Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 90

Physical Activity Related Abstracts

90 Variations in % Body Fat, the Amount of Skeletal Muscle and the Index of Physical Fitness in Relation to Sports Activity/Inactivity in Different Age Groups of the Adult Population in the Czech Republic

Authors: Hřebíčková Sylva, Grasgruber Pavel, Ondráček Jan, Cacek Jan, Kalina Tomáš

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to describe typical changes in several parameters of body composition – the amount of skeletal muscle mass (SMM), % body fat (BF) and body mass index (BMI) - in selected age categories (30+ years) of men and women in the Czech Republic, depending on the degree of sports activity. Study (n = 823, M = 343, F = 480) monitored differences in BF, SM and BMI in five age groups (from 30-39 years to 70+ years). Physically inactive individuals have (p < 0.05) higher % BF in comparison with physically active individuals (29.5 ± 0.59 vs. 27 ± 0.38%), higher BMI (27.3 ± 0.32 vs. 26.1 ± 0.20 kg/m2), but lower SM (39.0 ± 0.33 vs. 40.4 ± 0.21%). The results indicate that with an increasing age, there is a trend towards increasing values of BMI and % BF, and decreasing values of SMM.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Body Composition, Body Fat, skeletal muscle

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89 To Assess Variables Related to Self-Efficacy for Increasing Physical Activity in Advanced-Stage Cancer Patients

Authors: S. Nikpour, S. Vahidi, H. Haghani

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Introduction: Exercise has mental and physical health benefits for patients with advanced stage cancer who actively receive chemotherapy, yet little is known about patients’ levels of interest in becoming more active or their confidence in increasing their activity level. Methods and materials: A convenience sample of 200 patients with advanced-stage cancer who were receiving chemotherapy completed self-report measures assessing physical activity level, mood, and quality-of-life variables. Qualitative data on patient-perceived benefits of, and barriers to, physical activity also were collected, coded by independent raters, and organized by predominant themes. Results: Current physical activity level, physical activity outcome expectations, and positive mood were significantly associated with self-efficacy. Fatigue was the most frequently listed barrier to physical activity; improved physical strength and health were the most commonly listed benefits. Participants identified benefits related to both general health and cancer-symptom management that were related to exercise. 59.5% of participants reported that they were seriously planning to increase or maintain their physical activity level, and over 40% reported having interest in receiving an intervention to become more active. Conclusion: These results suggested that many advanced-stage cancer patients who receive chemotherapy are interested in maintaining or increasing their physical activity level and in receiving professional support for exercise. In addition, these individuals identified general health and cancer-specific benefits of, and barriers to, physical activity. Future research will investigate how these findings may be incorporated into physical activity interventions for advanced-stage oncology patients receiving medical treatment.

Keywords: Cancer, Physical Activity, Self-efficacy

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88 The Associations between Self-Determined Motivation and Physical Activity in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

Authors: I. Hua Chu, Hsiang-Chi Yu, Hsuan Su

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Purpose: To examine the associations between self-determined motivation and physical activity in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in a longitudinal study. Methods: Patients with CHD were recruited for this study. Their motivations for exercise were measured by the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2). Physical activity was assessed using the 7-day physical activity recall questionnaire. Duration and energy expenditure of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were used in data analysis. All outcome measures were assessed at baseline and 12 months follow up. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results: The results of the 45 participants (mean age 60.24 yr; 90.2% male) revealed that there were significant negative correlations between amotivation at baseline and duration (r=-.295, p=.049) and energy expenditure (r=-.300, p=.045) of MVPA at 12 months. In contrast, there were significant positive correlations between calculated relative autonomy index (RAI) at baseline and duration (r=.377, p=.011) and energy expenditure (r=.382, p=.010) of MVPA at 12 months. There was no significant correlation between other subscales of the BREQ-2 and duration or energy expenditure of MVPA. Regression analyses revealed that RAI was a significant predictor of duration (p=.011) and energy expenditure (p=.010) of MVPA at 12 months follow-up. Conclusions: These results suggest that the relative degree of self-determined motivation could predict long-term MVPA behaviors in CHD patients. Physical activity interventions are recommended to target enhancing one’s identified and intrinsic motivation to increase the likelihood of physical activity participation in this population.

Keywords: Physical Activity, coronary heart disease, self-determined motivation, relative autonomy index (RAI)

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87 Psychological Well-Being and Perception of Disease Severity in People with Multiple Sclerosis, Who Underwent a Program of Self-Regulation to Promote Physical Activity

Authors: Luisa Pedro, José Pais-Ribeiro, João Páscoa Pinheiro

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Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system that affects more often young adults in the prime of his career and personal development, with no cure and unknown causes. The most common signs and symptoms are fatigue, muscle weakness, changes in sensation, ataxia, changes in balance, gait difficulties, memory difficulties, cognitive impairment and difficulties in problem solving. MS is a relatively common neurological disorder in which various impairments and disabilities impact strongly on function and daily life activities. The aim of this study is to examine the implications of the program of self-regulation in the perception of illness and mental health (psychological well-being domain) in MS patients. MS is a relatively common neurological disorder in which various impairments and disabilities impact strongly on function and daily life activities. The aim of this study is to examine the implications of the program of self-regulation in the perception of illness and mental health (psychological well-being domain) in MS patients. After this, a set of exercises was implemented to be used in daily life activities, according to studies developed with MS patients. We asked the subjects the question “Please classify the severity of your disease?” and used the domain of psychological well-being, the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-38) at the beginning (time A) and end (time B) of the program of self-regulation. We used the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. A non-parametric statistical hypothesis test (Wilcoxon test) was used for the variable analysis. The intervention followed the recommendations of the Helsinki Declaration. The age range of the subjects was between 20 and 58 years with a mean age of 44 years. 58.3 % were women, 37.5 % were currently married, 67% were retired and the mean level of education was 12.5 years. In the correlation between the severity of the disease perception and psychological well before the self-regulation program, an obtained result (r = 0.26, p <0.05), then the self-regulation program, was (r = 0.37, p <0.01), from a low to moderate correlation. We conclude that the program of self-regulation for physical activity in patients with MS can improve the relationship between the perception of disease severity and psychological well-being.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Multiple Sclerosis, Self-regulation, psychological well-being

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86 Whole School Environmental Mapping Framework in Preventing Childhood Obesity in Selangor

Authors: M. A. M. Hayati Adilin, D. Ajau, A. S. Siti Khuzaimah, K. Mastura, R. Nik Muhammad Syafiq, M. N. Noor Fatin Nadiah

Abstract:

The school environment is one of many factors related to the increment of overweight and obesity among children. There is an evidence to suggest that the school environmental factor has an independent effect towards health-related behaviour of children and school culture. It may have a significant impact towards the emergence of childhood obesity through their influence on eating pattern and physical activity level. The objective of this study is to identify the school environmental factors (i.e. physical, economic, political and socio-cultural) towards healthy eating and physical activity of urban and rural primary school children in preventing childhood obesity. This can be identified by examining the compliance of rural and urban school environment with whole-school environmental mapping framework. The study design was a cross-sectional study. A total of 60 schools were randomly selected (30 urban and 30 rural) in Selangor, Western Peninsular Malaysia in 2013 and 60 teachers (responsible for student affairs and the school curriculum) have been interviewed face to face by using a whole school mapping questionnaire followed by observation of the school environment . This study has demonstrated that schools in both areas (rural and urban) comply mostly with the physical environmental mapping (83.3%), followed by socio-cultural environmental mapping, 65%. Meanwhile, the political environmental mappings in both urban and rural schools show a low compliance percentage, which is 56.7%. For economic environmental mapping, only 10% of both schools are complied. As a conclusion, this study has demonstrated that schools in both areas do not fully comply with the whole school environmental mapping framework, especially economic and political. However, holistic approach is needed and many improvements can be proposed to promote healthy eating and physical activities among school children. Government, families and schools as well as communities and the media should be included together with any strategies for preventing childhood obesity.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Childhood Obesity, Healthy eating, school environment

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85 Administrative Determinants of Students' Sports Participation in Private and Public Secondary Schools in Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Danjuma Moudu Momoh

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Participation in sports is of immense benefit to the soundness of individual mental and social wellness, particularly among youngsters. The 1980’s and 1990’s compared to 2000’s witnessed great involvement of youngsters in school games arising from the high administrative supports attached to sports. Previous studies in an attempt to increase youngster’s participation in sports had focused more on other factors rather than on administrative factors. This study, therefore, investigated the importance of administrative factors (availability of facilities, availability of equipment, funding, scheduling of sports programme and administrative style of school principals) on students’ sports participation in private and public secondary schools in Kwara State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design using validated and structured questionnaire, was adopted. Stratified random sampling technique was used to pick the students both male and female. A total of two thousand five hundred and sixty participants were involved in the study. A reliable coefficient of r=0.82 was obtained for the instruments using Cronbach Alpha. Data were analyzed using multiple regressions to test the hypotheses at 00.5 significant levels. At the end of the study, it was discovered that the relative contributions of administrative factors among the students were: availability of facilities (β=0.314), availability of equipment (β=0.444), funding (β=0.301), scheduling of sports programme (β=0.447), made relative contributions to the dependent variable, administrative style of school principal (β=0.077) did not make significant but minimal contribution to the student’s sports participation.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Sports Participation, secondary school students, administrative determinants

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84 The Effect of Exercise on the Mental Health of Elderly People

Authors: Vivek Kumar

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The effects of physical activity on the human body have been well understood. It just not only keeps us healthy and away from many diseases but also helpful in delay ageing. Those who exercise every day are physically as well as mentally strong. As the age advance, we often see that there is a loss of memory in the elderly people and their retention power weaken with time. The association between physical health and mental health of elderly people nowadays is an important topic of research. Many people at their old age who all were suffering from Alzheimer or Parkinson disease or were at the stage of dementia have been benefited significantly on exercise at daily basis. We would conduct a randomized control trial, where we will select a number of old age people (65 years old or above). These selected old age people will have some sorts of mental illness and currently receiving treatment for the same. We will divide them into 3 groups. The first group of people will receive their normal treatment i.e. taking medicines. The second group of people will receive medicine as well as will do exercise for 45 minutes every day in the early morning, the 3rd group of people will do exercise everyday for 45 minutes but will be given placebo instead of medicine. All the member of these groups will be monitored carefully for 6 months of time and making this sure that all the members of the group are taking medicines or doing exercise according to the group they belong to. The mental status of all the participants will be measured; the data will be analyzed accordingly. Expected results- This research will be helpful in establishing the effect of exercise on the mental health of the old age people. Also, it will be examined that whether the medicines along with regular exercise for can months can cure the mental illness significantly.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Mental Health, elderly people, randomized control trial

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83 The Global Children’s Challenge Program: Pedometer Step Count in an Australian School

Authors: D. Hilton

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The importance and significance of this research is based upon the fundamental knowledge reported in the scientific literature that physical activity is inversely associated with obesity. In addition, it is recognized there is a global epidemic of sedentariness while at the same time it is known that morbidity and mortality are associated with physical inactivity and as a result of overweight or obesity. Hence this small study in school students is an important area of research in our community. An application submitted in 2005 for the inaugural Public Health Education Research Trust [PHERT] Post Graduate Research Scholarship scheme organized by the Public Health Association of Australia [PHAA] was awarded 3rd place within Australia. The author and title was: D. Hilton, Methods to increase physical activity in school aged children [literature review, a trial using pedometers and a policy paper]. Third place is a good result, however this did not secure funding for the project, as only first place received $5000 funding. Some years later within Australia, a program commenced called the Global Children's Challenge [GCC]. Given details of the 2005 award above were included an application submission prepared for Parkhill Primary School [PPS] which is located in Victoria, Australia was successful. As a result, an excited combined grade 3/ 4 class at the school [27 students] in 2012 became recipients of these free pedometers. Ambassadors for the program were Mrs Catherine Freeman [OAM], Olympic Gold Medalist – Sydney 2000 [400 meters], while another ambassador was Mr Colin Jackson [CBE] who is a Welsh former sprint and hurdling athlete. In terms of PPS and other schools involved in 2012, website details show that the event started on 19th Sep 2012 and students were to wear the pedometer every day for 50 days [at home and at school] aiming for the recommended 15,000 steps/day recording steps taken in a booklet provided. After the finish, an analysis of the average step count for this school showed that the average steps taken / day was 14, 003 [however only a small percentage of students returned the booklets and units] as unfortunately the dates for the program coincided with school holidays so some students either forgot or misplaced the units / booklets. Unfortunately funding for this program ceased in 2013, however the lasting impact of the trial on student’s knowledge and awareness remains and in fact becomes a good grounding for students in how to monitor basic daily physical activity using a method that is easy, fun, low cost and readily accessible.

Keywords: Exercise, Physical Activity, Walking, Australian school

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82 An excessive Screen Time of High School Students in Their Free Time Promotes Our Young People’s Risk of Obesity

Authors: Susana Aldaba Yaben, Marga Echauri Ozcoidi, Rosario Osinaga Cenoz

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It was decided to make a diagnosis with students of Berriozar High School between 12 and 15 years (both included) for their lifestyles in relation to eating habits, BMI (Body Mass Index), physical activity, drugs, interpersonal relationships and screen time. The aim of this survey is identifying needs of this population and depending on the results, we could program socio-educational activities. This action is part of the Community Health Promotion Programme and healthy lifestyles in childhood and youth of Berriozar. The eating habits, a lack of physical activity and an excessive screen time are causes of 26,75% of obese or overweight young people. First of all, many of them have got a diet enriched in saturated fats and sugars. Secondly, most of them do not practise physical exercise daily and finally, their screen time are higher than the recommendation (until 2 hours a day).

Keywords: Education, Physical Activity, diet, Youth, Lifestyle, BMI, screen time

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81 Day-To-Day Variations in Health Behaviors and Daily Functioning: Two Intensive Longitudinal Studies

Authors: Lavinia Flueckiger, Roselind Lieb, Andrea H. Meyer, Cornelia Witthauer, Jutta Mata

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Objective: Health behaviors tend to show a high variability over time within the same person. However, most existing research can only assess a snapshot of a person’s behavior and not capture this natural daily variability. Two intensive longitudinal studies examine the variability in health behavior over one academic year and their implications for other aspects of daily life such as affect and academic performance. Can already a single day of increased physical activity, snacking, or improved sleep have beneficial effects? Methods: In two intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, university students (Study 1: N = 292; Study 2: N = 304) reported sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, positive and negative affect, and learning goal achievement. Results: Multilevel structural equation models showed that on days on which participants reported better sleep quality or more physical activity than usual, they also reported increased positive affect, decreased negative affect, and better learning goal achievement. Higher day-to-day snacking was only associated with increased positive affect. Both, increased day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity were indirectly associated with better learning goal achievement through changes in positive and negative affect; results for snacking were mixed. Importantly, day-to-day sleep quality was a stronger predictor for affect and learning goal achievement than physical activity or snacking. Conclusion: One day of better sleep or more physical activity than usual is associated with improved affect and academic performance. These findings have important implications for low-threshold interventions targeting the improvement of daily functioning.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Affect, Academic Performance, Sleep Quality, snacking, multilevel structural equation model

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80 Osteoporosis and Weight Gain – Two Major Concerns for Menopausal Women - a Physiotherapy Perspective

Authors: Renu Pattanshetty

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The aim of this narrative review is to highlight the impact of menopause on osteoporosis and weight gain. The review also aims to summarize physiotherapeutic strategies to combat the same.A thorough literature search was conducted using electronic databases like MEDline, PUBmed, Highwire Press, PUBmed Central for English language studies that included search terms like menopause, osteoporosis, obesity, weight gain, exercises, physical activity, physiotherapy strategies from the year 2000 till date. Out of 157 studies that included metanalyses, critical reviews and randomized clinical trials, a total of 84 were selected that met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence of obesity is increasing world - wide and is reaching epidemic proportions even in the menopausal women. Prevalence of abdominal obesity is almost double than that general obesity with rates in the US with 65.5% in women ages 40-59 years and 73.8 in women aged 60 years or more. Physical activities and exercises play a vital role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and weight gain related to menopause that aim to boost the general well-being and any symptoms brought about by natural body changes. Endurance exercises lasting about 30 minutes /day for 5 days/ week has shown to decrease weight and prevent weight gain. In addition, strength training with at least 8 exercises of 8-12 repetitions working for whole body and for large muscle groups has shown to result positive outcomes. Hot flashes can be combatted through yogic breathing and relaxation exercises. Prevention of fall strategies and resistance training are key to treat diagnosed cases of osteoporosis related to menopause. One to three sets with five to eight repetitions of four to six weight bearing exercises have shown positive results. Menopause marks an important time for women to evaluate their risk of obesity and osteoporosis. It is known fact that bone benefit from exercises are lost when training is stopped, hence, practicing bone smart habits and strict adherence to recommended physical activity programs are recommended which are enjoyable, safe and effective.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Physical Activity, Obesity, Menopause, exercises, weight gain, physiotherapy strategies

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79 Effects of Physical Activity on the Association of CETP Gene with HDL Cholesterol Levels in Korean Population

Authors: Jae Woong Sull, Sun Ha Jee

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High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are associated with decreased risk of coronary artery disease. Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for HDL cholesterol levels have implicated cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) as possibly causal. We tested for the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CETP gene and HDL cholesterol levels in Korean population. Subjects were selected from the Korean Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiative study in the Bundang-Gu area. A total of 2,304 individuals from Bundang-Gu were recruited in 2008. Other subjects were selected from the Severance Hospital (N=4,294). SNP rs6499861 in the CETP gene was associated with mean HDL cholesterol levels (effect per allele -2.044 mg/dL, p=7.23×10-7). Subjects with the CG/GG genotype had a 1.46 -fold (range 1.24–1.72-fold) higher risk of having abnormal HDL cholesterol levels (<40 mg/dL) than subjects with the CC genotype. When analyzed by gender, the association of CETP was stronger in women than in men. When analyzed by physical activity behavior, the association with CETP was much stronger in male subjects with low physical activity (OR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.23-1.92, P=0.0001) than in male subjects with high physical activity. This study clearly demonstrates that genetic variants in CETP influence HDL cholesterol levels in Korean adults.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Polymorphisms, CETP, HDL cholesterol

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78 To What Extent Does Physical Activity and Standard of Competition Affect Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) Measurements of Bone in Accordance with Muscular Strength and Anthropometrics in British Young Males?

Authors: Joseph Shanks, Matthew Taylor, Foong Kiew Ooi, Chee Keong Chen

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Introduction: Evidences of relationship between bone, muscle and standard of competition among young British population is limited in literature. The current literature recognises the independent and synergistic effects of fat free and fat mass as the stimulus for osteogenesis. This study assessed the extent to which physical activity (PA) and standard of competition (CS) influences quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements of bone on a cross-sectional basis accounting for muscular strength and anthropometrics in British young males. Methods: Pre-screening grouped 66 males aged 18-25 years into controls (n=33) and district level athletes (DLAs) (n=33) as well as low (n=21), moderate (n=23) and high (n=22) physical activity categories (PACs). All participants underwent QUS measurements of bone (4 sites, i.e. dominant distal radius (DR), dominant mid-shaft tibia (DT), non-dominant distal radius (NR) and non-dominant mid-shaft tibia (NT)), isokinetic strength tests (dominant and non-dominant knee flexion and extension) and anthropometric measurements. Results: There were no significant differences between any of the groups with respect to QUS measurements of bone at all sites with regards to PACs or CS. Significant higher isokinetic strength values were observed in DLAs than controls (p < 0.05), and higher than low PACs (p < 0.05) at 60o.s-1 of concentric and eccentric measurements. No differences in subcutaneous fat thickness were found between all the groups (CS or PACs). Percentages of body fat were significantly higher (p < .05) in low than high PACs and CS groups. There were significant positive relationships between non dominant radial speed of sound and fat free mass at both DR (r=0.383, p=0.001) and NR (r=0.319, p=0.009) sites in all participants. Conclusion: The present study findings indicated that muscular strength and body fat are closely related to physical activity level and standard of competition. However, bone health status reflected by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements of bone is not related to physical activity level and standard of competition in British young males.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Bone, Muscular Strength, standard of competition

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77 Walking the Talk? Thinking and Acting – Teachers' and Practitioners' Perceptions about Physical Activity, Health and Well-Being, Do They 'Walk the Talk' ?

Authors: Kristy Howells, Catherine Meehan

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This position paper presents current research findings into the proposed gap between teachers’ and practitioners’ thinking and acting about physical activity health and well-being in childhood. Within the new Primary curriculum, there is a focus on sustained physical activity within a Physical Education and healthy lifestyles in Personal, Health, Social and Emotional lessons, but there is no curriculum guidance about what sustained physical activity is and how it is defined. The current health guidance on birth to five suggests that children should not be inactive for long periods and specify light and energetic activities, however there is the a suggested period of time per day for young children to achieve, but the guidance does not specify how this should be measured. The challenge therefore for teachers and practitioners is their own confidence and understanding of what “good / moderate intensity” physical activity and healthy living looks like for children and the children understanding what they are doing. There is limited research about children from birth to eight years and also the perceptions and attitudes of those who work with this age group of children, however it was found that children at times can identify different levels of activity and it has been found that children can identify healthy foods and good choices for healthy living at a basic level. Authors have also explored teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning and found that teachers could act in accordance to their beliefs about their subject area only when their subject knowledge, understanding and confidence of that area is high. It has been proposed that confidence and competence of practitioners and teachers to integrate ‘well-being’ within the learning settings has been reported as being low. This may be due to them not having high subject knowledge. It has been suggested that children’s life chances are improved by focusing on well-being in their earliest years. This includes working with parents and families, and being aware of the environmental contexts that may impact on children’s wellbeing. The key is for practitioners and teachers to know how to implement these ideas effectively as these key workers have a profound effect on young children as role models and due to the time of waking hours spent with them. The position paper is part of a longitudinal study at Canterbury Christ Church University and currently we will share the research findings from the initial questionnaire (online, postal, and in person) that explored and evaluated the knowledge, competence and confidence levels of practitioners and teachers as to the structure and planning of sustained physical activity and healthy lifestyles and how this progresses with the children’s age.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Health, Well-being, perceptions

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76 Theoretical Literature Review on Lack of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Its Effects on Children

Authors: E. Abdi

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The purpose of this theoretical literature review is to study the relevant academic literature on lack of cardiorespiratory fitness and its effects on children. The total of thirty eight relevant documents were identified and considered for this review which nineteen of those were original research articles published in peer reviewed journals. The other nineteen articles were statistical documents. This document is structured to examine 4 effects in deficiency of cardiorespiratory fitness in school aged children: (a) obesity, (b) inadequate fitness level, (c) unhealthy life style, and (d) academics. The categories provide a theoretical framework for future studies. The results are broken down into 6 sections: (a) academics,( b) healthy life style, (c) low cost, (d) obesity, (e) Relative Age Effect (RAE), and (f) race/poverty. The study discusses that regular physical fitness assists children and adolescents to develop healthy physical activity behaviors which can be sustained throughout adult life. Conclusion suggests that advocacy for increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary behaviors at school and home are necessary.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Endurance, Cardiorespiratory, Physical Fitness

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75 The Relationship between Motivation for Physical Activity and Level of Physical Activity over Time

Authors: Keyvan Molanorouzi, Selina Khoo, Tony Morris

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In recent years, there has been a decline in physical activity among adults. Motivation has been shown to be a crucial factor in maintaining physical activity. The purpose of this study was to whether PA motives measured by the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale PALMS predicted actual amount of PA at a later time to provide evidence for the construct validity of the PALMS. A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive research design was employed. The Demographic Form, PALMS, and International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short form (IPAQ-S) questionnaires were used to assess motives and amount for physical activity in adults on two occasions. A sample of 640 (489 male, 151 female) undergraduate students aged 18 to 25 years (mean ±SD; 22.30±8.13 years) took part in the study. Male participants were divided into three types of activities, namely exercise, racquet sport, and team sports and female participants only took part in one type of activity, namely team sports. After 14 weeks, all 640 undergraduate students who had filled in the initial questionnaire (Occasion 1) received the questionnaire via email (Occasion 2). Of the 640 students, 493 (77%; 378 males, 115 females) emailed back the completed questionnaire. The results showed that not only were pertinent sub-scales of PALMS positively related to amount of physical activity, but separate regression analyses showed the positive predictive effect of PALMS motives for amount of physical activity for each type of physical activity among participants. This study supported the construct validity of the PALMS by showing that the motives measured by PALMS did predict amount of PA. This information can be obtained to match people with specific sport or activity which in turn could potentially promote longer adherence to the specific activity.Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive research design was employed. The Demographic Form, PALMS, and International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short form (IPAQ-S) questionnaires were used to assess motives and amount for physical activity in adults on two occasions. A sample of 640 (489 male, 151 female) undergraduate students aged 18 to 25 years (mean ±SD; 22.30±8.13 years) took part in the study. Male participants were divided into three types of activities, namely exercise, racquet sport, and team sports and female participants only took part in one type of activity, namely team sports. After 14 weeks, all 640 undergraduate students who had filled in the initial questionnaire (Occasion 1) received the questionnaire via email (Occasion 2). Of the 640 students, 493 (77%; 378 males, 115 females) emailed back the completed questionnaire. Results: The results showed that not only were pertinent sub-scales of PALMS positively related to amount of physical activity, but separate regression analyses showed the positive predictive effect of PALMS motives for amount of physical activity for each type of physical activity among participants. This study supported the construct validity of the PALMS by showing that the motives measured by PALMS did predict amount of PA. Conclusion: This information can be obtained to match people with specific sport or activity which in turn could potentially promote longer adherence to the specific activity.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Motivation, level of physical activity, type of physical activity

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74 Carbohydrate Intake and Physical Activity Levels Modify the Association between FTO Gene Variants and Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: First Nutrigenetics Study in an Asian Indian Population

Authors: V. Sudha, K. S. Vimal, D. Bodhini, K. Ramya, N. Lakshmipriya, R. M. Anjana, J. A. Lovegrove, V. Mohan, V. Radha

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Gene-lifestyle interaction studies have been carried out in various populations. However, to date there are no studies in an Asian Indian population. Hence, we examined whether lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity modify the association between fat mass and obesity–associated (FTO) gene variants and obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in an Asian Indian population. We studied 734 unrelated T2D and 884 normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) participants randomly selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) in Southern India. Obesity was defined according to the World Health Organization Asia Pacific Guidelines (non-obese, BMI < 25 kg/m2; obese, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FTO gene (rs9940128, rs7193144, rs8050136, rs918031, rs1588413 and rs11076023) identified from recent genome-wide association studies for T2D were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing. Dietary assessment was carried out using a validated food frequency questionnaire and physical activity was based upon the self-report. Interaction analyses were performed by including the interaction terms in the model. A joint likelihood ratio test of the main SNP effects and the SNP-diet/physical activity interaction effects was used in the linear regression analyses to maximize statistical power. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 13. There was a significant interaction between FTO SNP rs8050136 and carbohydrate energy percentage (Pinteraction=0.04) on obesity, where the ‘A’ allele carriers of the SNP rs8050136 had 2.46 times higher risk of obesity than those with ‘CC’ genotype (P=3.0x10-5) among individuals in the highest tertile of carbohydrate energy percentage. Furthermore, among those who had lower levels of physical activity, the ‘A’ allele carriers of the SNP rs8050136 had 1.89 times higher risk of obesity than those with ‘CC’ genotype (P=4.0x10-5). We also found a borderline interaction between SNP rs11076023 and carbohydrate energy percentage (Pinteraction=0.08) on T2D, where the ‘A’ allele carriers in the highest tertile of carbohydrate energy percentage, had 1.57 times higher risk of T2D than those with ‘TT’ genotype (P=0.002). There was also a significant interaction between SNP rs11076023 and physical activity (Pinteraction=0.03) on T2D. No further significant interactions between SNPs and macronutrient intake or physical activity on obesity and T2D were observed. In conclusion, this is the first study to provide evidence for a gene-diet and gene-physical activity interaction on obesity and T2D in an Asian Indian population. These findings suggest that the association between FTO gene variants and obesity and T2D is influenced by carbohydrate intake and physical activity levels. Greater understanding of how FTO gene influences obesity and T2D through dietary and exercise interventions will advance the development of behavioral intervention and personalised lifestyle strategies predicted to reduce the development of metabolic diseases in ‘A’ allele carriers of both SNPs in this Asian Indian population.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Obesity, Type 2 diabetes, dietary intake, FTO, Asian Indian

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73 The Incidence of Obesity among Adult Women in Pekanbaru City, Indonesia, Related to High Fat Consumption, Stress Level, and Physical Activity

Authors: Yudia Mailani Putri, Martalena Purba, B. J. Istiti Kandarina

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Background: Obesity has been recognized as a global health problem. Individuals classified as overweight and obese are increasing at an alarming rate. This condition is associated with psychological and physiological problems. as a person reaches adulthood, somatic growth ceases. At this stage, the human body has developed fully, to a stable state. As the capital of Riau Province in Indonesia, Pekanbaru is dominated by Malay ethnic population habitually consuming cholesterol-rich fatty foods as a daily menu, a trigger to the onset of obesity resulting in high prevalence of degenerative diseases. Research objectives: The aim of this study is elaborating the relationship between high-fat consumption pattern, stress level, physical activity and the incidence of obesity in adult women in Pekanbaru city. Research Methods: Among the combined research methods applied in this study, the first stage is quantitative observational, analytical cross-sectional research design with adult women aged 20-40 living in Pekanbaru city. The sample consists of 200 women with BMI≥25. Sample data is processed with univariate, bivariate (correlation and simple linear regression) and multivariate (multiple linear regression) analysis. The second phase is qualitative descriptive study purposive sampling by in-depth interviews. six participants withdrew from the study. Results: According to the results of the bivariate analysis, there are relationships between the incidence of obesity and the pattern of high fat foods consumption (energy intake (p≤0.000; r = 0.536), protein intake (p≤0.000; r=0.307), fat intake (p≤0.000; r=0.416), carbohydrate intake (p≤0.000; r=0.430), frequency of fatty food consumption (p≤0.000; r=0.506) and frequency of viscera foods consumption (p≤0.000; r=0.535). There is a relationship between physical activity and incidence of obesity (p≤0.000; r=-0.631). However, there is no relationship between the level of stress (p=0.741; r=0.019-) and the incidence of obesity. Physical activity is a predominant factor in the incidence of obesity in adult women in Pekanbaru city. Conclusion: There are relationships between high-fat food consumption pattern, physical activity and the incidence of obesity in Pekanbaru city whereas physical activity is a predominant factor in the occurrence of obesity, supported by the unchangeable pattern of high-fat foods consumption.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Obesity, stress, adult, high in fat, consumption pattern

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72 A Systematic Review of Pedometer-or Accelerometer-Based Interventions for Increasing Physical Activity in Low Socioeconomic Groups

Authors: Shaun G. Abbott, Rebecca C. Reynolds, James B. Etter, John B. F. de Wit

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The benefits of physical activity (PA) on health are well documented. Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with poor health, with PA a suggested mediator. Pedometers and accelerometers offer an effective behavior change tool to increase PA levels. While the role of pedometer and accelerometer use in increasing PA is recognized in many populations, little is known in low-SES groups. We are aiming to assess the effectiveness of pedometer- and accelerometer-based interventions for increasing PA step count and improving subsequent health outcomes among low-SES groups of high-income countries. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CENTRAL and SportDiscus databases were searched to identify articles published before 10th July, 2015; using search terms developed from previous systematic reviews. Inclusion criteria are: low-SES participants classified by income, geography, education, occupation or ethnicity; study duration minimum 4 weeks; an intervention and control group; wearing of an unsealed pedometer or accelerometer to objectively measure PA as step counts per day for the duration of the study. We retrieved 2,142 articles from our database searches, after removal of duplicates. Two investigators independently reviewed titles and abstracts of these articles (50% each) and a combined 20% sample were reviewed to account for inter-assessor variation. We are currently verifying the full texts of 430 articles. Included studies will be critically appraised for risk of bias using guidelines suggested by the Cochrane Public Health Group. Two investigators will extract data concerning the intervention; study design; comparators; steps per day; participants; context and presence or absence of obesity and/or chronic disease. Heterogeneity amongst studies is anticipated, thus a narrative synthesis of data will be conducted with the simplification of selected results into percentage increases from baseline to allow for between-study comparison. Results will be presented at the conference in December if selected.

Keywords: Physical Activity, accelerometer, socioeconomic, pedometer, step count

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71 A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of a Physical Activity Intervention in a Low Socioeconomic Population: Focus on Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions

Authors: Shaun G. Abbott, Rebecca C. Reynolds, John B. F. de Wit

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Low physical activity (PA) levels are a major public health concern in Australia. There is some evidence that PA interventions can increase PA levels via various methods, including online delivery. Low Socioeconomic Status (SES) people participate in less PA than the rest of the population, partly due to poor self-regulation behaviors associated with socioeconomic characteristics. Interventions that involve a particular method of self-regulation, Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII), has regularly achieved healthy behavior change, but few studies focus on PA behavior outcomes and no studies examining the effect of MCII on the PA behaviors of low SES people has been done. In this study, a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) will deliver MCII for PA behavior change to individuals of relative disadvantage for the first time. The current pilot study will predict sample size for a future full RCT and test the hypothesis that sedentary participants from areas of relative socioeconomic disadvantage of Sydney, who learn the MCII technique will be more physically active, have improved anthropometry and psychological indicators at the completion of a 12-week intervention compared to baseline and control. Eligible participants of relative socioeconomic disadvantage will be randomly assigned to either the ‘PA Information Plus MCII Intervention Group’ or a ‘PA Information-Only Control Group’. Both groups will attend a baseline and 12-week face-to-face consultation; where PA, anthropometric and psychological data will be gathered. The intervention group will be guided through an MCII session at the baseline appointment to establish a PA goal to aim to achieve over 12 weeks. Other than these baseline and 12-week consultations, all participant interaction will occur online. All participants will receive a ‘Fitbit’ accelerometer to record objectively. PA as a daily step count, along with a PA diary for the duration of the study. PA data will be recorded on a personalized online spreadsheet. Both groups will receive a standard PA information email at weeks 2, 4, and 8. The intervention group will also receive scripted follow-up online appointments to discuss goal progress. The current pilot study is in recruitment stage with findings to be presented at the conference in December if selected.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Motivation, socioeconomic, pedometer, implementation intentions, mental contrasting

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70 Prevalence of Life Style Diseases and Physical Activities among Older in India

Authors: Vaishali Chaurasia

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Ageing is the universal phenomenon that is associated with deteriorating health status. As the human becomes old, certain changes take place in an organism leading to morbidities, disabilities, and event death. Furthermore, older people are more vulnerable for the various kinds of diseases and health problem. Due to the some unhealthy conventions like smoking, drinking and unhealthy foods is the genesis of the lifestyle diseases. These diseases associated with the way a person or group of people lives. The main purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of lifestyle diseases and its association with physical activity as well as the risk factors associated with it among the adult population in India. Longitudinal Aging Study in India and Study on Global Aging and Adult Health in India were used in the study. We will take population aged 50 and older, began in 1935, and regularly refreshed at younger ages with new birth cohorts. Life style diseases are more prominent in 65+ age group. The study finds an association between prevalence of life style diseases and life style risk factors. The lifestyle disease prevalence is more among higher age group people, female, richest quintile, and doing lesser physical activity. A higher prevalence of lifestyle diseases associated with the multiple risk factors. The occurrence of three and four risk factors was more prevalent in India. The frequency of different type of life style disease is higher among those who hardly or never do any physical activity as compare to those who do physical activity every day. The pattern remains the same in Moderate as well as vigorous physical activity. Those who are regularly doing physical activities have lesser percentage of having any disease and those who hardly ever or never do any physical activities and equally involve with some risk factors have higher percentage of having all type of diseases.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Disability, morbidity, lifestyle disease

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69 The Influence of Active Breaks on the Attention/Concentration Performance in Eighth-Graders

Authors: Christian Andrä, Luisa Zimmermann, Christina Müller

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Introduction: The positive relation between physical activity and cognition is commonly known. Relevant studies show that in everyday school life active breaks can lead to improvement in certain abilities (e.g. attention and concentration). A beneficial effect is in particular attributed to moderate activity. It is still unclear whether active breaks are beneficial after relatively short phases of cognitive load and whether the postulated effects of activity really have an immediate impact. The objective of this study was to verify whether an active break after 18 minutes of cognitive load leads to enhanced attention/concentration performance, compared to inactive breaks with voluntary mobile phone activity. Methodology: For this quasi-experimental study, 36 students [age: 14.0 (mean value) ± 0.3 (standard deviation); male/female: 21/15] of a secondary school were tested. In week 1, every student’s maximum heart rate (Hfmax) was determined through maximum effort tests conducted during physical education classes. The task was to run 3 laps of 300 m with increasing subjective effort (lap 1: 60%, lap 2: 80%, lap 3: 100% of the maximum performance capacity). Furthermore, first attention/concentration tests (D2-R) took place (pretest). The groups were matched on the basis of the pretest results. During week 2 and 3, crossover testing was conducted, comprising of 18 minutes of cognitive preload (test for concentration performance, KLT-R), a break and an attention/concentration test after a 2-minutes transition. Different 10-minutes breaks (active break: moderate physical activity with 65% Hfmax or inactive break: mobile phone activity) took place between preloading and transition. Major findings: In general, there was no impact of the different break interventions on the concentration test results (symbols processed after physical activity: 185.2 ± 31.3 / after inactive break: 184.4 ± 31.6; errors after physical activity: 5.7 ± 6.3 / after inactive break: 7.0. ± 7.2). There was, however, a noticeable development of the values over the testing periods. Although no difference in the number of processed symbols was detected (active/inactive break: period 1: 49.3 ± 8.8/46.9 ± 9.0; period 2: 47.0 ± 7.7/47.3 ± 8.4; period 3: 45.1 ± 8.3/45.6 ± 8.0; period 4: 43.8 ± 7.8/44.6 ± 8.0), error rates decreased successively after physical activity and increased gradually after an inactive break (active/inactive break: period 1: 1.9 ± 2.4/1.2 ± 1.4; period 2: 1.7 ± 1.8/ 1.5 ± 2.0, period 3: 1.2 ± 1.6/1.8 ± 2.1; period 4: 0.9 ± 1.5/2.5 ± 2.6; p= .012). Conclusion: Taking into consideration only the study’s overall results, the hypothesis must be dismissed. However, more differentiated evaluation shows that the error rates decreased after active breaks and increased after inactive breaks. Obviously, the effects of active intervention occur with a delay. The 2-minutes transition (regeneration time) used for this study seems to be insufficient due to the longer adaptation time of the cardio-vascular system in untrained individuals, which might initially affect the concentration capacity. To use the positive effects of physical activity for teaching and learning processes, physiological characteristics must also be considered. Only this will ensure optimum ability to perform.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Heart Rate, active breaks, attention/concentration test, cognitive performance capacity

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68 Socio-Economic Determinants of Physical Activity of Non-Manual Workers, Including the Early Senior Group, from the City of Wroclaw in Poland

Authors: Piotr Olesniewicz, Julita Markiewicz-Patkowska, Krzysztof Widawski, Daniel Puciato, Michał Rozpara, Władysław Mynarski, Agnieszka Gawlik, Małgorzata Dębska, Soňa Jandová

Abstract:

Physical activity as a part of people’s everyday life reduces the risk of many diseases, including those induced by lifestyle, e.g. obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, degenerative arthritis, and certain types of cancer. That refers particularly to professionally active people, including the early senior group working on non-manual positions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and the socio-economic status of non-manual workers from Wroclaw—one of the biggest cities in Poland, a model setting for such investigations in this part of Europe. The crucial problem in the research is to find out the percentage of respondents who meet the health-related recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) concerning the volume, frequency, and intensity of physical activity, as well as to establish if the most important socio-economic factors, such as gender, age, education, marital status, per capita income, savings and debt, determine the compliance with the WHO physical activity recommendations. During the research, conducted in 2013, 1,170 people (611 women and 559 men) aged 21–60 years were examined. A diagnostic poll method was applied to collect the data. Physical activity was measured with the use of the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire with extended socio-demographic questions, i.e. concerning gender, age, education, marital status, income, savings or debts. To evaluate the relationship between physical activity and selected socio-economic factors, logistic regression was used (odds ratio statistics). Statistical inference was conducted on the adopted ex ante probability level of p<0.05. The majority of respondents met the volume of physical effort recommended for health benefits. It was particularly noticeable in the case of the examined men. The probability of compliance with the WHO physical activity recommendations was highest for workers aged 21–30 years with secondary or higher education who were single, received highest incomes and had savings. The results indicate the relations between physical activity and socio-economic status in the examined women and men. People with lower socio-economic status (e.g. manual workers) are physically active primarily at work, whereas those better educated and wealthier implement physical effort primarily in their leisure time. Among the investigated subjects, the youngest group of non-manual workers have the best chances to meet the WHO standards of physical activity. The study also confirms that secondary education has a positive effect on the public awareness on the role of physical activity in human life. In general, the analysis of the research indicates that there is a relationship between physical activity and some socio-economic factors of the respondents, such as gender, age, education, marital status, income per capita, and the possession of savings. Although the obtained results cannot be applied for the general population, they show some important trends that will be verified in subsequent studies conducted by the authors of the paper.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Socioeconomic Factors, WHO, IPAQ, nonmanual workers

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67 Effects of Physical Activity Used as Treatment in Community Mental Health Services

Authors: John Olav Bjornestad, Bjorn Tore Johansen

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The number of people suffering from mental illnesses is increasing, and such illness is currently one of the major causes of disability and poor health. The reason for this is most likely a lack of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to discover if physical activity was an effective mode of treatment for psychiatric patients at an out-patient treatment facility. The study included an exploration of whether or not patients having physical activity included as an integral part of their treatment (to a greater degree than do patients who are physically inactive) would achieve 1) an improvement in their physical condition 2) a reduction in symptomatic pressure and 3) an increase in their health-related quality of life. The intervention period lasted a total of 12 weeks. The training group completed a minimum of 2 training sessions per week with an intensity of 60-75% of maximum heart rate. The participants’ health-related quality of life (SF-36), symptomatic pressure (SCL-90-R) and physical condition (UKK-walking test) were measured before and after intervention. Twenty participants were pre-tested, and out of this initial group, nine patients completed the intervention program and participated thereafter in post-testing. The results showed that participants on average improved their physical condition, reduced their symptomatic pressure and increased their health-related quality of life over the course of the intervention period. The training group experienced significant changes in their symptomatic pressure (the anxiety dimension) and health-related quality of life (the mental health dimension) from the pre-testing stage to the post-testing one. Furthermore, there was a significant connection between symptomatic pressure and health-related quality of life. The patients who were admitted to the psychiatric out-patient clinic were in a physical condition that was significantly poorer than that of persons of the same age in the remainder of the population. Experiences from the study and the relatively large defection from it demonstrate that there is a great need for close follow-up of psychiatric patients’ physical activity levels when physical activity and lifestyle changes are included as part of their treatment program.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Mental Health, health-related quality, physical condition

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66 Use of PACER Application as Physical Activity Assessment Tool: Results of a Reliability and Validity Study

Authors: Carine Platat, Fatima Qshadi, Ghofran Kayed, Nour Hussein, Amjad Jarrar, Habiba Ali

Abstract:

Nowadays, smartphones are very popular. They are offering a variety of easy-to-use and free applications among which step counters and fitness tests. The number of users is huge making of such applications a potentially efficient new strategy to encourage people to become more active. Nonetheless, data on their reliability and validity are very scarce and when available, they are often negative and contradictory. Besides, weight status, which is likely to introduce a bias in the physical activity assessment, was not often considered. Hence, the use of these applications as motivational tool, assessment tool and in research is questionable. PACER is one of the free step counters application. Even though it is one of the best rated free application by users, it has never been tested for reliability and validity. Prior any use of PACER, this remains to be investigated. The objective of this work is to investigate the reliability and validity of the smartphone application PACER in measuring the number of steps and in assessing the cardiorespiratory fitness by the 6 minutes walking test. 20 overweight or obese students (10 male and 10 female) were recruited at the United Arab Emirate University, aged between 18 and 25 years old. Reliability and validity were tested in real life conditions and in controlled conditions by using a treadmill. Test-retest experiments were done with PACER on 2 days separated by a week in real life conditions (24 hours each time) and in controlled conditions (30 minutes on treadmill, 3km/h). Validity was tested against the pedometer OMRON in the same conditions. During treadmill test, video was recorded and steps numbers were compared between PACER, pedometer and video. The validity of PACER in estimating the cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) as part of the 6 minutes walking test (6MWT) was studied against the 20m shuttle running test. Reliability was studied by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% confidence interval (95%CI) and by Bland-Altman plots. Validity was studied by calculating Spearman correlation coefficient (rho) and Bland-Altman plots. PACER reliability was good in both male and female in real life conditions (p≤10-3) but only in female in controlled conditions (p=0.01). PACER was valid against OMRON pedometer in male and female in real life conditions (rho=0.94, p≤10-3 ; rho=0.64, p=0.01, in male and female respectively). In controlled conditions, PACER was not valid against pedometer. But, PACER was valid against video in female (rho=0.72, p≤10-3). PACER was valid against the shuttle run test in male and female (rho-=0.66, p=0.01 ; rho=0.51, p=0.04) to estimate VO2max. This study provides data on the reliability and viability of PACER in overweight or obese male and female young adults. Globally, PACER was shown as reliable and valid in real life conditions in overweight or obese male and female to count steps and assess fitness. This supports the use of PACER to assess and promote physical activity in clinical follow-up and community interventions.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Reliability, Fitness, Validity, smartphone application, pacer, steps

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65 Three Year Pedometer Based Physical Activity Intervention of the Adult Population in Qatar

Authors: Suzan Sayegh, Mercia I. Van Der Walt, Izzeldin E. L. J. Ibrahim, Mohamed G. Al-Kuwari, Manaf Kamil

Abstract:

Background: Increased physical activity is associated with improvements in health conditions. Walking is recognized as an easy form of physical activity and a strategy used in health promotion. Step into Health (SIH), a national community program, was established in Qatar to support physical activity promotion through the monitoring of step counts. This study aims to assess the physical activity levels of the adult population in Qatar through a pedometer-based community program over a three-year-period. Methodology: This cross-sectional longitudinal study was conducted between from January 2013 and December 2015 based on daily step counts. A total of 15,947 adults (8,551 males and 7,396 females), from different nationalities enrolled in the program and aged 18 to 64, are included. The program involves free distribution of pedometers to members who voluntarily choose to register. It is also supported by a self-monitoring online account and linked to a web-database. All members are informed about the 10,000 steps/day target and automated emails as well as text messages are sent as reminders to upload data. Daily step counts were measured through the Omron HJ-324U pedometer (Omron Healthcare Co., Ltd., Japan). Analyses are done on the data extracted from the web-database. Results: Daily average step count for the overall community increased from 4,830 steps/day (2013) to 6,124 steps /day (2015). This increase was also observed within the three age categories (18–30), (31-45) and (>45) years. Average steps per day were found to be more among males compared with females in each of the aforementioned age groups. Moreover, males and females in the age group (>45 years) show the highest average step count with 7,010 steps/day and 5,564 steps/day respectively. The 21% increase in overall step count throughout the study period is associated with well-resourced program and ongoing impact in smaller communities such as workplaces and universities, a step in the right direction. However, the average step count of 6,124 steps/day in the third year is still classified as the low active category. Although the program showed an increase step count we found, 33% of the study population are low active, 35 % are sedentary with only 32% being active. Conclusion: This study indicates that the pedometer-based intervention was effective in increasing the daily physical activity of participants. However, alternative approaches need to be incorporated within the program to educate and encourage the community to meet the physical activity recommendations in relation to step count.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Qatar, pedometer, step count

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64 Assessment of Physical Activity Levels in Qatar: A Pedometer-Based Study

Authors: Souzan Al Sayegh, Izzeldin Ibrahim, Mercia Van Der Walt, Mohamed Al-Kuwari

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Background: Walking is the most common form of physical activity which can promote a healthy well-being among people of different age groups. In this regard, pedometers are becoming more popular within research and are considered useful tools in monitoring physical activity levels based on individuals’ daily steps. A value of ˂5,000 steps/day is identified as a sedentary lifestyle index where individuals are physically inactive. Those achieving 5,000-7,499 steps/day have a low active lifestyle as they do not meet the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendations. Moreover, individuals achieving ≥7,500 steps/day are classified as physically active. The objective of this study is to assess the physical activity levels of adult population in Qatar through a pedometer-based program over a one-year period. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis, as part of a longitudinal study, was carried out over one year to assess the daily step count. 'Step into Health' is a community-based program launched by Aspire as an approach for the purpose of improving physical activity across the population of Qatar. The program involves the distribution of pedometers to registered members which is supported by a self-monitoring online account and linked to a web database. Daily habitual physical activity (daily total step count) was assessed through Omron HJ-324U pedometer. Analyses were done on data extracted from the web database. Results: A total of 1,988 members were included in this study (males: n=1,143, 57%; females: n=845, 43%). Average age was 37.8±10.9 years distributed as 60% of age between age 25-54 (n=1,186), 27% of age 45-64 (n=546), and 13% of age 18-24 years (n=256). Majority were non-Qataris, 81% (n=1,609) compared with 19% of the Qatari nationality (n=379). Average body mass index (BMI) was 27.8±6.1 (kg/m2) where most of them (41%, n=809) were found to be overweight, between 25-30 kg/m2. Total average step count was 5,469±3,884. Majority were found to be sedentary (n=1110, 55.8%). Middle aged individuals were more active than the other two age groups. Males were seen as more active than females. Those who were less active had a higher BMI. Older individuals were more active. There was a variation in the physical activity level throughout the year period. Conclusion: It is essential to further develop the available intervention programs and increase their physical activity behavior. Planning such physical activity interventions for female population should involve aspects such as time, environmental variables and aerobic steps.

Keywords: Physical Activity, adults, pedometer, step-count

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63 The Benefits of Mountain Climbing in the Physical Well-Being of Young People

Authors: Zylfi Shehu, Rozeta Shatku

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The aim of this study is the identification of the goods and the consequences it brings up the mountain climbing to the youth, how mountain climbing influences in physical activity and the health of young people. Taken to study 37 young people aged 18-30 years, 25 males and 12 females. The selection was made at random and voluntary. Subjects were not professionals but amateurs climbing in the mountain. They were informed and instructed for the test to be carried out. The ascent was made in January 2016 in the Mount of Gjallica in Kukës, Albania, the height of the mountain is 2489 m above sea level. Backpack for each subject weighing 32 kg. Time of ascent, attitude and descent was 6 days. In 22 males, 2 of them did not afford the ascent on the first day and went back. Of the 12 women, 5 of them withdrew on the first day. During the descent on day six, 20 males 7 of them had minor injuries, three with serious injuries. While a total of 7 women, 4 of them had minor injuries and one with serious injuries. Most of the men and women who deal with physical activity throughout life faced the light and were not injured, and the rest that were not dealt with physical activity were more injured. Lack of experience and knowledge was one of the causes of injuries. The subjects had anxiety all the time, uncertainty and fear of avalanches of snow and difficult terrain.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Young People, Climbing

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62 Assessment on the Improvement of the Quality of Life after One Year of Regular Physical Activity and Treatment in Patients with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

Authors: Stoyanka Georgieva Vladeva, Elena Kirilova Kirilova, Nikola Kirilov Kirilov

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Summary: WHO (World Health Organization) recommends the elder people a certain amount of regular physical activity in order to prevent some of the health issues. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is one of the chronic diseases which requires the maintaining of regular physical activity. The regular activity combined with an adequate medical treatment greatly improves the quality of life of the patient. Objectives: Assessment of the effect of the regular physical activity recommended by WHO on the quality of life in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Material and methods: For the period of one year 68 female patients treated with Denosumab have been monitored. The bone density has been measured with the DEXA method in accordance to the T-score. No patients having any oncologic diseases and secondary osteoporosis have been included in the study. The subjects have been divided into groups by their age. The first group – women aged under 65 years (27 subjects) and the second group – women aged over 65 years (41 subjects). All patients have been advised to maintain regular physical activity included in the recommendations of the WHO in accordance with the age and the disease. The quality of life has been assessed in the beginning and at the end of the one-year period using the SF 36V2 questionnaire. Results: Only 31% of the subjects have engaged into regular increased physical activities for the whole period. Among them are mostly patients of the second group (aged over 65 years, 71%). The women from the both groups who were engaging into regular activities for this one-year period all experience an improvement of the quality of life. These results show that older patients understand the necessity of the physical activity for their health. The comparison of the output data to the scales of physical activity, durability, body pain, vitality, social activity and emotional stability has found an improvement at the end of the period in all patients. The osteodensitometry showed general improvement of the T-score. Patients with additional visits to their rheumatologist have better results. Conclusion: Combination of regular physical activity in accordance to the recommendations of WHO and medical treatment including anti-osteoporotic drugs improves the quality of life of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Physical Activity, Quality of Life, elderly patients

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61 The Effect of Interpersonal Relationships on Eating Patterns and Physical Activity among Asian-American and European-American Adolescents

Authors: Jamil Lane, Jason Freeman

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Background: The role of interpersonal relationships is vital predictors of adolescents’ eating habits, exercise activity, and health problems including obesity. The effect of interpersonal relationships (i.e. family, friends, and intimate partners) on individual health behaviors and development have gained considerable attention during the past 10 years. Teenagers eating habits and exercise activities are established through a dynamic course involving internal and external factors such as food preferences, body weight perception, and parental and peer influence. When conceptualizing one’s interpersonal relationships, it is important to understand that how one relates to others is shaped by their culture. East-Asian culture has been characterized as collectivistic, which describes the significant role intergroup relationships play in their construction of the self. Cultures found in North America, on the other hand, can be characterized as individualistic, meaning that these cultures encourage individuals to prioritize their interest over the needs and want of their compatriots. Individuals from collectivistic cultures typically have stronger boundaries between in-group and out-group membership, whereas those from individualistic cultures see themselves as distinct and separate from strangers as well as family or friends. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of collectivism and individualism on interpersonal relationships that shapes eating patterns and physical activity among Asian-American and European-American adolescents. Design/Methods: Analyses were based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States who were surveyed from 1994 through 2008. This data will be used to examine interpersonal relationship factors that shape dietary intake and physical activity patterns within the Asian-American and European-American population in the United States. Factors relating to relationship strength, eating, and exercise behaviors were reported by participants in this first wave of data collection (1995). We plan to analyze our data using intragroup comparisons among those who identified as 'Asian-American' (n = 270) and 'White or European American' (n = 4,294) among the domains of positivity of peer influence and level of physical activity / healthy eating. Further, intergroup comparisons of these relationships will be made to extricate how the role positive peer influence in maintaining healthy eating and exercise habits differs with cultural variation. Results: We hypothesize that East-Asian participants with a higher degree of positivity in their peer and family relationships will experience a significantly greater rise in healthy eating and exercise behaviors than European-American participants with similar degrees of relationship positivity.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Adolescent Health, Eating Patterns, interpersonal relationships

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