Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

physico-chemical parameters Related Abstracts

6 Contamination of the Groundwater by the Flow of the Discharge in Khouribga City (Morocco) and the Danger It Presents to the Health of the Surrounding Population.

Authors: Najih Amina

Abstract:

Our study focuses on monitoring the spatial evolution of a number of physico-chemical parameters of wells waters located at different distances from the discharge of the city of Khouribga (S0 upstream station, S1, S2 et S3 are respectively located at 5.5, 7.5, 11 Km away from solid waste discharge of the city). The absence of a source of drinking water in this region involves the population to feeding on its groundwater wells. Through the results, we note that most of the analyzed parameters exceed the potable water standards from S1. At this source of water, we find that the conductivity (1290 μmScm-1; Standard 1000 μmScm-1), Total Hardness TH (67.2°F/ Standard 50° F), Ca2 + (146 mg l-1 standard 60 mg l-1), Cl- (369 mg l-1 standard 150 mg l-1), NaCl (609 mgl-1), Methyl orange alakanity “M. alk” (280 mg l-1) greatly exceed the drinking water standards. By following these parameters, it is obvious that some values have decreased in the downstream stations, while others become important. We find that the conductivity is always higher than 950 μmScm-1; the TH registers 72°F in S3; Ca 2+ is in the range of 153 mg l-1 in S3, Cl- and NaCl- reached 426 mg l-1 and 702 mg l-1 respectively in S2, M alk becomes higher and reaches 430 to 350 in S3. At the wells S2, we found that the nitrites are well beyond the standard 1.05 mg l-1. Whereas, at the control station S0, the values are lower or at the limit of drinking water standards: conductivity (452 μmScm-1), TH (34 F°), Ca2+ (68 mg l-1), Cl- (157 mg l-1), NaCl- (258 mg l-1), M alk (220 mg l-1). Thus, the diagnosis reveals the presence of a high pollution caused by the leachates of the household waste discharge and by the effluents of the sewage waste water plant (SWWP). The phenomenon of the water hardness could, also, be generated by the processes of erosion, leaching and soil infiltration in the region (phosphate layers, intercalated layers of marl and limestone), phenomenons also caused by the acidity due to this surrounding pollution. The source S1 is the nearest surrounding site of the discharge and the most affected by the phenomenon of pollution, especially, it is near to a superficial water source S’1 polluted by the effluents coming from the sewage waste water plant of the city. In the light of these data, we can deduce that the consumption of this water from S1 does not conform the standards of drinking waters, and could affect the human health.

Keywords: Pollution, Human Health, Leaching, infiltration, physico-chemical parameters, ground water wells, leachate discharge effluent SWWP

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5 Effect of Monsoon on Ground Water Quality and Contamination: A Case Study of Narsapur-Mogalthur Mandals, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: M. S. V. K. V. Prasad, G. Siva Praveena, P. V. V. Prasada Rao

Abstract:

It is known that the groundwater quality is very important parameter because it is the main factor determining its suitability for drinking, agricultural and industrial purposes. Water Quality Index (WQI) has been calculated for ground water samples taken from Narsapur-Mogalthur mandals, West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India, from 10 different locations in the pre-monsoon season as well as post monsoon. The water samples were analyzed for pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), major cations like calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and anions like chloride, nitrate and sulphate in the laboratory using the standard methods given by the American Public Health Association (APHA). The overall quality of water in the study area is somewhat good for all constituents. Drinking water at almost all the locations was found to be slightly contaminated, except a few locations during the year 2014. It was found that some effective measures are urgently required for water quality management in this region.

Keywords: physico-chemical parameters, water quality index, Quality rating, monsoon

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4 Studies on the Physico-Chemical Parameters of Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Mshelia, J. K. Balogun, J. Auta, N. O. Bankole

Abstract:

Studies on some aspects of the physico-chemical parameters of Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria was carried out from January to December, 2011. The aim was to investigate some of the physico-chemical parameters relevant to life and health of fish in the water body. Six (6) sampling sites were selected at random which covered Northern (Faku and Awuru), middle (Old Gbajibo and Shankade) and southern zones (New Gbajibo and Jebba dam} of Jebba Lake. Sampling was carried out for the period of 12 Months. The Physico-chemical parameters that were considered were water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, water transparency, phosphate and nitrate. They were all measured using standard methods. The results showed that water temperature values ranged between 26.06 ± 0.15a in Jebba lake site to 27.34 ± 0.12b in Shankade sampling site, depth varied from 8.08m to 31.64m, water current was between 20.10.62 cm/sec and 26.46 cm/sec, Secchi disc transparency ranged from0.46±0.01 m in New Gbajibo, while the highest mean value was 0.53 ± 0.04 m in Jebba dam., pH varied from 6.49 ± 0.01 and 7.59,5.35±0.03a mg/l in New Gbajibo and 6.75 ± 0.03 mg/l in Faku.The dissolved oxygen varied between 5.35±0.03a mg/l in New Gbajibo and 6.75 ± 0.03 mg/l in Faku.,The mean conductivity value was highest in Faku and Jebba with 128.8 ± 0.32 and 128.8 ± 0.42homs/cm) respectively, Alkalinity ranged 43.00±0.02 to33.30±0.32 mg/l., The nitrate-nitrogen range (2.37 ± 0.08 – 6.40 ± 0.50mg/l)., The mean values of phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P) recorded varied between 0.18 ± 0.00 mg/l in Faku to 0.47 + 0.10 mg/l in Old Gbajibo.The highest mean value for total dissolved solids was 57.88 ± 0.28 mg/l in Shankade, while the lowest mean value of 39.17 ± 0.42 mg/l was recorded in Faku. Free CO2 ranged from 1.75 mg/l to 2.94 mg/l, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was between 4.25 mg/l and 5.41 mg/l and nitrate-nitrogen concentration was between 2.37 mg/l and 6.40 mg/l. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between these parameters in relation to stations. Generally, the physico-chemical characteristics of Lake Jebba were within the productive values for aquatic systems, and strongly indicate that the lake is unpolluted.

Keywords: Water Quality, physico-chemical parameters, Jebba Lake, secchi disc, DO meter, sampling sites

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3 Amphibians and Water Quality: An Assessment of Diversity and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Habitats for Amphibians in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Riffat Sultana, Kalsoom Shaikh, Saima Memon

Abstract:

Water pollution affects amphibians because they are intimately water dependent. The permeable skin makes amphibians very sensitive to the physico-chemical parameters of their aquatic environment. They spawn in water bodies where quality of water can affect the growth, development, and survival of their eggs which may die even before hatching into larvae or developing into adults due to water contamination. Considering the importance of amphibians in agriculture, food web, ecosystem and pharmaceutics as well as adverse impact of environmental degradation on them, present study was proposed to comprehensively determine the status of their diversity and habitats in Sindh province of Pakistan so as to execute monitoring for their conservation in future. Physico-chemical parameters including pH, EC (electric conductivity), TDS (total dissolved solids), T-Hard (total hardness), T-Alk (total alkalinity), Cl (chloride), CO₂ (carbon dioxide), SO₄ (sulphate), PO₄ (phosphate), NO₂ (nitrite) and NO₃ (nitrate) were analyzed from amphibian habitats using instruments and methodology of analytical grade. The results of present study after being compared with scientific data provided by different researchers and EPA (environmental protection agency), it was concluded that amphibian habitats consisted of high values of analyzed parameters except pH and CO₂. Entire study area required an urgent implementation of conservation actions for saving amphibians.

Keywords: Diversity, Water Quality, Amphibians, Habitats, Pakistan, physico-chemical parameters, Sindh Province

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2 Multivariate Analytical Insights into Spatial and Temporal Variation in Water Quality of a Major Drinking Water Reservoir

Authors: Azadeh Golshan, Craig Evans, Phillip Geary, Abigail Morrow, Zoe Rogers, Marcel Maeder

Abstract:

22 physicochemical variables have been determined in water samples collected weekly from January to December in 2013 from three sampling stations located within a major drinking water reservoir. Classical Multivariate Curve Resolution Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) analysis was used to investigate the environmental factors associated with the physico-chemical variability of the water samples at each of the sampling stations. Matrix augmentation MCR-ALS (MA-MCR-ALS) was also applied, and the two sets of results were compared for interpretative clarity. Links between these factors, reservoir inflows and catchment land-uses were investigated and interpreted in relation to chemical composition of the water and their resolved geographical distribution profiles. The results suggested that the major factors affecting reservoir water quality were those associated with agricultural runoff, with evidence of influence on algal photosynthesis within the water column. Water quality variability within the reservoir was also found to be strongly linked to physical parameters such as water temperature and the occurrence of thermal stratification. The two methods applied (MCR-ALS and MA-MCR-ALS) led to similar conclusions; however, MA-MCR-ALS appeared to provide results more amenable to interpretation of temporal and geological variation than those obtained through classical MCR-ALS.

Keywords: Multivariate analysis, Water Quality, physico-chemical parameters, drinking water reservoir

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1 Comparative Performance of Retting Methods on Quality Jute Fibre Production and Water Pollution for Environmental Safety

Authors: A. K. M. Zakir Hossain, Faruk-Ul Islam, Muhammad Alamgir Chowdhury, Kazi Morshed Alam, Md. Rashidul Islam, Muhammad Humayun Kabir, Noshin Ara Tunazzina, Taufiqur Rahman, Md. Ashik Mia, Ashaduzzaman Sagar

Abstract:

The jute retting process is one of the key factors for the excellent jute fibre production as well as maintaining water quality. The traditional method of jute retting is time-consuming and hampers the fish cultivation by polluting the water body. Therefore, a low cost, time-saving, environment-friendly, and improved technique is essential for jute retting to overcome this problem. Thus the study was focused to compare the extent of water pollution and fibre quality of two retting systems, i.e., traditional retting practices over-improved retting method (macha retting) by assessing different physico-chemical and microbiological properties of water and fibre quality parameters. Water samples were collected from the top and bottom of the retting place at the early, mid, and final stages of retting from four districts of Bangladesh viz., Gaibandha, Kurigram, Lalmonirhat, and Rangpur. Different physico-chemical parameters of water samples viz., pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity (CD), total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness, calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, phosphorus and sulphur content were measured. Irrespective of locations, the DO of the final stage retting water samples was very low as compared to the mid and early stage, and the DO of traditional jute retting method was significantly lower than the improved macha method. The pH of the water samples was slightly more acidic in the traditional retting method than that of the improved macha method. Other physico-chemical parameters of the water sample were found higher in the traditional method over-improved macha retting in all the stages of retting. Bacterial species were isolated from the collected water samples following the dilution plate technique. Microbiological results revealed that water samples of improved macha method contained more bacterial species that are supposed to involve in jute retting as compared to water samples of the traditional retting method. The bacterial species were then identified by the sequencing of 16SrDNA. Most of the bacterial species identified belong to the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Pectobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas. In addition, the tensile strength of the jute fibre was tested, and the results revealed that the improved macha method showed higher mechanical strength than the traditional method in most of the locations. The overall results indicate that the water and fibre quality were found better in the improved macha retting method than the traditional method. Therefore, a time-saving and cost-friendly improved macha retting method can be widely adopted for the jute retting process to get the quality jute fiber and to keep the environment clean and safe.

Keywords: Water Quality, Tensile Strength, physico-chemical parameters, jute retting methods, retting microbes

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