Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

phytoplankton Related Abstracts

12 Physico-Chemical and Phytoplankton Analyses of Kazaure Dam, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Musa Muhammad, Muhammad Kabiru Abubakar


Monthly changes in Phytoplankton periodicity, nutrient levels, temperature, pH, suspended solids, dissolved solids, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand of Kazaure Dam, Jigawa State, Nigeria were studied for a period of six months (July-Dec.-2011). Physico-chemical result showed that temperature and pH ranged between17-25˚C and 5.5-7.5, while dissolved solids and suspended solids ranged between 95-155 mg/L and 0.13-112 mg/L respectively. Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), conductivity, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate ion concentrations were within the ranges of 3.5-3.6 mg/L, 4.8-7.2 mg/L, 8.10-12.30 mg/L, 21-58µΩ/cm, 0.2-8.1 mg/L, 2.4-18.1 mg/L, and 1.22-15.60 mg/L respectively. A total of 4514 Org/L phytoplankton were recorded, of which four classes of algae were identified. These comprised of Chlorophyta (44.1%), Cyanophyta(30.62%), Bacillariophyta(3.2%), Euglenophyta (32.1%). Descriptive statistics of the result showed that phytoplankton count varied with variation of physico-chemical parameters at 5% level during the study period. The abundance and distribution of the algae varied with the variation in the physico-chemical parameters. Pearson correlation showed that temperature and nutrients were significantly correlated with phytoplankton, while DO, sulphate and pH were insignificantly correlated, while there was no significant correlation with COD and phytoplankton.

Keywords: correlation, phytoplankton, physico chemical, kazaure dam

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11 Effluent from Royal LERD Wastewater Treatment Systems to Furnish Nutrients for Phytoplankton to Generate the Abundance of Hard Clam (Meretrix spp.) on Muddy Beach

Authors: O. Phewnil, S. Khowhit, W. Inkapatanakul, A. Boutson, K. Chunkao, O. Chueawong, T. Pattamapitoon, N. Chanwong, C. Nimpee


The King’s Royally Initiated Laem Phak Bia Environmental Research and Development Project (“the Royal LERD Project”) is located in Laem Phak Bia Sub-District, Ban Laem District, Phetchaburi Province, Thailand. Phetchaburi municipal wastewater was treated with a simple technology by using aquatic plants, constructed wetland, oxidation ponds through a nature-by-nature process. The effluent from the Royal LERD Project was discharged into Laem Phak Bia muddy beach. The soil sediment samples were collected from two zones (200 and 600 meters from the coast of the beach), and tested for cation-exchange capacity (CEC), pH and organic matter and soil particles content. The marine water samples were also collected from the beach in wet and dry seasons and analyzed for its quality and compositions, including but not limited to, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), nutrients, heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb), and phytoplankton at high and low tides. The soil texture was sandy loam with high concentration of calcium and magnesium which showed a property of base (pH 8). The marine water was qualified with the standard limits of coastal water quality. A dominant species was Coscinodiscus sp. It was found approximately 70.46% of total phytoplankton species in Meretrix casta gastrointestinal tract. The concentration of the heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb) in the tissues and water content of two species of hard clams indicated that heavy metals in Meretrix casta were higher than those in Meretrix meretrix. However, the heavy metals in both species were under the standard limits and safe for consumption. It can be concluded that nutrients in effluent from the wastewater treatment systems play important role in promoting the growth of phytoplankton and generating abundance of hard clams on muddy beach.

Keywords: wastewater, phytoplankton, hard clam (Meretrix spp.), muddy beach

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10 Growth Rates of Planktonic Organisms in “Yerevanyan Lich” Reservoir and the Hrazdan River in Yerevan City, Armenia

Authors: G. A. Gevorgyan, A. S. Mamyan, L. G. Stepanyan, L. R. Hambaryan


Bacterio- and phytoplankton growth rates in 'Yerevanyan lich' reservoir and the Hrazdan river in Yerevan city, Armenia were investigated in April and June-August, 2015. Phytoplankton sampling and analysis were performed by the standard methods accepted in hydrobiological studies. The quantitative analysis of aerobic, coliform and E. coli bacteria is done by the 'RIDA COUNT' medium sheets (coated with ready-to-use culture medium). The investigations showed that the insufficient management of household discharges in Yerevan city caused the organic and fecal pollution of the Hrazdan river in this area which in turn resulted in an increase in bacterial count and increased sanitary and pathogenic risks to the environment and human health. During the investigation in April, the representatives of diatom algae prevailed quantitatively in the coastal area of 'Yerevanyan lich' reservoir, nevertheless, a significant change in the phytoplankton community in June occurred: due to green algae bloom in the reservoir, the quantitative parameters of phytoplankton increased significantly. This was probably conditioned by a seasonal increase in the water temperature in the conditions of the sufficient concentration of nutrients. However, a succession in phytoplankton groups during July-August occurred, and a dominant group (according to quantitative parameters) in the phytoplankton community was changed as follows: green algae-diatom algae-blue-green algae. Rapid increase in the quantitative parameters of diatom and blue-green algae in the reservoir may have been conditioned by increased organic matter level resulted from green algae bloom. Algal bloom in 'Yerevanyan lich' reservoir caused changes in phytoplankton community and an increase in bacterioplankton count not only in the reservoir but also in the Hrazdan river sites located in the downstream from the reservoir. Thus, the insufficient management of urban discharges and aquatic ecosystems in Yerevan city led to unfavorable changes in water quality and microbial and phytoplankton communities in “Yerevanyan lich” reservoir and the Hrazdan river which in turn caused increased sanitary and pathogenic risks to the environment and human health.

Keywords: phytoplankton, Algal Bloom, bacterioplankton, Hrazdan river, Yerevanyan lich reservoir

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9 Impact of Anthropogenic Stresses on Plankton Biodiversity in Indian Sundarban Megadelta: An Approach towards Ecosystem Conservation and Sustainability

Authors: Santosh K. Sarkar, Dibyendu Rakshit


The study illustrates a comprehensive account of large-scale changes plankton community structure in relevance to water quality characteristics due to anthropogenic stresses, mainly concerned for Annual Gangasagar Festival (AGF) at the southern tip of Sagar Island of Indian Sundarban wetland for 3-year duration (2012-2014; n=36). This prograding, vulnerable and tide-dominated megadelta has been formed in the estuarine phase of the Hooghly Estuary infested by largest continuous tract of luxurious mangrove forest, enriched with high native flora and fauna. The sampling strategy was designed to characterize the changes in plankton community and water quality considering three diverse phases, namely during festival period (January) and its pre - (December) as well as post (February) events. Surface water samples were collected for estimation of different environmental variables as well as for phytoplankton and microzooplankton biodiversity measurement. The preservation and identification techniques of both biotic and abiotic parameters were carried out by standard chemical and biological methods. The intensive human activities lead to sharp ecological changes in the context of poor water quality index (WQI) due to high turbidity (14.02±2.34 NTU) coupled with low chlorophyll a (1.02±0.21 mg m-3) and dissolved oxygen (3.94±1.1 mg l-1), comparing to pre- and post-festival periods. Sharp reduction in abundance (4140 to 2997 cells l-1) and diversity (H′=2.72 to 1.33) of phytoplankton and microzooplankton tintinnids (450 to 328 ind l-1; H′=4.31 to 2.21) was very much pronounced. The small size tintinnid (average lorica length=29.4 µm; average LOD=10.5 µm) composed of Tintinnopsis minuta, T. lobiancoi, T. nucula, T. gracilis are predominant and reached some of the greatest abundances during the festival period. Results of ANOVA revealed a significant variation in different festival periods with phytoplankton (F= 1.77; p=0.006) and tintinnid abundance (F= 2.41; P=0.022). RELATE analyses revealed a significant correlation between the variations of planktonic communities with the environmental data (R= 0.107; p= 0.005). Three distinct groups were delineated from principal component analysis, in which a set of hydrological parameters acted as the causative factor(s) for maintaining diversity and distribution of the planktonic organisms. The pronounced adverse impact of anthropogenic stresses on plankton community could lead to environmental deterioration, disrupting the productivity of benthic and pelagic ecosystems as well as fishery potentialities which directly related to livelihood services. The festival can be considered as multiple drivers of changes in relevance to beach erosion, shoreline changes, pollution from discarded plastic and electronic wastes and destruction of natural habitats resulting loss of biodiversity. In addition, deterioration in water quality was also evident from immersion of idols, causing detrimental effects on aquatic biota. The authors strongly recommend for adopting integrated scientific and administrative strategies for resilience, sustainability and conservation of this megadelta.

Keywords: phytoplankton, Gangasagar festival, Sundarban megadelta, tintinnid

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8 Phytoplankton Assemblage and Physicochemical Parameters of a Perturbed Tropical Manmade Lake, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Adedolapo Ayoade, John the Beloved Dada


This study identified the phytoplankton assemblage of the Dandaru Lake (that received effluents from a zoological garden and hospital) as bioindicators of water quality. Physicochemical parameters including Dissolved Oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, phosphate and heavy metals were also determined. Samples of water and plankton were collected once monthly from April to September, 2015 at five stations (I – V). The mean physicochemical parameters were within the limits of National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) and USEPA except Lead, 0.02 ± 0.08 mg/ L; Manganese, 0.46 ± 1.00 mg/ L and Zinc, 0.05 ± 0.17 mg/ L. Means of DO, alkalinity, and phosphate were significantly different between the stations at p < 0.05. While highest mean DO (6.88 ± 1.34 mg/L) was recorded in station I with less anthropogenic activities, highest phosphate concentration (0.28 ± 0.28 mg/L) occurred in station II, the entry point of wastewater from hospital and zoological garden. The 147 phytoplankton species found in the lake belonged to six classes: Chlorophyceae (50), Euglenophyceae (40), Bacillariophyceae (37), Cyanophyceae (17), Xanthophyceae and Chrysophyceae (3). The order of abundance for phytoplankton was Euglenophyceae (49.77%) > Bacillariophyceae (18.00%) > Cyanophyceae (17.39%) > Chlorophyceae (13.7%) > Xanthophyceae (1.06%) > Chrysophyceae (0.02%). The stations impacted with effluents were dominated by members of Euglenophyceae (Station III, 77.09%; IV, 50.55%) and Cyanophyceae (Station II, 27.7%; V, 32.57%). While station I was dominated by diatoms (57.98%). The species richness recorded was 0.32 – 4.49. Evenness index was highest in station I and least in station III. Generally, pollution tolerant species (Microcystis, Oscillatoria, Scenedesmus, Anabaena, and Euglena) showed greater density in areas impacted by human activities. The phytoplankton assemblage and comparatively low biotic diversity in Dandaru Lake could be attributed to perturbations in the water column that exerted selective effects on the biological assemblage.

Keywords: Water Quality, phytoplankton, Nigeria, manmade lake

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7 Analysis and Study of Growth Rates of Indigenous Phytoplankton in Enriched Spent Oil Impacted Ecosystems in South Western Nigeria Coastal Waters

Authors: Lauretta Ighedo, Bukola Okunade, Monisade Okunade


In order to determine the effect of spent oil on the growth rates of indigenous phytoplankton in an aquaculture pond, a study was carried out on varying concentrations of samples using the bioassay procedure for a period of 14 days. Four divisions Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta and Bacillariophyta were observed in the water samples collected from the Aquaculture pond. The growth response was measured using a microprocessor photocolorimeter at optical density of 680nm. A general assessment of spent oil contaminated samples showed either a sharp rise or fall in growth rate from day 0 to day 2 followed by increased growth response for most higher concentration of pollutants up to Day 8, then fluctuations in the growth response pattern for the other days. There was no marked significant difference in the growth response of phytoplankton in the spent oil impacted water samples. The lowest and highest phytoplankton abundance was recorded in 10/90ml and 2.5/97.5ml spent oil impacted water sample respectively. Oscillatoria limosa, Chlorella sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. showed high tolerance to oil pollution and these species used as bioindicators of an organic polluted environment increased abundantly and can therefore be employed in the cleanup and bioremediation process of an oil polluted freshwater body.

Keywords: Pollution, phytoplankton, species abundance, environmental characteristics

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6 Analysis and Study of Phytoplankton and the Environmental Characteristics of Tarkwa Bay, Lagos, South-Western, Nigeria

Authors: Bukola Dawodu, Charles Onyema


The phytoplankton and environmental characteristics of Tarkwa Bay, Lagos in South-western Nigeria were investigated from January to June 2012. Environmental characteristics within the Bay were largely determined by floodwater inflow in the wet months (April – June) and increased tidal marine conditions in the dry months (January – March). Similarly, rainfall distribution and possibly tidal seawater inflow were the key factors that govern the variation in phytoplankton distribution, species diversity, chlorophyll a concentration and environmental characteristics of the bay. Values for physico-chemical parameters were indicative of high levels of fluctuations inwards from the East mole towards Tarkwa Bay (e.g. T.S.S > 11mg/L, T.D.S > 33541.0mg/L, D.O. < 5.4). Chlorophyll A values did not show any discernable pattern and correlated negatively with total dissolved solids and total suspended solids (r = -0.27 and -0.04) as both were inconsistent throughout the study period. Four phytoplankton divisions were observed throughout the sampling period with the Bacillariophyta (diatoms) being the dominant group followed by Dinophyta (dinoflagellates), Cyanophyta (the blue-green algae) and Chlorophyta (the green algae). A total of twenty-one species from nine genera were recorded during the period of study. Diatoms formed the most abundant group making fifteen species from five genera. The centric forms dominated over the pennates in the diatom group with Skeletonema sp. Chaetoceros spp. and Coscinodiscus spp. being the dominant centric diatoms while Navicula spp. was the more dominant pennate form. The Dinoflagellates were represented by six species from one genus, the blue-green algae with five species from two genera while the green algae had one species from one genus. Comparatively, total biomass was more in the dry months (Jan. - Mar.) and decreased in the 'wet months' (Apr. – Jun.). Species diversity (S), Shannon Wiener index (Hs), Margalef Index (d) and Equitability Index (j) values were higher during the dry months while reduced value marked the wet months possibly as a result of dilution of rain effects. Outcomes of bio-indices variations were reflections of the degree of occurrence and abundance of species linked to seasons operating in the study site.

Keywords: Ecosystems, phytoplankton, coastal waters, species abundance

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5 Biological Hotspots in the Galápagos Islands: Exploring Seasonal Trends of Ocean Climate Drivers to Monitor Algal Blooms

Authors: Emily Kislik, Gabriel Mantilla Saltos, Gladys Torres, Mercy Borbor-Córdova


The Galápagos Marine Reserve (GMR) is an internationally-recognized region of consistent upwelling events, high productivity, and rich biodiversity. Despite its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll condition, the archipelago has experienced phytoplankton blooms, especially in the western section between Isabela and Fernandina Islands. However, little is known about how climate variability will affect future phytoplankton standing stock in the Galápagos, and no consistent protocols currently exist to quantify phytoplankton biomass, identify species, or monitor for potential harmful algal blooms (HABs) within the archipelago. This analysis investigates physical, chemical, and biological oceanic variables that contribute to algal blooms within the GMR, using 4 km Aqua MODIS satellite imagery and 0.125-degree wind stress data from January 2003 to December 2016. Furthermore, this study analyzes chlorophyll-a concentrations at varying spatial scales— within the greater archipelago, as well as within five smaller bioregions based on species biodiversity in the GMR. Seasonal and interannual trend analyses, correlations, and hotspot identification were performed. Results demonstrate that chlorophyll-a is expressed in two seasons throughout the year in the GMR, most frequently in September and March, with a notable hotspot in the Elizabeth Bay bioregion. Interannual chlorophyll-a trend analyses revealed highest peaks in 2003, 2007, 2013, and 2016, and variables that correlate highly with chlorophyll-a include surface temperature and particulate organic carbon. This study recommends future in situ sampling locations for phytoplankton monitoring, including the Elizabeth Bay bioregion. Conclusions from this study contribute to the knowledge of oceanic drivers that catalyze primary productivity and consequently affect species biodiversity within the GMR. Additionally, this research can inform policy and decision-making strategies for species conservation and management within bioregions of the Galápagos.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, phytoplankton, Ecological Monitoring, bioregions

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4 Phytoplankton Community Structure in the Moroccan Coast of the Mediterranean Sea: Case Study of Saiidia, Three Forks Cape

Authors: H. Idmoussi, L. Somoue, O. Ettahiri, A. Makaoui, S. Charib, A. Agouzouk, A. Ben Mhamed, K. Hilmi, A. Errhif


The study on the composition, abundance, and distribution of phytoplankton was conducted along the Moroccan coast of the Mediterranean Sea (Saiidia - Three Forks Cape) in April 2018. Samples were collected at thirteen stations using Niskin bottles within two layers (surface and deep layers). The identification and enumeration of phytoplankton were carried out according to the Utermöhl method (1958). A total number of 54 phytoplankton species were identified over the entire survey area. Thirty-six species could be found both in the surface and the deep layers while eleven species were observed only in the surface layer and seven in the deep layer. The phytoplankton throughout the study area was dominated by diatoms represented mainly by Nitzschia sp., Pseudonitzschia sp., Chaetoceros sp., Cylindrotheca closterium, Leptocylindrus minimus, Leptocylindrus danicus, Dactyliosolen fragilissimus. Dinoflagellates were dominated by Gymnodinium sp., Scrippsiella sp., Gyrodinium spirale, Noctulica sp, Prorocentrum micans. Euglenophyceae, Silicoflagellates and Raphidophyceae were present in low numbers. Most of the phytoplankton were concentrated in the surface layer, particularly towards the Three Forks Cape (25200 cells·l⁻¹). Shannon species diversity (ranging from 2 and 4 Bits) and evenness index (broadly > 0.7) suggested that phytoplankton community is generally diversified and structured in the studied area.

Keywords: Diversity, phytoplankton, abundance, Mediterranean Sea

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3 The Effect of Oil Pollution on Marine Microbial Populations in Israeli Coastal Waters

Authors: Yael Shai, Dror L. Angel, Dror Zurel, Peleg Astrahan, Maxim Rubin-Blum, Eyal Rahav


The high demand for oil and its by-products is symptomatic of the 21st century and occasionally leads to oil spills and pollution of coastal waters. Marine oil pollution may originate from a variety of sources -urban runoff, tanker cleaning, drilling activities, and oil spills. These events may release large amounts of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other pollutants to coastal water, thereby threatening local marine life. Here, we investigated the effects of crude oil on the temporal dynamics of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria in Israeli coastal waters. To this end, we added crude oil (500 µm thick layer, with and without additional nutrients; NO₃ and PO₄) to mesocosms (1m³ bags) containing oligotrophic surface coastal water collected near Haifa during summer and winter. Changes in phytoplankton biomass, activity and diversity were monitored daily for 5-6 days. Our results demonstrate that crude oil addition resulted in a pronounced decrease in phytoplankton biomass and production rates, while heterotrophic bacterial production increased significantly. Importantly, a few days post addition we found that the oil-degrading bacteria, Oleibacter sp. and Oleispira sp. appeared in the mesocosms and that the addition of nutrients (along with the crude oil) further increased this trend. This suggests that oil-degrading bacteria may be NO₃ and PO₄ limited in Israeli coastal waters. The results of this study should enable us to establish improved science-based environmental policy with respect to handling crude oil pollution in this region.

Keywords: Nutrients, phytoplankton, Oil Pollution, heterotrophic bacteria, mesocosm, oligotrophic

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2 Phytoplankton Diversity and Abundance in Burullus Lagoon, Southern Mediterranean Coast, Egypt

Authors: Shymaa S. Zaher, Hesham M. Abd El-Fatah, Dina M. Ali


Burullus Lagoon is the second largest lake, along the Mediterranean seashore. It exposed to over nutrient enrichment from fish farming and agricultural drainage wastes. This study assesses the present status phytoplankton response to different flow events, including domestic, agricultural, industrial, and fish farms discharge in the three main sectors of Burullus Lagoon, to focus on the influence of environmental variables on phytoplankton species composition inhabiting the Lagoon. Twelve sites representing the eastern, central, and western basin were selected during winter and summer 2018. Among the most abundant group, Chlorophyceae came in the first rank by 37.9% of the total phytoplankton densities, Bacillariophyceae (29.31%), Cyanophyceae (20.7%), Euglenophyceae (8.63%) and Dinophyceae (3.4%). Cyclotella menenghiana was the most abundant diatoms, while Scenedesmus quadricauda, S. acuminatus, and S. bijuga were highly recorded nearby the drains (in the middle sector). Phytoplankton in Burullus Lagoon attained the lowest values during the winter season and the highest ones during the summer season. The total count of phytoplankton in the middle and western basin of the lake was higher than that of the eastern part. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and washing out of nutrients loaded to the drainage water, leading to a significant pronounced decrease in community composition and standing crop of phytoplankton in Burullus Lake from year to year, hold the danger of shifting the lagoon ecosystem.

Keywords: Water pollution, phytoplankton, environmental variables, Burullus Lagoon

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1 Phytoplankton Community Composition in Laguna de Terminos, Mexico, and Its Relationship to Environmental Variables

Authors: Enrique Nunez L., Maria Cortes L., Sandra Laffon L., Ana M. Cupul V.


The phytoplankton community composition was studied in a tropical coastal lagoon of Mexico and relationships with environmental variables were evaluated. Six sites inside the tropical Terminos Lagoon were sampled in order to determine abundances and ecological indexes for phytoplankton from May to December 2017. Water samples were also collected to determine the values of pigments, nutrients, and water solids. Results showed that the composition and abundance of the phytoplankton community were influenced by physicochemical factors, nutrients, water solids, and climate seasons. Sixty-six species were identified as potential HAB producers (44.29% from total). However, abundances were not related to the occurrence of HAB during the study. Multidimensional ANOVA indicated no significant differences between sites while some months revealed significant differences. The canonical analysis suggested that environmental variables explained 49% of community variation of potential phytoplankton species producers of HAB.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Environment, phytoplankton, lagoon

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