Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

pier Related Abstracts

3 Scouring Rate Pattern/Monitoring at Coastal and Offshore Structures

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Hossein Basser, Ahmad Saifullah Mazlan


Scouring pattern evaluation and measuring its depth around coastal and offshore structures is very essential issue to assure the safety of the structures as well as providing needed design parameters. Scouring is known as one of the important phenomena which threatens the safety of infrastructures. Several countermeasures have been developed to control scouring by protecting the structures against water flow attack directly or indirectly by changing the water flow pattern. Recently, monitoring methods for estimating water flow pattern and scour depth are studied to track the safety of structures. Since most of studies regarding scouring is related to monitoring scouring around piers in rivers therefore it is necessary to develop researches investigating scouring around piers in coastal and offshore areas. This paper describes a review of monitoring methods may be used for detecting scour depth around piers in coastal and offshore structures.

Keywords: Coastal, monitoring, Offshore, scour, pier

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2 A Study on the Safety Evaluation of Pier According to the Water Level Change by the Monte-Carlo Method

Authors: Minho Kwon, DongHoon Shin, Jeonghee Lim, Yeongseok Jeong, Kiyoung Kim


Recently, global warming phenomenon has led to natural disasters caused by global environmental changes, and due to abnormal weather events, the frequency and intensity of heavy rain storm typhoons are increasing. Therefore, it is imperative to prepare for future heavy rain storms and typhoons. This study selects arbitrary target bridges and performs numerical analysis to evaluate the safety of bridge piers in the event that the water level changes. The numerical model is based on two-dimensional surface elements. Actual reinforced concrete was simulated by modeling concrete to include reinforcements, and a contact boundary model was applied between the ground and the concrete. The water level applied to the piers was considered at 18 levels between 7.5 m and 16.1 m. The elastic modulus, compressive strength, tensile strength, and yield strength of the reinforced concrete were calculated using 250 random combinations and numerical analysis was carried out for each water level. In the results of analysis, the bridge exceeded the stated limit at 15.0 m. At the maximum water level of 16.1m, the concrete’s failure rate was 35.2%, but the probability that the reinforcement would fail was 61.2%.

Keywords: pier, limit state, Monte-Carlo method, water level change

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1 Turbulent Flow Characteristics and Bed Morphology around Circular Bridge Pier

Authors: Pratik Acharya


Scour is the natural phenomenon brought about by erosive action of the flowing stream in alluvial channels. Frequent scouring around bridge piers may cause damage to the structures. In alluvial channels, a complex interaction between the streamflow and the bed particles results in scouring around piers. Thus, the study of characteristics of flow around piers can give sound knowledge about the scouring process. The present research has been done to investigate the turbulent flow characteristics around bridge piers and corresponding changes in bed morphology. Laboratory experiments were carried out in a tilting flume with a sand bed. The velocities around the pier are measured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Measurements show that at upstream of the pier velocity and Reynolds stresses are negative near the bed and near the free surface at downstream of the pier. At the downstream of the pier, Reynolds stresses changes rapidly due to the formation of wake vortices. Experimental results show that secondary currents are more predominant at the downstream of the pier. As the flowing stream hits the pier, the flow gets separated in the form of downflow along the face of the pier due to a strong pressure gradient and along the sides of the piers. Separation of flow around the pier leads to scour the bed material and develop the vortex. The downflow hits the bed and removes the bed material, which can be carried forward by the flow circulations along sides of the piers. Eroded bed material is deposited along the centerline at the rear side of the pier and produces hump in the downstream region. Initially, the rate of scouring is high and reduces gradually with increasing time. After a certain limit, equilibrium sets between the erosive capacity of the flowing stream and resistance to the motion by bed particles.

Keywords: velocity, pier, scour depth, acoustic doppler velocimeter, Reynolds stress

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