Commenced in January 2007
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phytochemical constituents Related Abstracts

2 Phytochemical Analysis of Some Solanaceous Plants of Chandigarh

Authors: Nishtha, Richa, Anju Rao

Abstract:

Plants are the source of herbal medicine and medicinal value of the plants lies in the bioactive phytochemical constituents that produce definite physiological effects on human body. Angiospermic families are known to produce such phytochemical constituents which are termed as secondary plant metabolites. These metabolites include alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and so on. Solanaceae is one of the important families of Angiosperms known for medicinally important alkaloids such as hyoscyamine, scopolamine, solanine, nicotine, capsaicin etc. Medicinally important species of this family mostly belong to the genera of Datura,Atropa,Solanum,Withania and Nicotiana.Six species such as Datura metel, Solanum torvum, Physalis minima, Cestrum nocturnum, Cestrum diurnum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia have been collected from different localities of Chandigarh and adjoining areas.Field and anatomical studies helped to identify the plants and their parts used for the study of secondary plant metabolites. Preliminary phytochemcial studies have been done on various parts of plants such as roots, stem and leaves by making aqueous and alcoholic extracts from their powdered forms which showed the presence of alkaloids in almost all the species followed by steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins etc. HPLC profiles of leaves of Datura metel showed the presence of active compounds such as scopalamine and hyoscyamine and Solanum torvum showed the presence of solanine and solasodine. These alkaloids are important source of drug based medicine used in pharmacognosy. The respective compounds help in treating vomiting, nausea, respiratory disorders, dizziness, asthma and many heart problems.

Keywords: Pharmacognosy, Secondary Metabolites, Alkaloids, flavanoids, phytochemical constituents

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1 Evaluation of Phytochemical and Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Butanol Fraction of Terminalia avicennioides Leaf in Swiss Albino Rats

Authors: Fatima Mohammed Musa, J. B. Ameh, S. A. Ado, O. S. Olonitola

Abstract:

The study was undertaken to evaluate the phytochemical constituents of extracts of Terminalia avicennioides leaf and the antidiarrhoeal effect of n-butanol fraction of the leaf extract in Swiss albino rats infected with Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Ethanol crude extract of Terminalia avicennioides leaf was dissolved in 1.5 liters of sterile distilled water. The extract solution was partitioned with 250 ml each of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol solvents (1:1v/v) to obtain soluble fractions from the extract. The leaf extract and its fractions were screened for the presence of phytocompounds using standard analytical methods. The antidirrhoeal activity of n-butanol fraction was evaluated in Swiss albino rats using standard methods. The results of phytochemical screening of extract of Terminalia avicennioides leaf and its fractions, revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, triterpens, glycosides and phenols. The results of in vivo activity showed that 60 % of each group of rats infected with 2.0 x 108 cfu/ml viable cells of S. Typhimurium and 2.0 x109 cfu/ml viable cells of E. coli manifested the symptoms of diarrhoea, 72 hours after the rats were challenged with bacteria. Other symptoms observed among the infected animals included, loss of appetite, loss of weight, general body weakness and 40 % mortality in S. Typhimurium infected non treated group of rats. Similarly, 60 %, and 20 % mortality was observed among E. coli infected none treated and E. coli infected antibiotic (metronidazole) treated groups of rats respectively. However, there was a reduction in the number of infected rats defecating watery stools over time among all the infected rats that were treated with n-butanol fraction of the leaf extract and mortality was also not observed in the group, indicating high efficacy of n-butanol fraction of T. avicennioides leaf. The results also indicated that n-butanol can be used as alternative source of antidiarrhoeal agent in the treatment of diarrhoea caused by Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. In the light of this, there is a need for further research on the mechanism of action of the candidate fraction of T. avicennioides leaf which could be responsible for the observed in vivo antibacterial activity.

Keywords: phytochemical constituents, antidirrhoeal effect, swiss albino rats, terminalia avicennioides

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