Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Physical Therapy Related Abstracts

8 Effects of Progressive Resistive Exercise on Isometric Strength of Shoulder Extensor and Abductor Muscles in Adult Hemiplegic

Authors: S. Abbasi, M. R. Hadian, M. Abdolvahab, M. Jalili, S. H. Jalaei


Background: Rehabilitation treatments have significant role in reducing the disabilities of Cerebro Vascular Accident (CVA). Due to great role of upper limb in the function of individuals particularly in Activity of Daily Living and the effect of stability of shoulder girdle on hand function, the aim of this study was to study the effects of Progressive Resistive Exercise on shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths in adult hemiplegic. Methods: 17 adult hemiplegics patients (50-70 yrs., mean 60/52, SD7/22); with RT side dominancy and 6 months after stroke, participated in this study. All procedures were approved by ethical committee of TUMS and written consents were also taken. Patients were familiarized with the procedure and shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths were measured by dynamometer. Results: according to result to our study, shoulder extensor and abductor muscles isometric strengths showed Significant differences between mean scores of pre and post intervention (P<0/05). Progressive Resistive Exercise improved 34% shoulder extensor muscles isometric strength and 27% shoulder abductor muscle isometric strength. Conclusion: Results of our research showed that progressive resistive exercise approach is a useful method for increasing the isometric strength of shoulder extensor and abductor muscles. Therefore, it might be concluded that improvement of strength of shoulder muscles could result in stability in shoulder girdle and consequently might effect on hand function in hemiplegic patients.

Keywords: Physical Therapy, shoulder extensor muscles isometric strength, shoulder abductor muscles isometric strength, hemiplegic

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7 Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials in Physiotherapy from India

Authors: V. Prakash, K. Hariohm, J. Saravana Kumar


Introduction and Rationale: Increased scope of Physiotherapy (PT) practice also has contributed to research in the field of PT. It is essential to determine the production and quality of the clinical trials from India since, it may reflect the scientific growth of the profession. These trends can be taken as a baseline to measure our performance and also can be used as a guideline for the future trials. Objective: To quantify and analyze qualitatively the RCT’s from India from the period 2000-2013’ May, and classify data for the information process. Methods: Studies were searched in the Medline database using the key terms “India”, “Indian”, “Physiotherapy”. Clinical trials only with PT authors were included. Trials out of scope of PT practice and on animals were excluded. Retrieved valid articles were analyzed for published year, type of participants, area of study, PEDro score, outcome measure domains of impairment, activity, participation; ‘a priori’ sample size calculation, region, and explanation of the intervention. Result: 45 valid articles were retrieved from the year 2000-2013’ May. The majority of articles were done on symptomatic participants (81%). The frequencies of conditions repeated more were low back pain (n-7) and diabetes (n-4). PEDro score with mode 5 and upper limit of 8 and lower limit 4 was found. 97.2% of studies measure the outcome at the impairment level, 34% in activity level, and 27.8% in participation level. 29.7% of studies did ‘a priori’ sample size calculation. Correlation of year trend and PEDro score found to be not significant (p>.05). Individual PEDro item analysis showed, randomization (100%), concealment (33%) baseline (76%), blinding-subject, therapist, assessor (9.1%, 0%, 10%), follow-up (89%) ITT (15%), statistics between groups (100%), measures of variance (88 %). Conclusion: The trend shows an upward slope in terms of RCTs published from India which is a good indicator. The qualitative analysis showed some gaps in the clinical trial design, which can be expected to be, fulfilled by the future researchers.

Keywords: Physical Therapy, Rehabilitation, RCT, PEDro

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6 Shoulder-Arm Mobility and Upper and Lower Extremity Muscle Function are Impaired in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

Authors: F. Bringby, A. Nordin, L. Björnådal, E. Svenungsson, C. Boström, H Alexanderson


Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) have reduced hand function and self-reported limitations in daily activities. Few studies have explored limitations in shoulder-arm mobility and muscle function, or if there are differences in physical function between diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc) and limited cutaneous (lcSSc) SSc. The purpose of this study was to describe objectively assessed shoulder-arm mobility, lower extremity muscle function and muscle endurance in SSc and evaluate possible differences between lcSSc and dcSSc. 121 patients with SSc were included in this cross sectional study. Shoulder-arm mobility were examined using the Shoulder Function Assessment Scale (SFA) including 5 tasks ,lower extremity muscle function was measured by Timed stands test (TST) and muscle endurance in shoulder- and hip flexors were assessed by the Functional Index 2 (FI-2). Patients with dcSSc had median SFA hand to back score 5 (4-6) and median “hand to seat” score of 5 (4-6) compared to patients with lcSSc with corresponding median values of 6 (4-6) and 6 (5-6) respectively (p<0.01-p<0.05). 50% of both patientsgroups had lower muscle function assessed by the TST compared to age- and gender matched reference values but there were no differences in TST between the two patient groups. There was no difference in FI-2 scores between dcSSc and lcSSc. The whole group had 40 (28-83) % and 38 (32-72) % of maximal FI-2 shoulder flexion score on the right and left sides, and 40 (23-63) % and 37 (23-62) % of maximal FI-2 hip flexion score on the right and left sides. Reference values for the FI-2 indicate that healthy individuals perform in mean 100 % of maximal score. Patients with dcSSc were more limited than patients with lcSSc. Patients with SSc have reduced muscle function compared to reference values. These results highlights the importance of assessing shoulder-arm mobility and muscle function as well as a need for further research to identify exercise interventions to target these limitations.

Keywords: Mobility, Physical Therapy, diffuse, limited, muscle function, systemic sclerosis

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5 Effective Use of X-Box Kinect in Rehabilitation Centers of Riyadh

Authors: Reem Alshiha, Tanzila Saba


Physical rehabilitation is the process of helping people to recover and be able to go back to their former activities that have been delayed due to external factors such as car accidents, old age and victims of strokes (chronic diseases and accidents, and those related to sport activities).The cost of hiring a personal nurse or driving the patient to and from the hospital could be costly and time-consuming. Also, there are other factors to take into account such as forgetfulness, boredom and lack of motivation. In order to solve this dilemma, some experts came up with rehabilitation software to be used with Microsoft Kinect to help the patients and their families for in-home rehabilitation. In home rehabilitation software is becoming more and more popular, since it is more convenient for all parties affiliated with the patient. In contrast to the other costly market-based systems that have no portability, Microsoft’s Kinect is a portable motion sensor that reads body movements and interprets it. New software development has made rehabilitation games available to be used at home for the convenience of the patient. The game will benefit its users (rehabilitation patients) in saving time and money. There are many software's that are used with the Kinect for rehabilitation, but the software that is chosen in this research is Kinectotherapy. Kinectotherapy software is used for rehabilitation patients in Riyadh clinics to test its acceptance by patients and their physicians. In this study, we used Kinect because it was affordable, portable and easy to access in contrast to expensive market-based motion sensors. This paper explores the importance of in-home rehabilitation by using Kinect with Kinectotherapy software. The software targets both upper and lower limbs, but in this research, the main focus is on upper-limb functionality. However, the in-home rehabilitation is applicable to be used by all patients with motor disability, since the patient must have some self-reliance. The targeted subjects are patients with minor motor impairment that are somewhat independent in their mobility. The presented work is the first to consider the implementation of in-home rehabilitation with real-time feedback to the patient and physician. This research proposes the implementation of in-home rehabilitation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The findings show that most of the patients are interested and motivated in using the in-home rehabilitation system in the future. The main value of the software application is due to these factors: improve patient engagement through stimulating rehabilitation, be a low cost rehabilitation tool and reduce the need for expensive one-to-one clinical contact. Rehabilitation is a crucial treatment that can improve the quality of life and confidence of the patient as well as their self-esteem.

Keywords: Physical Therapy, Rehabilitation, kinect, x-box, rehabilitation software

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4 The Effectiveness of Exercise Therapy on Decreasing Pain in Women with Temporomandibular Disorders and How Their Brains Respond: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Vaishali Sharma, Zenah Gheblawi, Susan Armijo-Olivo, Elisa B. Pelai, Musa Tashfeen, Angela Fung, Francisca Claveria


Due to physiological differences between men and women, pain is experienced differently between the two sexes. Chronic pain disorders, notably temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), disproportionately affect women in diagnosis, and pain severity in opposition of their male counterparts. TMDs are a type of musculoskeletal disorder that target the masticatory muscles, temporalis muscle, and temporomandibular joints, causing considerable orofacial pain which can usually be referred to the neck and back. Therapeutic methods are scarce, and are not TMD-centered, with the latest research suggesting that subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders have abnormal alterations in the grey matter of their brains which can be remedied with exercise, and thus, decreasing the pain experienced. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of exercise therapy in TMD female patients experiencing chronic jaw pain and to assess the consequential effects on brain activity. In a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of an exercise program to improve brain alterations and clinical outcomes in women with TMD pain will be tested. Women with chronic TMD pain will be randomized to either an intervention arm or a placebo control group. Women in the intervention arm will receive 8 weeks of progressive exercise of motor control training using visual feedback (MCTF) of the cervical muscles, twice per week. Women in the placebo arm will receive innocuous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation during 8 weeks as well. The primary outcomes will be changes in 1) pain, measured with the Visual Analogue Scale, 2) brain structure and networks, measured by fractional anisotropy (brain structure) and the blood-oxygen level dependent signal (brain networks). Outcomes will be measured at baseline, after 8 weeks of treatment, and 4 months after treatment ends and will determine effectiveness of MCTF in managing TMD, through improved clinical outcomes. Results will directly inform and guide clinicians in prescribing more effective interventions for women with TMD. This study is underway, and no results are available at this point. The results of this study will have substantial implications on the advancement in understanding the scope of plasticity the brain has in regards with pain, and how it can be used to improve the treatment and pain of women with TMD, and more generally, other musculoskeletal disorders.

Keywords: Physical Therapy, Rehabilitation, Musculoskeletal Disorders, exercise therapy, tempomandibular disorders

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3 Detection of Lymphedema after Breast Cancer in Yucatecan Women

Authors: Estrella C. Damaris, Olais A. Ingrid, Peraza G. Leydi


Breast cancer is the most common among women worldwide; the different treatments can bring sequels that directly affect the quality of life, such as lymphedema. The objective was to determine if there is presence of lymphedema secondary to breast cancer in Yucatecan women. It was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study, 92 women were included who met the following criteria: women with surgical treatment for unilateral: breast cancer, aged between 25 and 65 years old, minimum 6 weeks after unilateral breast surgery and have completed any type of chemotherapy or adjuvant radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer. The evaluation was through indirect measurement volume by circometry to determine the presence of lymphedema. 23% of women had lymphedema grade I. It related to the presence of some of the symptoms like stiffness, swelling, decreased range of motion and feeling of heaviness in the arm of the operated side of the breast. It is important to determine the presence of lymphedema to perform physical therapy treatment.

Keywords: Physical Therapy, Breast Cancer, lymphedema, Yucatan

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2 The Effect of Physical Therapy on Triceps Surae Myofascial Trigger Point

Authors: M. Šimon, O. Peillon, R. Seijas, P. Alvarez, A. Pérez-Bellmunt


Introduction: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are defined as hyperirritable areas within taut bands of skeletal muscle and classified as either active or latent. Although they could be present in any muscle, the triceps surae is one of the most affected of the lower limb. The aim of this study was described which treatments are more used and their principal results. Study design: We performed a systematic literature search using strategies for the concepts of “Trigger Points and Gastrocnemius and Soleus not Trapezius” in Medline. Articles were screened by authors and included if they contained a rehabilitation intervention of MTrPs in healthy subjects or patients. Results: The treatments used were mostly invasive interventions and only a small part of the studies used non-invasive treatments. The methodology (time o type of intervention, characteristics of treatment, etc.) used in these treatments were frequently undefined. Overall, examination variables varied significantly among the included studies, but they were improving their parameters when the MTrPs were treated. Conclusions: There are a high variety of physical therapy treatments to improve the symptomatology of MTrPs when affect triceps surae muscle. Even so, not a single study analyzing the skeletal muscle contractile parameters (as maximal displacement or delay time) change with MTrPS therapy has been found. The treatments have to better specificity the methodology used in the futures investigation.

Keywords: Physical Therapy, fascia, myofascial trigger points, triceps surae

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1 The Effect of Blood Flow Restriction on the Knee Rehabilitation

Authors: P. Alvarez, A. Pérez-Bellmunt, O. Casasayas, M. Vigo, R. Navarro, P. Ragazzi


Introduction: The blood flow restriction training (BFR) is a method of muscle training that allows increasing the stress of muscle tissue to enhance the muscle cross-section and strength. This type of training has clear benefits in the rehabilitation field since it can improve muscle strength using low mechanical loads. The aim of this study is to know in which knee pathologies BFR has been used, what methodology was used and what were the obtained results. Study design: We performed a systematic literature search using strategies for the concepts of “blood flow restriction OR blood flow restriction training AND knee” in Medline. Articles were screened by authors and included if they used the blood flow restriction training in pathology of the knee. Results: The pathology more frequently treated by BFR was knee osteoarthritis and the variables most analyzed were strength and pain. The vascular occlusion used was 80% in the major part of studies. The groups of BFR obtained an increase of strength with less pain but not always the results are statistically significant. The evidence levels are poor in the high number of studies because in some cases there is not a control group or the evaluators were not blinded. Conclusion: The use of BFR is useful to improve muscle strength in knee pathology since it does not increase the pain, but more studies are needed to see (comprehend) if this type of treatment obtains better results than a conventional therapy. No studies have been found that compare the different occlusion effects in both the strength improvement and the pain reduction. Neither studies that analyse the effects of BFR on the muscle contractile parameters have been found.

Keywords: Physical Therapy, knee, blood flow restriction training, arthroscopy knee

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