Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Physics Related Abstracts

19 Computer Simulation of Hydrogen Superfluidity through Binary Mixing

Authors: Sea Hoon Lim

Abstract:

A superfluid is a fluid of bosons that flows without resistance. In order to be a superfluid, a substance’s particles must behave like bosons, yet remain mobile enough to be considered a superfluid. Bosons are low-temperature particles that can be in all energy states at the same time. If bosons were to be cooled down, then the particles will all try to be on the lowest energy state, which is called the Bose Einstein condensation. The temperature when bosons start to matter is when the temperature has reached its critical temperature. For example, when Helium reaches its critical temperature of 2.17K, the liquid density drops and becomes a superfluid with zero viscosity. However, most materials will solidify -and thus not remain fluids- at temperatures well above the temperature at which they would otherwise become a superfluid. Only a few substances currently known to man are capable of at once remaining a fluid and manifesting boson statistics. The most well-known of these is helium and its isotopes. Because hydrogen is lighter than helium, and thus expected to manifest Bose statistics at higher temperatures than helium, one might expect hydrogen to also be a superfluid. As of today, however, no one has yet been able to produce a bulk, hydrogen superfluid. The reason why hydrogen did not form a superfluid in the past is its intermolecular interactions. As a result, hydrogen molecules are much more likely to crystallize than their helium counterparts. The key to creating a hydrogen superfluid is therefore finding a way to reduce the effect of the interactions among hydrogen molecules, postponing the solidification to lower temperature. In this work, we attempt via computer simulation to produce bulk superfluid hydrogen through binary mixing. Binary mixture is a technique of mixing two pure substances in order to avoid crystallization and enhance super fluidity. Our mixture here is KALJ H2. We then sample the partition function using this Path Integral Monte Carlo (PIMC), which is well-suited for the equilibrium properties of low-temperature bosons and captures not only the statistics but also the dynamics of Hydrogen. Via this sampling, we will then produce a time evolution of the substance and see if it exhibits superfluid properties.

Keywords: Physics, Hydrogen, Superfluidity, binary mixture

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18 Remarks on the Lattice Green's Function for the Anisotropic Face Cantered Cubic Lattice

Authors: Jihad H. Asad

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An expression for the Green’s function (GF) of anisotropic face cantered cubic (IFCC) lattice is evaluated analytically and numerically for a single impurity problem. The density of states (DOS), phase shift and scattering cross section are expressed in terms of complete elliptic integrals of the first kind.

Keywords: Physics, lattice Green's function, elliptic integral, cubic lattice

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17 2D PbS Nanosheets Synthesis and Their Applications as Field Effect Transistors or Solar Cells

Authors: T. Bielewicz, S. Dogan, C. Klinke

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Two-dimensional, solution-processable semiconductor materials are interesting for low-cost electronic applications [1]. We demonstrate the synthesis of lead sulfide nanosheets and how their size, shape and height can be tuned by varying concentrations of pre-cursors, ligands and by varying the reaction temperature. Especially, the charge carrier confinement in the nanosheets’ height adjustable from 2 to 20 nm has a decisive impact on their electronic properties. This is demonstrated by their use as conduction channel in a field effect transistor [2]. Recently we also showed that especially thin nanosheets show a high carrier multiplication (CM) efficiency [3] which could make them, through the confinement induced band gap and high photoconductivity, very attractive for application in photovoltaic devices. We are already able to manufacture photovoltaic devices out of single nanosheets which show promising results.

Keywords: Physical Sciences, Physics, Chemistry, Materials, Colloids, Semiconductors, Two-Dimensional Materials, condensed-matter physics

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16 The Physics of Cold Spray Technology

Authors: Ionel Botef

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Studies show that, for qualitative coatings, the knowledge of cold spray technology must focus on a variety of interdisciplinary fields and a framework for problem solving. The integrated disciplines include, but are not limited to, engineering, material sciences, and physics. Due to its importance, the purpose of this paper is to summarize the state of the art of this technology alongside its theoretical and experimental studies, and explore the role and impact of physics upon cold spraying technology.

Keywords: Physics, Modelling, Surface Engineering, Cold Spray

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15 Pibid and Experimentation: A High School Case Study

Authors: Chahad P. Alexandre

Abstract:

PIBID-Institutional Program of Scholarships to Encourage Teaching - is a Brazilian government program that counts today with 48.000 students. It's goal is to motivate the students to stay in the teaching undergraduate programs and to help fill the gap of 100.000 teachers that are needed today in the under graduated schools. The major lack of teachers today is in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and biology. At IFSP-Itapetininga we formatted our physics PIBID based on practical activities. Our students are divided in two São Paulo state government high schools in the same city. The project proposes class activities based on experimentation, observation and understanding of physical phenomena. The didactical experiments are always in relation with the content that the teacher is working, he is the supervisor of the program in the school. Always before an experiment is proposed a little questionnaire to learn about the students preconceptions and one is filled latter to evaluate if now concepts have been created. This procedure is made in order to compare their previous knowledge and how it changed after the experiment is developed. The primary goal of our project is to make the Physics class more attractive to the students and to develop in high school students the interest in learning physics and to show the relation of Physics to the day by day and to the technological world. The objective of the experimental activities is to facilitate the understanding of the concepts that are worked on classes because under experimentation the PIBID scholarship student stimulate the curiosity of the high school student and with this he can develop the capacity to understand and identify the physical phenomena with concrete examples. Knowing how to identify this phenomena and where they are present at the high school student life makes the learning process more significant and pleasant. This proposal make achievable to the students to practice science, to appropriate of complex, in the traditional classes, concepts and overcoming the common preconception that physics is something distant and that is present only on books. This preconception is extremely harmful in the process of scientific knowledge construction. This kind of learning – through experimentation – make the students not only accumulate knowledge but also appropriate it, also to appropriate experimental procedures and even the space that is provided by the school. The PIBID scholarship students, as future teachers also have the opportunity to try experimentation classes, to intervene in the classes and to have contact with their future career. This opportunity allows the students to make important reflection about the practices realized and consequently about the learning methods. Due to this project, we found out that the high school students stay more time focused in the experiment compared to the traditional explanation teachers´ class. As a result in a class, as a participative activity, the students got more involved and participative. We also found out that the physics under graduated students drop out percentage is smaller in our Institute than before the PIBID program started.

Keywords: Physics, Innovation, projects, PIBID, pre-service teacher experiences

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14 Physics Motivation and Research: Understanding the 21st Century Learners of Today

Authors: Von Anthony G. Torio

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Motivation and research are significant determinants of a student’s success in the school and in future careers. This study aimed to give a picture of the physics motivation of students in a tertiary level institution, as well as their research area and working preference, to create a picture of the nature of the representative youths of today. It was found that male students have higher motivation than female students in all components of motivation with intrinsic motivation leading the six components of motivation. In addition, male students (M = 4.27; SD = 0.74) were found to have significantly higher motivation as compared to female students (M = 3.77; SD = 0.89) with a computed t(64) value of 2.41 with p < 0.05 and Cohen’s d of 0.61. The students’ preference to work in groups of three rather than working individually suggests that students of the batch have small working groups that they depend on rather than working alone. The majority of the students also preferred conducting studies on the social sciences.

Keywords: Physics, Physics Education, Research, Motivation, Philippines, physics motivation

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13 The Influence of Mathematic Learning Outcomes towards Physics Ability in Senior High School through Authentic Assessment System

Authors: Aida Nurul Safitri, Rosita Sari

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Physics is science, which in its learning there are some product such as theory, fact, concept, law and formula. So that to understand physics lesson students not only need a theory or concept but also mathematical calculation to solve physics problem through formula or equation. This is can be taken from mathematics lesson which obtained by students. This research is to know the influence of mathematics learning outcomes towards physics ability in Senior High School through authentic assessment system. Based on the researches have been discussed, is obtained that mathematic lesson have an important role in physics learning but it according to one aspect only, namely cognitive aspect. In Indonesia, curriculum of 2013 reinforces displacement in the assessment, from assessment through test (measuring the competence of knowledge based on the result) toward authentic assessment (measuring the competence of attitudes, skills, and knowledge based on the process and results). In other researches are mentioned that authentic assessment system give positive responses for students to improve their motivation and increase the physics learning in the school.

Keywords: Physics, Mathematic, authentic assessment, curriculum of 2013

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12 Physics’s Practical Based on Android as a Motivator in Learning Physics

Authors: Yuni Rochmawati, Luluk Il Mukarromah

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Android is a mobile operating system (OS) based on the linux kerrnel and currently developed by google. With a user interface based on direct manipulation, Android is designed primarily for touchscreen mobile deviced such as smartphone and tablet computer, with specialized user interface for television (Android TV), cars (Android Auto), and wrist watches (Android Wear). Now, almost all peoples using smartphone. Smartphone seems to be a must-have object, because smartphone has many benefits. In addition, of course smartphone have many benefits for education, like resume of lesson that form of e-book. However, this article is not about resume of lesson. This article is about practical based on android, exactly for physics. Therefore, we will explain our idea about physics’s practical based on android and for output, we wish many students will be like to studying physics and always remember about physics’s phenomenon by physics’s practical based on android.

Keywords: Physics, android, smartphone, practical

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11 Physical Physics: Enhancing the Learning Experience for Undergraduate Game Development Students

Authors: Y. Kavanagh, N. O'Hara, R. Palmer, P. Lowe, D. Rafferty

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Physical Physics is a physics education methodology for games programfmes that integrates physical activity with movement tracking and modelling. It significantly enhances the learning experience and it is effective in illustrating how physics is core in games design and programming, while allowing students to be active participants and take ownership of the learning process. It has been successfully piloted with undergraduate students studying Games Development.

Keywords: Physics, Activity, Enhanced Learning, Game Development

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10 Classical Physics against New Physics in Teaching Science

Authors: Patricio Alberto Cullen

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Teaching Science in high school has been decreasing its quality for several years, and it is an obvious theme of discussion over more than 30 years. As a teacher of Secondary Education and a Professor of Technological University was necessary to work with some projects that attempt to articulate the different methodologies and concepts between both levels. Teaching Physics in Engineering Career is running between two waters. Disciplinary content and inconsistent training students got in high school. In the heady times facing humanity, teaching Science has become a race against time, and this is where it is worth stopping. Professor of Physics has outdated teaching tools against the relentless growth of knowledge in the Academic World. So we have raised from a pedagogical point of view the following question: Laboratory practices must continue to focus on traditional physics or should develop alternatives between old practices and new physics methodologies. Faced with this paradox, we stopped to try to answer from our experience, and our teaching and learning practice. These are one of the greatest difficulties presented in the Engineering work. The physics team will try to find new methodologies that are appealing to the population of students in the 21st century. Currently, the methodology used is question students about their personal interests. Once discovered mentioned interests, will be held some lines of action to facilitate achieving the goals.

Keywords: Physics, students, level, high school and university, teaching physics

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9 Science Subjects Studied and Relation to Income after University Graduation: An Empirical Analysis in Japan

Authors: Kazuo Nishimura, Junichi Hirata, Tadashi Yagi, Junko Urasaka

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This paper is an investigation of the effect of science education during the high school education how science graduates of universities are appreciated in the labor market in Japan. We conducted a survey utilizing the internet and analyzed the subjects they were good at and their annual income. The results confirm that among science graduates, workers adept at physics tend to have higher incomes compared to workers good at other subjects. Generational analysis based on the curriculum guideline amendments reveals that the generational difference is small among science majors who are good at physics.

Keywords: Physics, Science, Curriculum, Income

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8 Teaching Physics: History, Models, and Transformation of Physics Education Research

Authors: N. Didiş Körhasan, D. Kaltakçı Gürel

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Many students have difficulty in learning physics from elementary to university level. In addition, students' expectancy, attitude, and motivation may be influenced negatively with their experience (failure) and prejudice about physics learning. For this reason, physics educators, who are also physics teachers, search for the best ways to make students' learning of physics easier by considering cognitive, affective, and psychomotor issues in learning. This research critically discusses the history of physics education, fundamental pedagogical approaches, and models to teach physics, and transformation of physics education with recent research.

Keywords: Physics, Science Education, pedagogy, Physics Education

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7 The Five Aggregates in Buddhism and Natural Sciences: A Revolutionary Perspective of Nature

Authors: Choo Fatt Foo

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The Five Aggregates is core to Buddhism teaching. According to Buddhism, human beings and all sentient beings are made up of nothing but the Five Aggregates. If that is the case, the Five Aggregates must be found in all natural sciences. So far, there has not been any systematic connection between the Five Aggregates and natural sciences. This study aims at identifying traces of the Five Aggregates in various levels of natural sciences and pointing possible directions for future research. The following areas are briefly explored to identify the connection with the Five Aggregates: physics, chemistry, organic chemistry, DNA, cell, and human body and brain. Traces of the Five Aggregates should be found in each level of this hierarchy of natural sciences for human and sentient beings to be said to be made up of the Five Aggregates. This study proposes a hierarchical structure of nature cutting every level with the Five Aggregates and the Four Great Elements as its basis. The structure proposed by this study would revolutionize how we look at nature. Hopefully, better understanding of sciences in this manner will steer the application of scientific methods and technology towards a brighter future with compassion and tolerance.

Keywords: Physics, Buddhism, the five aggregates, four great elements, calabi-yau manifold

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6 Effect of Instructional Materials on Academic Performance in Heat Transfer Concept among Secondary School Physics Students in Fagge Educational Zone, Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Shehu Aliyu

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This study investigated the effects of instructional materials on academic achievement among senior secondary school students on the concept of Heat Transfer in physics in Fagge Educational Zone, Kano State Nigeria. The population consisted of SSII students from 10 public schools. Out of this, 87 students were randomly selected from which 24 males and 22 females formed the experimental group and 41 students as control group. A quasi experiential design with pretest and post-test for both the groups was adopted. Two research questions and null hypotheses guided the conduct of the study. The experimental group was exposed to teaching using instructional materials while the control group was taught using the normal lecture mode. Head Transfer Performance Test (HTPT) was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by experts in the science education field. A Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) was used to determine the reliability co-efficient and was found to be r=0.83. The research questions were answered using descriptive statistics while the hypotheses were tested at p≤ 0.05 level of significance using t-test. The result obtained from the data analysis showed that students in experimental group performed significantly better than those in the control group and that there was no significant difference in the academic performance between male and female students in the experimental group. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended among others that the physics teachers should be receiving regular training on the importance of using instructional materials whether ready made or improved in their teaching.

Keywords: Physics, Heat Transfer, Academic Performance, instructional materials

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5 Effects of Teaching Strategies on Students Academic Achievement in Secondary Physics Education for Quality Assurance

Authors: Collins Molua

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This paper investigated the effect of Teaching Strategies on Academic Achievement in Secondary Physics Education as a quality assurance process for the teaching and learning of the subject. Teaching strategies investigated were the interactive, independent and dependent strategies. Three null hypotheses were tested at p< 0.05 using one instrument, physics achievement test(PAT).The data were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).Results showed that teaching strategies have significant effect on students achievement; the joint effect of the teaching strategies was also significant on students achievement in Physics. The interactive teaching strategies was recommended for teaching the subject and the students should be exposed to practical, computer literacy to stimulate interest and curiosity to enhance quality.

Keywords: Physics, Assurance, Quality, Strategies, secondary education

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4 Phonological and Syntactic Evidence from Arabic in Favor of Biolinguistics

Authors: Marwan Jarrah

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This research paper provides two pieces of phonological and syntactic evidence from Arabic for biolinguistics perspective of language processing. The first piece of evidence concerns the instances where a singular noun is converted to a plural noun in Arabic. Based on the findings of several research papers, this study shows that a singular word does not lose any of its moras when it is pluralized either regularly or irregularly. This mora conservation principle complies with the general physical law of the conservation of mass which states that mass is neither created nor destroyed but changed from one form into another. The second piece of evidence concerns the observation that when the object in some Arabic dialects including Jordanian Arabic and Najdi Arabic is a topic and positioned in situ (i.e. after the verb), the verb agrees with it, something that generates an agreeing inflection marker of the verb that agrees in Number, Person, and Gender with the in-situ topicalized object. This interaction between the verb and the object in such cases is invoked because of the extra feature the object bears, i.e. TOPIC feature. We suggest that such an interaction complies with the general natural law that elements become active when they, e.g., get an additional electron, when the mass number is not equal to the atomic number.

Keywords: Physics, Interaction, Biolinguistics, Arabic

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3 Creation of GaxCo1-xZnSe0.4 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) Nanoparticles Using Pulse Laser Ablation Method

Authors: Li Wang, Yong Pan, Xue Qiong Su, Dong Wen Gao

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To date, nanomaterials have received extensive attention over the years because of their wide application. Various nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowire, nanoring, nanostars and other nanostructures have begun to be systematically studied. The preparation of these materials by chemical methods is not only costly, but also has a long cycle and high toxicity. At the same time, preparation of nanoparticles of multi-doped composites has been limited due to the special structure of the materials. In order to prepare multi-doped composites with the same structure as macro-materials and simplify the preparation method, the GaxCo1-xZnSe0.4 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) nanoparticles are prepared by Pulse Laser Ablation (PLA) method. The particle component and structure are systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra, which show that the success of our preparation and the same concentration between nanoparticles (NPs) and target. Morphology of the NPs characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) indicates the circular-shaped particles in preparation. Fluorescence properties are reflected by PL spectra, which demonstrate the best performance in concentration of Ga0.3Co0.3ZnSe0.4. Therefore, all the results suggest that PLA is promising to prepare the multi-NPs since it can modulate performance of NPs.

Keywords: Physics, Nanoparticles, PLA, multi-doped

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2 Econophysical Approach on Predictability of Financial Crisis: The 2001 Crisis of Turkey and Argentina Case

Authors: Arzu K. Kamberli, Tolga Ulusoy

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Technological developments and the resulting global communication have made the 21st century when large capitals are moved from one end to the other via a button. As a result, the flow of capital inflows has accelerated, and capital inflow has brought with it crisis-related infectiousness. Considering the irrational human behavior, the financial crisis in the world under the influence of the whole world has turned into the basic problem of the countries and increased the interest of the researchers in the reasons of the crisis and the period in which they lived. Therefore, the complex nature of the financial crises and its linearly unexplained structure have also been included in the new discipline, econophysics. As it is known, although financial crises have prediction mechanisms, there is no definite information. In this context, in this study, using the concept of electric field from the electrostatic part of physics, an early econophysical approach for global financial crises was studied. The aim is to define a model that can take place before the financial crises, identify financial fragility at an earlier stage and help public and private sector members, policy makers and economists with an econophysical approach. 2001 Turkey crisis has been assessed with data from Turkish Central Bank which is covered between 1992 to 2007, and for 2001 Argentina crisis, data was taken from IMF and the Central Bank of Argentina from 1997 to 2007. As an econophysical method, an analogy is used between the Gauss's law used in the calculation of the electric field and the forecasting of the financial crisis. The concept of Φ (Financial Flux) has been adopted for the pre-warning of the crisis by taking advantage of this analogy, which is based on currency movements and money mobility. For the first time used in this study Φ (Financial Flux) calculations obtained by the formula were analyzed by Matlab software, and in this context, in 2001 Turkey and Argentina Crisis for Φ (Financial Flux) crisis of values has been confirmed to give pre-warning.

Keywords: Physics, Financial Crisis, Econophysics, Gauss's Law

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1 Development and Validation of an Electronic Module in Linear Motion for First Year College Students of Iloilo City

Authors: Donna H. Gabor

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This study aimed to develop and validate an electronic module in physics for first-year college students of Iloilo and find out if there would be a significant difference in the performance of students before and after using the electronic module. The e-module was composed of one topic with two sub-lessons in linear motion (kinematics). The participants of the study were classified into three groups: the subject matter experts who are physics instructors who suggested the content, physical appearance, and limitations of the e-module; the IT experts who are active both in teaching and developing computer programs; and 28 students divided into two groups, 15 in the pilot group and 13 in the final test group. A researcher created 30 items checklist form (difficulty of a sample problem, comprehension, application, and definition of terms) was prepared and validated by the experts in subject matter for gathering data. To test the difference in student performance in physics, the researcher prepared an achievement test containing 25 items, multiple choices. The findings revealed that there was an increase in the performance of students in the pretest and post-test. T-test results revealed that there was a significant difference in the test scores of the students before and after using the module which can be used as a future reference for linear motion as an additional teaching tool in physics.

Keywords: Physics, Kinematics, electronic module, linear motion

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