Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

phylogeny Related Abstracts

14 The Phylogenetic Investigation of Candidate Genes Related to Type II Diabetes in Man and Other Species

Authors: Srijoni Banerjee


Sequences of some of the candidate genes (e.g., CPE, CDKAL1, GCKR, HSD11B1, IGF2BP2, IRS1, LPIN1, PKLR, TNF, PPARG) implicated in some of the complex disease, e.g. Type II diabetes in man has been compared with other species to investigate phylogenetic affinity. Based on mRNA sequence of these genes of 7 to 8 species, using bioinformatics tools Mega 5, Bioedit, Clustal W, distance matrix was obtained. Phylogenetic trees were obtained by NJ and UPGMA clustering methods. The results of the phylogenetic analyses show that of the species compared: Xenopus l., Danio r., Macaca m., Homo sapiens s., Rattus n., Mus m. and Gallus g., Bos taurus, both NJ and UPGMA clustering show close affinity between clustering of Homo sapiens s. (Man) with Rattus n. (Rat), Mus m. species for the candidate genes, except in case of Lipin1 gene. The results support the functional similarity of these genes in physiological and biochemical process involving man and mouse/rat. Therefore, in understanding the complex etiology and treatment of the complex disease mouse/rate model is the best laboratory choice for experimentation.

Keywords: phylogeny, candidate gene of type-2 diabetes, CPE, CDKAL1, GCKR, HSD11B1, IGF2BP2, IRS1, LPIN1, PKLR, TNF, PPARG

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13 Phylogenetic Analysis Based On the Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (ITS2) Sequences of Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) Populations Reveals Significant Adaptive Evolution

Authors: Ebraheem Al-Jouri, Youssef Abu-Ahmad, Ramasamy Srinivasan


The parasitoid, Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is one of the most effective exotic parasitoids of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella in the lowland areas of Homs, Syria. Molecular evolution studies are useful tools to shed light on the molecular bases of insect geographical spread and adaptation to new hosts and environment and for designing better control strategies. In this study, molecular evolution analysis was performed based on the 42 nuclear internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) sequences representing the D. semiclausum and eight other Diadegma spp. from Syria and worldwide. Possible recombination events were identified by RDP4 program. Four potential recombinants of the American D. insulare and D. fenestrale (Jeju) were detected. After detecting and removing recombinant sequences, the ratio of non-synonymous (dN) to synonymous (dS) substitutions per site (dN/dS=ɷ) has been used to identify codon positions involved in adaptive processes. Bayesian techniques were applied to detect selective pressures at a codon level by using five different approaches including: fixed effects likelihood (FEL), internal fixed effects likelihood (IFEL), random effects method (REL), mixed effects model of evolution (MEME) and Program analysis of maximum liklehood (PAML). Among the 40 positively selected amino acids (aa) that differed significantly between clades of Diadegma species, three aa under positive selection were only identified in D. semiclausum. Additionally, all D. semiclausum branches tree were highly found under episodic diversifying selection (EDS) at p≤0.05. Our study provide evidence that both recombination and positive selection have contributed to the molecular diversity of Diadegma spp. and highlights the significant contribution of D. semiclausum in adaptive evolution and influence the fitness in the DBM parasitoid.

Keywords: Evolution, phylogeny, Recombination, diadegma sp, DBM, ITS2, dN/dS, positive selection

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12 Genotyping and Phylogeny of Phaeomoniella Genus Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases in Algeria

Authors: A. Berraf-Tebbal, Z. Bouznad, and A.J.L. Phillips


Phaeomoniella is a fungus genus in the mitosporic ascomycota which includes Phaeomoniella chlamydospora specie associated with two declining diseases on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) namely Petri disease and esca. Recent studies have shown that several Phaeomoniella species also cause disease on many other woody crops, such as forest trees and woody ornamentals. Two new species, Phaeomoniella zymoides and Phaeomoniella pinifoliorum H.B. Lee, J.Y. Park, R.C. Summerbell et H.S. Jung, were isolated from the needle surface of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. in Korea. The identification of species in Phaeomoniella genus can be a difficult task if based solely on morphological and cultural characters. In this respect, the application of molecular methods, particularly PCR-based techniques, may provide an important contribution. MSP-PCR (microsatellite primed-PCR) fingerprinting has proven useful in the molecular typing of fungal strains. The high discriminatory potential of this method is particularly useful when dealing with closely related or cryptic species. In the present study, the application of PCR fingerprinting was performed using the micro satellite primer M13 for the purpose of species identification and strain typing of 84 Phaeomoniella -like isolates collected from grapevines with typical symptoms of dieback. The bands produced by MSP-PCR profiles divided the strains into 3 clusters and 5 singletons with a reproducibility level of 80%. Representative isolates from each group and, when possible, isolates from Eutypa dieback and esca symptoms were selected for sequencing of the ITS region. The ITS sequences for the 16 isolates selected from the MSP-PCR profiles were combined and aligned with sequences of 18 isolates retrieved from GenBank, representing a selection of all known Phaeomoniella species. DNA sequences were compared with those available in GenBank using Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum-parsimony (MP) analyses. The phylogenetic trees of the ITS region revealed that the Phaeomoniella isolates clustered with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora reference sequences with a bootstrap support of 100 %. The complexity of the pathosystems vine-trunk diseases shows clearly the need to identify unambiguously the fungal component in order to allow a better understanding of the etiology of these diseases and justify the establishment of control strategies against these fungal agents.

Keywords: phylogeny, ITS, Genotyping, MSP-PCR, trunk diseases

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11 Mutational and Evolutionary Analysis of Interleukin-2 Gene in Four Pakistani Goat Breeds

Authors: Tanveer Hussain, Misbah Hussain, Masroor Ellahi Babar, Muhammad Traiq Pervez, Fiaz Hussain, Sana Zahoor, Rashid Saif


Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a cytokine which is produced by activated T cells, play important role in immune response against antigen. It act in both autocrine and paracrine manner. It can stimulate B cells and various other phagocytic cells like monocytes, lymphokine-activated killer cells and natural killer cells. Acting in autocrine fashion, IL-2 protein plays a crucial role in proliferation of T cells. IL-2 triggers the release of pro and anti- inflammatory cytokines by activating several pathways. In present study, exon 1 of IL-2 gene of four local Pakistani breeds (Dera Din Panah, Beetal, Nachi and Kamori) from two provinces was amplified by using reported Ovine IL-2 primers, yielding PCR product of 501 bp. The sequencing of all samples was done to identify the polymorphisms in amplified region of IL-2 gene. Analysis of sequencing data resulted in identification of one novel nucleotide substitution (T→A) in amplified non-coding region of IL-2 gene. Comparison of IL-2 gene sequence of all four breeds with other goat breeds showed high similarity in sequence. While phylogenetic analysis of our local breeds with other mammals showed that IL-2 is a variable gene which has undergone many substitutions. This high substitution rate can be due to the decreased or increased changed selective pressure. These rapid changes can also lead to the change in function of immune system. This pioneering study of Pakistani goat breeds urge for further studies on immune system of each targeted breed for fully understanding the functional role of IL-2 in goat immunity.

Keywords: Pakistan, phylogeny, interleukin 2, mutational analysis, goat breeds

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10 Phylogenetic Relationships of Common Reef Fish Species in Vietnam

Authors: Dang Thuy Binh, Truong Thi Oanh, Le Phan Khanh Hung, Luong thi Tuong Vy


One of the greatest environmental challenges facing Asia is the management and conservation of the marine biodiversity threaten by fisheries overexploitation, pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change. To date, a few molecular taxonomical studies has been conducted on marine fauna in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to clarify the phylogeny of economic and ecological reef fish species in Vietnam Reef fish species covering Labridae, Scaridae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae, Acanthuridae, Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, Mullidae, Balistidae, Pseudochromidae, Pinguipedidae, Fistulariidae, Holocentridae, Synodontidae, and Pomacentridae representing 28 genera were collected from South and Center, Vietnam. Combine with Genbank sequences, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on 16S gene of mitochondrial DNA using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference approaches. The phylogram showed the well-resolved clades at genus and family level. Perciformes is the major order of reef fish species in Vietnam. The monophyly of Perciformes is not strongly supported as it was clustered in the same clade with Tetraodontiformes syngnathiformes and Beryciformes. Continue sampling of commercial fish species and classification based on morphology and genetics to build DNA barcoding of fish species in Vietnam is really necessary.

Keywords: phylogeny, Vietnam, reef fish

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9 Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Spontaneous Nanosilver Resistant Bacterium Proteus mirabilis Strain scdr1

Authors: Amr Saeb, Khalid Al-Rubeaan, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Manojkumar Selvaraju, Hamsa Tayeb


Background: P. mirabilis is a common uropathogenic bacterium that can cause major complications in patients with long-standing indwelling catheters or patients with urinary tract anomalies. In addition, P. mirabilis is a common cause of chronic osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients. Methodology: P. mirabilis SCDR1 was isolated from a diabetic ulcer patient. We examined P. mirabilis SCDR1 levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, the commercial nano-silver and silver containing bandages and commonly used antibiotics. We utilized next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), bioinformatics, phylogenetic analysis and pathogenomics in the identification and characterization of the infectious pathogen. Results: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is a multi-drug resistant isolate that also showed high levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, nano-silver chitosan composite and the commercially available nano-silver and silver bandages. The P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome size is 3,815,621 bp with G+C content of 38.44%. P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome contains a total of 3,533 genes, 3,414 coding DNA sequence genes, 11, 10, 18 rRNAs (5S, 16S, and 23S), and 76 tRNAs. Our isolate contains all the required pathogenicity and virulence factors to establish a successful infection. P. mirabilis SCDR1 isolate is a potential virulent pathogen that despite its original isolation site, wound, it can establish kidney infection and its associated complications. P. mirabilis SCDR1 contains several mechanisms for antibiotics and metals resistance including, biofilm formation, swarming mobility, efflux systems, and enzymatic detoxification. Conclusion: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is the spontaneous nano-silver resistant bacterial strain. P. mirabilis SCDR1 strain contains all reported pathogenic and virulence factors characteristic for the species. In addition, it possesses several mechanisms that may lead to the observed nano-silver resistance.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Resistance, phylogeny, Altruism, Genome Analysis, Biofilm Formation, Silver Nanoparticles, Xenobiotics, Resistome, Multi-Drug Resistance, diabetic foot ulcer, proteus mirabilis, next generation sequencing techniques, pathogenomics, multidrug resistance efflux, swarming mobility, glutathione S-transferase, copper/silver efflux system

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8 Phylogenetic Analysis of Klebsiella Species from Clinical Specimens from Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital in Mthatha, South Africa

Authors: Sandeep Vasaikar, Lary Obi


Rapid and discriminative genotyping methods are useful for determining the clonality of the isolates in nosocomial or household outbreaks. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a nucleotide sequence-based approach for characterising bacterial isolates. The genetic diversity and the clinical relevance of the drug-resistant Klebsiella isolates from Mthatha are largely unknown. For this reason, prospective, experimental study of the molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella isolates from patients being treated in Mthatha over a three-year period was analysed. Methodology: PCR amplification and sequencing of the drug-resistance-associated genes, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using 7 housekeeping genes mdh, pgi, infB, FusAR, phoE, gapA and rpoB were conducted. A total of 32 isolates were analysed. Results: The percentages of multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistance (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) isolates were; MDR 65.6 % (21) and XDR and PDR with 0 % each. In this study, K. pneumoniae was 19/32 (59.4 %). MLST results showed 22 sequence types (STs) were identified, which were further separated by Maximum Parsimony into 10 clonal complexes and 12 singletons. The most dominant group was Klebsiella pneumoniae with 23/32 (71.8 %) isolates, Klebsiella oxytoca as a second group with 2/32 (6.25 %) isolates, and a single (3.1 %) K. varricola as a third group while 6 isolates were of unknown sequences. Conclusions/significance: A phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences of the 7 housekeeping genes showed that strains of K. pneumoniae form a distinct lineage within the genus Klebsiella, with K. oxytoca and K. varricola its nearest phylogenetic neighbours. With the analysis of 7 genes were determined 1 K. variicola, which was mistakenly identified as K. pneumoniae by phenotypic methods. Two misidentifications of K. oxytoca were found when phenotypic methods were used. No significant differences were observed between ESBL blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV groups in the distribution of Sequence types (STs) or Clonal complexes (CCs).

Keywords: phylogeny, phylogenetic analysis, klebsiella phylogenetic, klebsiella

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7 Phylogenetic Studies of Six Egyptian Sheep Breeds Using Cytochrome B

Authors: Daniel Petit, Agnés Germot, Abderrahman Maftah, Othman Elmahdy Othman, Muhammad Khodary


Recently, the control (D-loop) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) regions of mtDNA have received more attention due to their role in the genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies in different livestock which give important knowledge towards the genetic resource conservation. Studies based on sequencing of sheep mitochondrial DNA showed that there are five maternal lineages in the world for domestic sheep breeds; A, B, C, D and E. By using cytochrome B sequencing, we aimed to clarify the genetic affinities and phylogeny of six Egyptian sheep breeds. Blood samples were collected from 111 animals belonging to six Egyptian sheep breeds; Barki, Rahmani, Ossimi, Saidi, Sohagi and Fallahi. The total DNA was extracted and the specific primers were used for conventional PCR amplification of the cytochrome B region of mtDNA. PCR amplified products were purified and sequenced. The alignment of sequences was done using BioEdit software and DnaSP 5.00 software was used to identify the sequence variation and polymorphic sites in the aligned sequences. The result showed that the presence of 39 polymorphic sites leading to the formation of 29 haplotypes. The haplotype diversity in six tested breeds ranged from 0.643 in Rahmani breed to 0.871 in Barki breed. The lowest genetic distance was observed between Rahmani and Saidi (D: 1.436 and Dxy: 0.00127) while the highest distance was observed between Ossimi and Sohagi (D: 6.050 and Dxy: 0.00534). Neighbour-joining (Phylogeny) tree was constructed using Mega 5.0 software. The sequences of 111 analyzed samples were aligned with references sequences of different haplogroups; A, B, C, D and E. The phylogeny result showed the presence of four haplogroups; HapA, HapB, HapC and HapE in the examined samples whereas the haplogroup D was not found. The result showed that 88 out of 111 tested animals cluster with haplogroup B (79.28%), whereas 12 tested animals cluster with haplogroup A (10.81%), 10 animals cluster with haplogroup C (9.01%) and one animal belongs to haplogroup E (0.90%).

Keywords: phylogeny, cytochrome B, mtDNA, genetic biodiversity, Egyptian sheep

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6 Variations in Wood Traits across Major Gymnosperm and Angiosperm Tree Species and the Driving Factors in China

Authors: Meixia Zhang, Chengjun Ji, Wenxuan Han


Many wood traits are important functional attributes for tree species, connected with resource competition among species, community dynamics, and ecosystem functions. Large variations in these traits exist among taxonomic categories, but variation in these traits between gymnosperms and angiosperms is still poorly documented. This paper explores the systematic differences in 12 traits between the two tree categories and the potential effects of environmental factors and life form. Based on a database of wood traits for major gymnosperm and angiosperm tree species across China, the values of 12 wood traits and their driving factors in gymnosperms vs. angiosperms were compared. The results are summarized below: i) Means of wood traits were all significantly lower in gymnosperms than in angiosperms. ii) Air-dried density (ADD) and tangential shrinkage coefficient (TSC) reflect the basic information of wood traits for gymnosperms, while ADD and radial shrinkage coefficient (RSC) represent those for angiosperms, providing higher explanation power when used as the evaluation index of wood traits. iii) For both gymnosperm and angiosperm species, life form exhibits the largest explanation rate for large-scale spatial patterns of ADD, TSC (RSC), climatic factors the next, and edaphic factors have the least effect, suggesting that life form is the dominant factor controlling spatial patterns of wood traits. Variations in the magnitude and key traits between gymnosperms and angiosperms and the same dominant factors might indicate the evolutionary divergence and convergence in key functional traits among woody plants.

Keywords: phylogeny, wood density, allometry, functional traits, shrinkage coefficient

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5 The Efficiency of Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit 1 Gene (cox1) in Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relations among Some Crustacean Species

Authors: Yasser M. Saad, Heba El-Sebaie Abd El-Sadek


Some Metapenaeus monoceros cox1 gene fragments were isolated, purified, sequenced, and comparatively analyzed with some other Crustacean Cox1 gene sequences (obtained from National Center for Biotechnology Information). This work was designed for testing the efficiency of this system in reconstruction of phylogenetic relations among some Crustacean species belonging to four genera (Metapenaeus, Artemia, Daphnia and Calanus). The single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype diversity were calculated for all estimated mt-DNA fragments. The genetic distance values were 0.292, 0.015, 0.151, and 0.09 within Metapenaeus species, Calanus species, Artemia species, and Daphnia species, respectively. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree is clustered into some unique clades. Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) was a powerful system in reconstruction of phylogenetic relations among evaluated crustacean species.

Keywords: genetics, crustaceans, phylogeny, Cox1

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4 The Effect of Extensive Mosquito Migration on Dengue Control as Revealed by Phylogeny of Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti

Authors: M. D. Nirmani, K. L. N. Perera, G. H. Galhena


Dengue has become one of the most important arbo-viral disease in all tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Aedes aegypti, is the principal vector of the virus, vary in both epidemiological and behavioral characteristics, which could be finely measured through DNA sequence comparison at their population level. Such knowledge in the population differences can assist in implementation of effective vector control strategies allowing to make estimates of the gene flow and adaptive genomic changes, which are important predictors of the spread of Wolbachia infection or insecticide resistance. As such, this study was undertaken to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of Ae. aegypti from Galle and Colombo, Sri Lanka, based on the ribosomal protein region which spans between two exons, in order to understand the geographical distribution of genetically distinct mosquito clades and its impact on mosquito control measures. A 320bp DNA region spanning from 681-930 bp, corresponding to the ribosomal protein, was sequenced in 62 Ae. aegypti larvae collected from Galle (N=30) and Colombo (N=32), Sri Lanka. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW and the haplotypes were determined with DnaSP 5.10. Phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes were constructed using the maximum likelihood method under Tamura 3 parameter model in MEGA 7.0.14 including three previously reported sequences of Australian (N=2) and Brazilian (N=1) Ae. aegypti. The bootstrap support was calculated using 1000 replicates and the tree was rooted using Aedes notoscriptus (GenBank accession No. KJ194101). Among all sequences, nineteen different haplotypes were found among which five haplotypes were shared between 80% of mosquitoes in the two populations. Seven haplotypes were unique to each of the population. Phylogenetic tree revealed two basal clades and a single derived clade. All observed haplotypes of the two Ae. aegypti populations were distributed in all the three clades, indicating a lack of genetic differentiation between populations. The Brazilian Ae. aegypti haplotype and one of the Australian haplotypes were grouped together with the Sri Lankan basal haplotype in the same basal clade, whereas the other Australian haplotype was found in the derived clade. Phylogram showed that Galle and Colombo Ae. aegypti populations are highly related to each other despite the large geographic distance (129 Km) indicating a substantial genetic similarity between them. This may have probably arisen from passive migration assisted by human travelling and trade through both land and water as the two areas are bordered by the sea. In addition, studied Sri Lankan mosquito populations were closely related to Australian and Brazilian samples. Probably this might have caused by shipping industry between the three countries as all of them are fully or partially enclosed by sea. For example, illegal fishing boats migrating to Australia by sea is perhaps a good mean of transportation of all life stages of mosquitoes from Sri Lanka. These findings indicate that extensive mosquito migrations occur between populations not only within the country, but also among other countries in the world which might be a main barrier to the successful vector control measures.

Keywords: phylogeny, aedes aegypti, haplotypes, dengue control, extensive mosquito migration, ribosomal protein

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3 Genome-Wide Assessment of Putative Superoxide Dismutases in Unicellular and Filamentous Cyanobacteria

Authors: Shivam Yadav, Neelam Atri


Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic prokaryotes able to grow in diverse ecological habitats, originated 2.5 - 3.5 billion years ago and brought oxygenic photosynthesis. Since then superoxide dismutases (SODs) acquired great significance due to their ability to catalyze detoxification of byproducts of oxygenic photosynthesis, i.e. superoxide radicals. Sequence information from several cyanobacterial genomes offers a unique opportunity to conduct a comprehensive comparative analysis of the superoxide dismutases family. In the present study, we extracted information regarding SODs from species of sequenced cyanobacteria and investigated their diversity, conservation, domain structure, and evolution. 144 putative SOD homologues were identified. SODs are present in all cyanobacterial species reflecting their significant role in survival. However, their distribution varies, fewer in unicellular marine strains whereas abundant in filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Motifs and invariant amino acids typical in eukaryotic SODs were conserved well in these proteins. These SODs were classified into three major families according to their domain structures. Interestingly, they lack additional domains as found in proteins of other family. Phylogenetic relationships correspond well with phylogenies based on 16S rRNA and clustering occurs on the basis of structural characteristics such as domain organization. Similar conserved motifs and amino acids indicate that cyanobacterial SODs make use of a similar catalytic mechanism as eukaryotic SODs. Gene gain-and-loss is insignificant during SOD evolution as evidenced by absence of additional domain. This study has not only examined an overall background of sequence-structure-function interactions for the SOD gene family but also revealed variation among SOD distribution based on ecophysiological and morphological characters.

Keywords: Comparative Genomics, phylogeny, Cyanobacteria, superoxide dismutases

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2 Phylogenetic Analysis and a Review of the History of the Accidental Phytoplankter, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyta)

Authors: Mohammad, Jamal S. M. Sabir, Robert K. Jansen, Edward C. Theriot, Schonna R. Manning, Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki, Mumdooh J. Sabir, Dwight K. Romanovicz, Nahid H. Hajrah, Matt P. Ashworth


The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has been used as a model for cell biologists and ecologists for over a century. We have incorporated several new raphid pennates into a three-gene phylogenetic dataset (SSU, rbcL, psbC), and recover Gomphonemopsis sp. as sister to P. tricornutum with 100% BS support. This is the first time a close relative has been identified for P. tricornutum with robust statistical support. We test and reject a succession of hypotheses for other relatives. Our molecular data are statistically significantly incongruent with placement of either or both species among the Cymbellales, an order of diatoms with which both have been associated. We believe that further resolution of the phylogenetic position of P. tricornutum will rely more on increased taxon sampling than increased genetic sampling. Gomphonemopsis is a benthic diatom, and its phylogenetic relationship with P. tricornutum is congruent with the hypothesis that P. tricornutum is a benthic diatom with specific adaptations that lead to active recruitment into the plankton. We hypothesize that other benthic diatoms are likely to have similar adaptations and are not merely passively recruited into the plankton.

Keywords: phylogeny, benthic, diatoms; ecology, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, tychoplankton

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1 Systematics of Water Lilies (Genus Nymphaea L.) Using 18S rDNA Sequences

Authors: M. Nakkuntod, S. Srinarang, K.W. Hilu


Water lily (Nymphaea L.) is the largest genus of Nymphaeaceae. This family is composed of six genera (Nuphar, Ondinea, Euryale, Victoria, Barclaya, Nymphaea). Its members are nearly worldwide in tropical and temperate regions. The classification of some species in Nymphaea is ambiguous due to high variation in leaf and flower parts such as leaf margin, stamen appendage. Therefore, the phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rDNA were constructed to delimit this genus. DNAs of 52 specimens belonging to water lily family were extracted using modified conventional method containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The results showed that the amplified fragment is about 1600 base pairs in size. After analysis, the aligned sequences presented 9.36% for variable characters comprising 2.66% of parsimonious informative sites and 6.70% of singleton sites. Moreover, there are 6 regions of 1-2 base(s) for insertion/deletion. The phylogenetic trees based on maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood with high bootstrap support indicated that genus Nymphaea was a paraphyletic group because of Ondinea, Victoria and Euryale disruption. Within genus Nymphaea, subgenus Nymphaea is a basal lineage group which cooperated with Euryale and Victoria. The other four subgenera, namely Lotos, Hydrocallis, Brachyceras and Anecphya were included the same large clade which Ondinea was placed within Anecphya clade due to geographical sharing.

Keywords: taxonomy, phylogeny, nrDNA, waterlily

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