used these simulations results to achieve our demonstrator. This demonstrator is composed of a layer of PDMS on which we put our piezoelectric material, and then added another layer of PDMS to isolate our actuator. In this contribution, we compare our results to optimize the final demonstrator.

Keywords: microactuators, Braille code, piezoelectric, comsol software

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11 Modeling of an Insulin Mircopump

Authors: Nassima Labdelli, Ahmed Slami, Arnaud Pothier, Sofiane Soulimane, Med El Amine Brixi Nigassa

Abstract:

Many people suffer from diabetes, a disease marked by abnormal levels of sugar in the blood; 285 million people have diabetes, 6.6% of the world adult population (in 2010), according to the International Diabetes Federation. Insulin medicament is invented to be injected into the body. Generally, the injection requires the patient to do it manually. However, in many cases he will be unable to inject the drug, saw that among the side effects of hyperglycemia is the weakness of the whole body. The researchers designed a medical device that injects insulin too autonomously by using micro-pumps. Many micro-pumps of concepts have been investigated during the last two decades for injecting molecules in blood or in the body. However, all these micro-pumps are intended for slow infusion of drug (injection of few microliters by minute). Now, the challenge is to develop micro-pumps for fast injections (1 microliter in 10 seconds) with accuracy of the order of microliter. Recently, studies have shown that only piezoelectric actuators can achieve this performance, knowing that few systems at the microscopic level were presented. These reasons lead us to design new smart microsystems injection drugs. Therefore, many technological advances are still to achieve the improvement of materials to their uses, while going through their characterization and modeling action mechanisms themselves. Moreover, it remains to study the integration of the piezoelectric micro-pump in the microfluidic platform features to explore and evaluate the performance of these new micro devices. In this work, we propose a new micro-pump model based on piezoelectric actuation with a new design. Here, we use a finite element model with Comsol software. Our device is composed of two pumping chambers, two diaphragms and two actuators (piezoelectric disks). The latter parts will apply a mechanical force on the membrane in a periodic manner. The membrane deformation allows the fluid pumping, the suction and discharge of the liquid. In this study, we present the modeling results as function as device geometry properties, films thickness, and materials properties. Here, we demonstrate that we can achieve fast injection. The results of these simulations will provide quantitative performance of our micro-pumps. Concern the spatial actuation, fluid rate and allows optimization of the fabrication process in terms of materials and integration steps.

Keywords: Microfluidic, piezoelectric, comsol software, micro-pump

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10 Electrospun Zinc Oxide Nanowires as Highly Sensitive Piezoelectric Transduction Elements for Nano-Scale Devices

Authors: K. Brince Paul, Nagendra Pratap Singh, Shiv Govind Singh, Siva Rama Krishna Vanjari

Abstract:

In this paper, we report optimized procedure for synthesizing highly oriented, horizontally aligned, Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires targeted towards developing highly sensitive piezoelectric transduction elements. The synthesis was carried out using Electrospinning technique, a facile, robust, low cost technique for producing nanowires. The as-synthesized ZnO nanowires were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Field Emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).The Piezoelectric behavior of these nanowires was characterized using Peizoelectric Force microscopy (PFM). A very high d33 coefficient of 23.1 pm/V obtained through the PFM measurements is an indicative of its potential application towards developing miniaturized piezoelectric transduction elements for nanoscale devices.

Keywords: Electrospinning, Technique, zinc oxide, piezoelectric

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9 Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors: Based Force Sensor Array for Occlusal Force Measurement

Authors: Chih-Han Chang, Sheng-Che Chen, Hao-Yuan Tseng, Keng-Ren Lin, Che-Hsin Lin

Abstract:

Teeth play an important role in providing the essential nutrients. The force loading of chewing on the crow is important condition to evaluate long-term success of many dental treatments. However, the quantification of the force regarding forces are distributed over the dental crow is still not well recognized. This study presents an industrial-grade piezoelectric-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) force sensor for measuring the distribution of the force distribute over the first molar. The developed sensor array is based on a flexible polyimide electrode and barium titanate-based MLCCs. MLCCs are commonly used in the electronic industry and it is a typical electric component composed of BaTiO₃, which is used as a capacitive material. The most important is that it also can be used as a force-sensing component by its piezoelectric property. In this study, to increase the sensitivity as well as to reduce the variation of different MLCCs, a treatment process is utilized. The MLCC force sensors are able to measure large forces (above 500 N), making them suitable for measuring the bite forces on the tooth crown. Moreover, the sensors also show good force response and good repeatability.

Keywords: piezoelectric, occlusal force, force sensor array, multilayer ceramic capacitors

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8 Effect of Rotation on Love Wave Propagation in Piezoelectric Medium with Corrugation

Authors: Soniya Chaudhary

Abstract:

The present study analyses the propagation of Love wave in rotating piezoelectric layer lying over an elastic substrate with corrugated boundaries. The appropriate solutions in the considered medium satisfy the required boundary conditions to obtain the dispersion relation of Love wave for charge free as well as electrically shorted cases. The effects of rotation are shown by graphically on the non-dimensional speed of the Love wave. In addition to classical case, some existing results have been deduced as particular case of the present study. The present study may be useful in rotation sensor and SAW devices.

Keywords: piezoelectric, dispersion relation, corrugation, love wave

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7 Enhanced Energy Powers via Composites of Piezoelectric CH₃NH₃PbI₃ and Flexoelectric Zn-Al:Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) Nanosheets

Authors: Soon-Gil Yoon, Min-Ju Choi, Sung-Ho Shin, Junghyo Nah, Jin-Seok Choi, Hyun-A Song, Goeun Choi, Jin-Ho Choy

Abstract:

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with positively charged brucite-like layers and negatively charged interlayer anions are considered a critical nanoscale building block with potential for application in catalysts, biological sensors, and optical, electrical, and magnetic devices. LDHs also have a great potential as an energy conversion device, a key component in common modern electronics. Although LDHs are theoretically predicted to be centrosymmetric, we report here the first observations of the flexoelectric nature of LDHs and demonstrate their potential as an effective energy conversion material. We clearly show a linear energy conversion relationship between the output powers and curvature radius via bending with both the LDH nanosheets and thin films, revealing a direct evidence for flexoelectric effects. These findings potentially open up avenues to incorporate a flexoelectric coupling phenomenon into centrosymmetric materials such as LDHs and to harvest high-power energy using LDH nanosheets. In the present study, for enhancement of the output power, Zn-Al:LDH nanosheets were composited with piezoelectric CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) dye films and their enhanced energy harvesting was demonstrated in detail.

Keywords: Energy harvesting, piezoelectric, layered double hydroxides, flexoelectric

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6 Design and Fabrication of Micro-Bubble Oxygenator

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Hong-Yih Cheng

Abstract:

This paper applies the MEMS technology to design and fabricate a micro-bubble generator by a piezoelectric actuator. Coupled with a nickel nozzle plate, an annular piezoelectric ceramic was utilized as the primary structure of the generator. In operations, the piezoelectric element deforms transversely under an electric field applied across the thickness of the generator. The surface of the nozzle plate can expand or contract because of the induction of radial strain, resulting in the whole structure to bend, and successively transport oxygen micro-bubbles into the blood flow for enhancing the oxygen content in blood. In the tests, a high magnification microscope and a high speed CCD camera were employed to photograph the time evolution of meniscus shape of gaseous bubbles dispensed from the micro-bubble generator for flow visualization. This investigation thus explored the bubble formation process including the influences of inlet gas pressure along with driving voltage and resonance frequency on the formed bubble extent.

Keywords: nozzle, piezoelectric, micro-bubble, oxygenator

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5 Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric-Based AC Current Measuring Sensor

Authors: Akbar Allahverdizadeh, Behnam Dadashzadeh, Easa Ali Abbasi, Reza Jahangiri

Abstract:

Electrical current measurement is a suitable method for the performance determination of electrical devices. There are two contact and noncontact methods in this measuring process. Contact method has some disadvantages like having direct connection with wire which may endamage the system. Thus, in this paper, a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beam which has a permanent magnet on its free end is used to measure electrical current in a noncontact way. In mathematical modeling, based on Galerkin method, the governing equation of the cantilever beam is solved, and the equation presenting the relation between applied force and beam’s output voltage is presented. Magnetic force resulting from current carrying wire is considered as the external excitation force of the system. The results are compared with other references in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the mathematical model. Finally, the effects of geometric parameters on the output voltage and natural frequency are presented.

Keywords: cantilever beam, piezoelectric, electrical current measurement, forced excitation

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4 Comparative Investigation of Two Non-Contact Prototype Designs Based on a Squeeze-Film Levitation Approach

Authors: C. Mares, A. Almurshedi, M. Atherton, T. Stolarski, M. Miyatake

Abstract:

Transportation and handling of delicate and lightweight objects is currently a significant issue in some industries. Two common contactless movement prototype designs, ultrasonic transducer design and vibrating plate design, are compared. Both designs are based on the method of squeeze-film levitation, and this study aims to identify the limitations, and challenges of each. The designs are evaluated in terms of levitation capabilities, and characteristics. To this end, theoretical and experimental explorations are made. It is demonstrated that the ultrasonic transducer prototype design is better suited to the terms of levitation capabilities. However, the design has some operating and mechanical designing difficulties. For making accurate industrial products in micro-fabrication and nanotechnology contexts, such as semiconductor silicon wafers, micro-components and integrated circuits, non-contact oil-free, ultra-precision and low wear transport along the production line is crucial for enabling. One of the designs (design A) is called the ultrasonic chuck, for which an ultrasonic transducer (Langevin, FBI 28452 HS) comprises the main part. Whereas the other (design B), is a vibrating plate design, which consists of a plain rectangular plate made of Aluminium firmly fastened at both ends. The size of the rectangular plate is 200x100x2 mm. In addition, four rounded piezoelectric actuators of size 28 mm diameter with 0.5 mm thickness are glued to the underside of the plate. The vibrating plate is clamped at both ends in the horizontal plane through a steel supporting structure. In addition, the dynamic of levitation using the designs (A and B) has been investigated based on the squeeze film levitation (SFL). The input apparatus that is used with designs consist of a sine wave signal generator connected to an amplifier type ENP-1-1U (Echo Electronics). The latter has to be utilised to magnify the sine wave voltage that is produced by the signal generator. The measurements of the maximum levitation for three different semiconductor wafers of weights 52, 70 and 88 [g] for design A are 240, 205 and 187 [um], respectively. Whereas the physical results show that the average separation distance for a disk of 5 [g] weight for design B reaches 70 [um]. By using the methodology of squeeze film levitation, it is possible to hold an object in a non-contact manner. The analyses of the investigation outcomes signify that the non-contact levitation of design A provides more improvement than design B. However, design A is more complicated than design B in terms of its manufacturing. In order to identify an adequate non-contact SFL design, a comparison between two common such designs has been adopted for the current investigation. Specifically, the study will involve making comparisons in terms of the following issues: floating component geometries and material type constraints; final created pressure distributions; dangerous interactions with the surrounding space; working environment constraints; and complication and compactness of the mechanical design. Considering all these matters is essential for proficiently distinguish the better SFL design.

Keywords: ANSYS, piezoelectric, floating, squeeze-film

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3 Modeling of Microelectromechanical Systems Diaphragm Based Acoustic Sensor

Authors: Vasudha Hegde, Narendra Chaulagain, H. M. Ravikumar, Sonu Mishra, Siva Yellampalli

Abstract:

Acoustic sensors are extensively used in recent days not only for sensing and condition monitoring applications but also for small scale energy harvesting applications to power wireless sensor networks (WSN) due to their inherent advantages. The natural frequency of the structure plays a major role in energy harvesting applications since the sensor key element has to operate at resonant frequency. In this paper, circular diaphragm based MEMS acoustic sensor is modelled by Lumped Element Model (LEM) and the natural frequency is compared with the simulated model using Finite Element Method (FEM) tool COMSOL Multiphysics. The sensor has the circular diaphragm of 3000 µm radius and thickness of 30 µm to withstand the high SPL (Sound Pressure Level) and also to withstand the various fabrication steps. A Piezoelectric ZnO layer of thickness of 1 µm sandwiched between two aluminium electrodes of thickness 0.5 µm and is coated on the diaphragm. Further, a channel with radius 3000 µm radius and length 270 µm is connected at the bottom of the diaphragm. The natural frequency of the structure by LEM method is approximately 16.6 kHz which is closely matching with that of simulated structure with suitable approximations.

Keywords: piezoelectric, natural frequency, acoustic sensor, diaphragm based, lumped element modeling (LEM)

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2 Piezoelectric Micro-generator Characterization for Energy Harvesting Application

Authors: José E. Q. Souza, Marcio Fontana, Antonio C. C. Lima

Abstract:

This paper presents analysis and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-generator for energy harvesting application. A low-cost experimental prototype was designed to operate as piezoelectric micro-generator in the laboratory. An input acceleration of 9.8m/s2 using a sine signal (peak-to-peak voltage: 1V, offset voltage: 0V) at frequencies ranging from 10Hz to 160Hz generated a maximum average power of 432.4μW (linear mass position = 25mm) and an average power of 543.3μW (angular mass position = 35°). These promising results show that the prototype can be considered for low consumption load application as an energy harvesting micro-generator.

Keywords: Energy harvesting, cantilever beam, piezoelectric, micro-generator

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1 Comparing Two Non-Contact Squeeze Film Levitation Designs

Authors: Ahmed Almurshedi, Mark Atherton, Mares Cristinel, Tadeusz Stolarski, Masaaki Miyatake

Abstract:

Transportation and handling of delicate and lightweight objects is a significant issue in some industries. Two levitation prototype designs, a horn transducer design and surface-mounted piezoelectric actuator vibrating plate design, are compared. Both designs are based on the method of squeeze-film levitation (SFL) and the aim of this study is to evaluate the characteristics and performance of each. To this end, physical experiments are conducted and are demonstrated that the horn-type transducer prototype design produces better levitation performance but it design complexity and operating characteristics make it less suitable than the vibrating plate design for practical applications.

Keywords: piezoelectric, floating, levitation, squeeze-film, transducer

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