Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

phytoliths Related Abstracts

2 Phytolith Analysis of Intrabasaltic Palaeosols (Bole Beds) from the Deccan Volcanic Province of Western India: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Sayyed Mohammed Rafi

Abstract:

Phytolith studies were carried out for the intrabasaltic bole beds occurring in the western part of the Deccan Volcanic Province. This preliminary study indicates the presence of multiform phytoliths both in red and green boles. Red bole indicates well preserved elongate phytoliths from Acanthaceae plants while bulky Bulliform phytoliths mainly from Pleioblastus/ Andropogonea/reeds plants. Degeneration of few phytoliths from red bole indicates either leaching/etching or some other activity that is responsible for such post-preservation conditions. Phytoliths from the green bole, however, seem to be well preserved as compared to those from the red bole. The phytoliths from green bole are mainly of Festucoid types (especially small square and rectangular types) indicating the presence of Chrysobalanaceae type of vegetation followed by elongate phytoliths from Acanthaceae plant types. The Multiform Trichomes seems to be derived from Panicoid/Andropogonoid/Burseraceae/Fabaceae while Bulliforms from Pleioblastus/Andropogonea/reeds. Presences of silicified woody elements from both red and green boles indicate the presence of dicotyledonous plants which could have been in the form of small shrubs. The degenerated phytoliths in red bole suggest leaching/etching or higher intensity of weathering suggesting the existence of well-drained conditions during its formation that enhanced the leaching activity while the presence of well-preserved phytoliths in green bole point towards the existence of damp and desiccated conditions during its formation. The prevalence of dry condition during red bole formation could suggest their formation under higher temperature as compared to green bole. Based on the phytolith analysis it is too early to comment on the palaeoclimates which could have prevailed during the bole bed formations. However a detailed micromorphological, as well as phytolith analysis of more samples, can throw light on the palaeoenvironmental conditions as well as the biological activity during their formation.

Keywords: palaeoclimate, Deccan volcanic province, intrabasaltic bole beds, phytoliths

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1 A Review on Silicon Based Induced Resistance in Plants against Insect Pests

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Muhammad Kamran, Asim Abbasi, Iqra

Abstract:

Development of resistance in insect pests against various groups of insecticides has prompted the use of alternative integrated pest management approaches. Among these induced host plant resistance represents an important strategy as it offers a practical, cheap and long lasting solution to keep pests populations below economic threshold level (ETL). Silicon (Si) has a major role in regulating plant eco-relationship by providing strength to the plant in the form of anti-stress mechanism which was utilized in coping with the environmental extremes to get a better yield and quality end produce. Among biotic stresses, insect herbivore signifies one class against which Si provide defense. Silicon in its neutral form (H₄SiO₄) is absorbed by the plants via roots through an active process accompanied by the help of different transporters which were located in the plasma membrane of root cells or by a passive process mostly regulated by transpiration stream, which occurs via the xylem cells along with the water. Plants tissues mainly the epidermal cell walls are the sinks of absorbed silicon where it polymerizes in the form of amorphous silica or monosilicic acid. The noteworthy function of this absorbed silicon is to provide structural rigidity to the tissues and strength to the cell walls. Silicon has both direct and indirect effects on insect herbivores. Increased abrasiveness and hardness of epidermal plant tissues and reduced digestibility as a result of deposition of Si primarily as phytoliths within cuticle layer is now the most authenticated mechanisms of Si in enhancing plant resistance to insect herbivores. Moreover, increased Si content in the diet also impedes the efficiency by which insects transformed consumed food into the body mass. The palatability of food material has also been changed by Si application, and it also deters herbivore feeding for food. The production of defensive compounds of plants like silica and phenols have also been amplified by the exogenous application of silicon sources which results in reduction of the probing time of certain insects. Some studies also highlighted the role of silicon at the third trophic level as it also attracts natural enemies of insects attacking the crop. Hence, the inclusion of Si in pest management approaches can be a healthy and eco-friendly tool in future.

Keywords: Resistance, Stresses, phytoliths, defensive

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