Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Phylogenetic Tree Related Abstracts

7 Effectiveness of ISSR Technique in Revealing Genetic Diversity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Representing Various Parts of the World

Authors: Mohamed El-Shikh


Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the world’s second most important bean after soybeans; used for human food and animal feed. It has generally been linked to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer and diseases of digestive tract. The effectiveness of ISSR in achievement of the genetic diversity among 60 common bean accessions; represent various germplasms around the world was investigated. In general, the studied Phaseolus vulgaris accessions were divided into 2 major groups. All of the South-American accessions were separated into the second major group. These accessions may have different genetic features that are distinct from the rest of the accessions clustered in the major group. Asia and Europe accessions (1-20) seem to be more genetically similar (99%) to each other as they clustered in the same sub-group. The American and African varieties showed similarities as well and clustered in the same sub-tree group. In contrast, Asian and American accessions No. 22 and 23 showed a high level of genetic similarities, although these were isolated from different regions. The phylogenetic tree showed that all the Asian accessions (along with Australian No. 59 and 60) were similar except Indian and Yemen accessions No. 9 and 20. Only Netherlands accession No. 3 was different from the rest of European accessions. Morocco accession No. 52 was genetically different from the rest of the African accessions. Canadian accession No. 44 seems to be different from the other North American accessions including Guatemala, Mexico and USA.

Keywords: genetics, Phylogenetic Tree, Phaseolus vulgaris, ISSR technique

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6 A Preliminary Report of HBV Full Genome Sequencing Derived from Iranian Intravenous Drug Users

Authors: Maryam Vaezjalali, Foad Davoodbeglou, Koroush Rahimian, Maryam Asli, Tahmineh Kandelouei, Amir H. Kashi


Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the HBV molecular profiles including genotypes, subgenotypes, subtypes & mutations in hepatitis B genes. Materials/Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on 229 intravenous drug users who referred to three Drop- in-Centers and a hospital in Tehran. HBV DNA was extracted from HBsAg positive serum samples and amplified by Nested PCR. HBV genotype, subgenotypes, subtype and genes mutation were determined by direct sequencing. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor- joining (NJ) method. Statistical analyses were carried out by SPSS 20. Results: HBV DNA was found in 3 HBsAg positive cases. Phylogenetic tree of derived HBV DNAs showed the existence of genotype D (subgenotype D1, subtype ayw2). Also immune escape mutations were determined in S gene. Conclusion: There were a few variations and genotypes and subtypes among infected intravenous drug users. This study showed the predominance of genotype D among intravenous drug users. Our study concurs with other reports from Iran, that all showing currently only genotype D is the only detectable genotype in Iran.

Keywords: genotype, Phylogenetic Tree, HBV, drug users

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5 An Accurate Method for Phylogeny Tree Reconstruction Based on a Modified Wild Dog Algorithm

Authors: Essam Al Daoud


This study solves a phylogeny problem by using modified wild dog pack optimization. The least squares error is considered as a cost function that needs to be minimized. Therefore, in each iteration, new distance matrices based on the constructed trees are calculated and used to select the alpha dog. To test the suggested algorithm, ten homologous genes are selected and collected from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databanks (i.e., 16S, 18S, 28S, Cox 1, ITS1, ITS2, ETS, ATPB, Hsp90, and STN). The data are divided into three categories: 50 taxa, 100 taxa and 500 taxa. The empirical results show that the proposed algorithm is more reliable and accurate than other implemented methods.

Keywords: Phylogenetic Tree, least square, neighbor joining, wild dog pack

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4 Molecular Characterization of Grain Storage Proteins in Some Hordeum Species

Authors: Manar Makhoul, Buthainah Alsalamah, Salam Lawand, Hassan Azzam


The major storage proteins in endosperm of 33 cultivated and wild barley genotypes (H.vulgare, H. spontaneum, H. bulbosum, H. murinum, H. marinum) were analyzed to demonstrate the variation in the hordein polypeptides encoded by multigene families in grains. The SDS-PAGE revealed 13 and 17 alleles at the Hor1 and the Hor2 loci respectively, with frequencies from 0.83 to 14 and 0.56 to 13.41% respectively, while seven alleles at the Hor3 locus with frequencies from 3.63 to 30.91% were recognized. The phylogenetic analysis indicated to relevance of the polymorphism in hordein patterns as successful tool in identifying the individual genotypes and discriminating the species according to genome type. We also reported in this research complete nucleotide sequence B-hordein genes of seven wild and cultivated barley genotypes. A 152bp upstream sequence of B-hordein promoter contained a TATA box, CATC box, AAAG motif, N-motif and E-motif. In silico analysis of B-Hordein sequences demonstrated that the coding regions were not interrupted by any intron, and included the complete ORF which varied between 882 and 906 bp, and encoded mature proteins with 293-301 residues characterized by high contents of glutamine (29%), and proline (18%). Comparison of the predicted polypeptide sequences with the published ones suggested that all S-rich prolamins genes are descended from common ancestor. The sequence started at N-terminal with a signal peptide, and then followed directly by two domains; a repetitive one based on the repetition of the repeat unit PQQPFPQQ and C-terminal domain. Also, it was found that positions of the eight cysteine residues were highly conserved in all the B-hordein sequences, but Hordeum bulbosum had additional unpaired one. The phylogenetic tree of B-hordein polypeptide separated the genotypes in distinct seven subgroups. In general, the high homology between B-hordeins and LMW glutenin subunits suggests similar bread-making influences for these B-hordeins.

Keywords: Sequencing, Phylogenetic Tree, hordeum, storage protein

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3 BeamGA Median: A Hybrid Heuristic Search Approach

Authors: Ghada Badr, Manar Hosny, Nuha Bintayyash, Eman Albilali, Souad Larabi Marie-Sainte


The median problem is significantly applied to derive the most reasonable rearrangement phylogenetic tree for many species. More specifically, the problem is concerned with finding a permutation that minimizes the sum of distances between itself and a set of three signed permutations. Genomes with equal number of genes but different order can be represented as permutations. In this paper, an algorithm, namely BeamGA median, is proposed that combines a heuristic search approach (local beam) as an initialization step to generate a number of solutions, and then a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied in order to refine the solutions, aiming to achieve a better median with the smallest possible reversal distance from the three original permutations. In this approach, any genome rearrangement distance can be applied. In this paper, we use the reversal distance. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed approach was not applied before for solving the median problem. Our approach considers true biological evolution scenario by applying the concept of common intervals during the GA optimization process. This allows us to imitate a true biological behavior and enhance genetic approach time convergence. We were able to handle permutations with a large number of genes, within an acceptable time performance and with same or better accuracy as compared to existing algorithms.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Phylogenetic Tree, beam search, median problem, permutation, genome rearrangement distance

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2 A Similarity/Dissimilarity Measure to Biological Sequence Alignment

Authors: Waseem Shahzad, Muhammad A. Khan


Analysis of protein sequences is carried out for the purpose to discover their structural and ancestry relationship. Sequence similarity determines similar protein structures, similar function, and homology detection. Biological sequences composed of amino acid residues or nucleotides provide significant information through sequence alignment. In this paper, we present a new similarity/dissimilarity measure to sequence alignment based on the primary structure of a protein. The approach finds the distance between the two given sequences using the novel sequence alignment algorithm and a mathematical model. The algorithm runs at a time complexity of O(n²). A distance matrix is generated to construct a phylogenetic tree of different species. The new similarity/dissimilarity measure outperforms other existing methods.

Keywords: Distance, Phylogenetic Tree, alignment, mathematical model, homology

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1 Genetic Diversity of Wild Population of Heterobranchus Spp. Based on Mitochondria DNA Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I Gene Analysis

Authors: M.Y. Abubakar, Ipinjolu J.K., Yuzine B. Esa, Magawata I., Hassan W.A., Turaki A.A


Catfish (Heterobranchus spp.) is a major freshwater fish that are widely distributed in Nigeria waters and are gaining rapid aquaculture expansion. However, indiscriminate artificial crossbreeding of the species with others poses a threat to their biodiversity. There is a paucity of information about the genetic variability, hence this insight on the genetic variability is badly needed, not only for the species conservation but for aquaculture expansion. In this study, we tested the level of Genetic diversity, population differentiation and phylogenetic relationship analysis on 35 individuals of two populations of Heterobranchus bidorsalis and 29 individuals of three populations of Heterobranchus longifilis using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtDNA COI) gene sequence. Nucleotide sequences of 650 bp fragment of the COI gene of the two species were compared. In the whole 4 and 5 haplotypes were distinguished in the populations of H. bidorsalis & H. longifilis with accession numbers (MG334168 - MG334171 & MG334172 to MG334176) respectively. Haplotypes diversity indices revealed a range of 0.59 ± 0.08 to 0.57 ± 0.09 in H. bidorsalis and 0.000 to 0.001051 ± 0.000945 in H. longifilis population, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed no significant variation among H. bidorsalis population of the Niger & Benue Rivers, detected significant genetic variation was between the Rivers of Niger, Kaduna and Benue population of H. longifilis. Two main clades were recovered, showing a clear separation between H. bidorsalis and H. longifilis in the phylogenetic tree. The mtDNA COI genes studied revealed high gene flow between populations with no distinct genetic differentiation between the populations as measured by the fixation index (FST) statistic. However, a proportion of population-specific haplotypes was observed in the two species studied, suggesting a substantial degree of genetic distinctiveness for each of the population investigated. These findings present the description of the species character and accessions of the fish’s genetic resources, through gene sequence submitted in Genetic database. The data will help to protect their valuable wild resource and contribute to their recovery and selective breeding in Nigeria.

Keywords: Phylogenetic Tree, Genetic Diversity, AMOVA, Heterobranchus spp, mtDNA COI

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