Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

phylloplane Related Abstracts

3 Molecular Implication of Interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens with Phylloplane of Tomato

Authors: Shilpi, Indu Gaur, Neha Bhadauria, Susmita Goswami, Prabir K. Paul

Abstract:

Cultivation and consumption of organically grown fruits and vegetables have increased by several folds. However, the presence of Human Enteric Pathogens on the surface of organically grown vegetables causing Gastro-intestinal diseases, are most likely due to contaminated water and fecal matter of farm animals. Human Enteric Pathogens are adapted to colonize the human gut, and also colonize plant surface. Microbes on plant surface communicate with each other to establish quorum sensing. The cross talk study is important because the enteric pathogens on phylloplane have been reported to mask the beneficial resident bacteria of plant. In the present study, HEPs and bacterial colonizers were identified using 16s rRNA sequencing. Microbial colonization patterns after interaction between Human Enteric Pathogens and natural bacterial residents on tomato phylloplane was studied. Tomato plants raised under aseptic conditions were inoculated with a mixture of Serratia fonticola and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The molecules involved in cross-talk between Human Enteric Pathogens and regular bacterial colonizers were isolated and identified using molecular techniques and HPLC. The colonization pattern was studied by leaf imprint method after 48 hours of incubation. The associated protein-protein interaction in the host cytoplasm was studied by use of crosslinkers. From treated leaves the crosstalk molecules and interaction proteins were separated on 1D SDS-PAGE and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis. The study is critical in understanding the molecular aspects of HEP’s adaption to phylloplane. The study revealed human enteric pathogens aggressively interact among themselves and resident bacteria. HEPs induced establishment of a signaling cascade through protein-protein interaction in the host cytoplasm. The study revealed that the adaptation of Human Enteric Pathogens on phylloplane of Solanum lycopersicum involves the establishment of complex molecular interaction between the microbe and the host including microbe-microbe interaction leading to an establishment of quorum sensing. The outcome will help in minimizing the HEP load on fresh farm produce, thereby curtailing incidences of food-borne diseases.

Keywords: quorum sensing, crosslinkers, human enteric pathogens (HEPs), phylloplane

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
2 Ergosterol Regulated Functioning of Rubisco in Tomato

Authors: Prabir Kumar Paul, Joyeeta Mitra

Abstract:

Ergosterol, is an important fungal metabolite on phylloplane which is not synthesised by plants. However, the functional requirement of ergosterol to the plants is still an enigma. Being ubiquitously present in all plants except algae needs an insight into its physiological implication. The present study aimed at understanding if and how ergosterol influences the physiology of chloroplast particularly the activity of RuBisCo and carbonic anhydrase. The concept of the study was based on one of our earlier observation of enhanced Hills reaction in plants treated with fungal metabolites which contained ergosterol. The fungal metabolite treated plants had a significantly high concentration of photosynthetic pigments. Eight-week-old tomato plants raised under aseptic conditions at 25 + 10 C, 75 % relative humidity and 12 hour L/D photoperiod. Metabolites of Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum were sprayed on plants either singly or in a 1: 1 combination. A separate group of plants was also treated with 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0. 7.0 mg ergosterol / ml of n- heptane. Control plants were treated with sterile distilled water only. Plants were sampled at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of treatment. RuBisCo and carbonic anhydrase was estimated from sampled leaves. RuBisCo was separated on 1D SDS-PAGE and subjected to MALDI – TOF- TOF – MS analysis. The presence of ergosterol in fungal metabolites was confirmed. Fungal metabolites significantly enhanced the concentration and activity of RuBisCo and carbonic anhydrase. The Vmax activity of the enzymes was significantly high in metabolite treated plants. 1:1 mix of metabolite was more effective than when applied individually. Insilico analysis revealed, RuBisCo subunits had a binding site for ergosterol and in its presence affinity of Co2 to the enzyme increased by several folds. Invivo activity of RuBisCo was significantly elicited by ergosterol. Results of the present study indicate that ergosterol from phylloplane microfungi probably regulates the binding of Co2 to RuBisCo along with activity of carbonic anhydrase thereby modulating the physiology of choloroplast.

Keywords: Carbonic Anhydrase, ergosterol, phylloplane, RuBisCo

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
1 Incidence and Molecular Mechanism of Human Pathogenic Bacterial Interaction with Phylloplane of Solanum lycopersicum

Authors: Indu Gaur, Neha Bhadauria, Shilpi Shilpi, Susmita Goswami, Prem D. Sharma, Prabir K. Paul

Abstract:

The concept of organic agriculture has been accepted as novelty in Indian society, but there is no data available on the human pathogens colonizing plant parts due to such practices. Also, the pattern and mechanism of their colonization need to be understood in order to devise possible strategies for their prevention. In the present study, human pathogenic bacteria were isolated from organically grown tomato plants and five of them were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter ludwigii, Serratia fonticola, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Chryseobacterium jejuense. Tomato plants were grown in controlled aseptic conditions with 25±1˚C, 70% humidity and 12 hour L/D photoperiod. Six weeks old plants were divided into 6 groups of 25 plants each and treated as follows: Group 1: K. pneumonia, Group 2: E. ludwigii, Group 3: S. fonticola, Group 4: S. maltophilia, Group 5: C. jejuense, Group 6: Sterile distilled water (control). The inoculums for all treatments were prepared by overnight growth with uniform concentration of 108 cells/ml. Leaf samples from above groups were collected at 0.5, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours post inoculation for the colony forming unit counts (CFU/cm2 of leaf area) of individual pathogens using leaf impression method. These CFU counts were used for the in vivo colonization assay and adherence assay of individual pathogens. Also, resistance of these pathogens to at least 12 antibiotics was studied. Based on these findings S. fonticola was found to be most prominently colonizing the phylloplane of tomato and was further studied. Tomato plants grown in controlled aseptic conditions same as mentioned above were divided into 2 groups of 25 plants each and treated as follows: Group 1: S. fonticola, Group 2: Sterile distilled water (control). Leaf samples from above groups were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post inoculation and homogenized in suitable buffers for surface and cell wall protein isolation. Protein samples thus obtained were subjected to isocratic SDS-gel electrophoresis and analyzed. It was observed that presence of S. fonticola could induce the expression of at least 3 additional cell wall proteins at different time intervals. Surface proteins also showed variation in the expression pattern at different sampling intervals. Further identification of these proteins by MALDI-MS and bioinformatics tools revealed the gene(s) involved in the interaction of S. fonticola with tomato phylloplane.

Keywords: cell wall proteins, Solanum lycopersicum, phylloplane, human pathogenic bacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 113