Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

phycocyanin Related Abstracts

3 Extraction of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis by Isoelectric Point Precipitation and Salting Out for Scale Up Processes

Authors: Velasco-Rendón María Del Carmen, Cuéllar-Bermúdez Sara Paulina, Parra-Saldívar Roberto

Abstract:

Phycocyanin is a blue pigment protein with fluorescent activity produced by cyanobacteria. It has been recently studied to determine its anticancer, antioxidant and antiinflamatory potential. Since 2014 it was approved as a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) proteic pigment for the food industry. Therefore, phycocyanin shows potential for the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and diagnostics industry. Conventional phycocyanin extraction includes buffer solutions and ammonium sulphate followed by chromatography or ATPS for protein separation. Therefore, further purification steps are time-requiring, energy intensive and not suitable for scale-up processing. This work presents an alternative to conventional methods that also allows large scale application with commercially available equipment. The extraction was performed by exposing the dry biomass to mechanical cavitation and salting out with NaCl to use an edible reagent. Also, isoelectric point precipitation was used by addition of HCl and neutralization with NaOH. The results were measured and compared in phycocyanin concentration, purity and extraction yield. Results showed that the best extraction condition was the extraction by salting out with 0.20 M NaCl after 30 minutes cavitation, with a concentration in the supernatant of 2.22 mg/ml, a purity of 3.28 and recovery from crude extract of 81.27%. Mechanical cavitation presumably increased the solvent-biomass contact, making the crude extract visibly dark blue after centrifugation. Compared to other systems, our process has less purification steps, similar concentrations in the phycocyanin-rich fraction and higher purity. The contaminants present in our process edible NaCl or low pHs that can be neutralized. It also can be adapted to a semi-continuous process with commercially available equipment. This characteristics make this process an appealing alternative for phycocyanin extraction as a pigment for the food industry.

Keywords: Precipitation, Extraction, Scale-up, phycocyanin

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2 Isolation of Nitrosoguanidine Induced NaCl Tolerant Mutant of Spirulina platensis with Improved Growth and Phycocyanin Production

Authors: Apurva Gupta, Surendra Singh

Abstract:

Spirulina spp., as a promising source of many commercially valuable products, is grown photo autotrophically in open ponds and raceways on a large scale. However, the economic exploitation in an open system seems to have been limited because of lack of multiple stress-tolerant strains. The present study aims to isolate a stable stress tolerant mutant of Spirulina platensis with improved growth rate and enhanced potential to produce its commercially valuable bioactive compounds. N-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) at 250 μg/mL (concentration permitted 1% survival) was employed for chemical mutagenesis to generate random mutants and screened against NaCl. In a preliminary experiment, wild type S. platensis was treated with NaCl concentrations from 0.5-1.5 M to calculate its LC₅₀. Mutagenized colonies were then screened for tolerance at 0.8 M NaCl (LC₅₀), and the surviving colonies were designated as NaCl tolerant mutants of S. platensis. The mutant cells exhibited 1.5 times improved growth against NaCl stress as compared to the wild type strain in control conditions. This might be due to the ability of the mutant cells to protect its metabolic machinery against inhibitory effects of salt stress. Salt stress is known to adversely affect the rate of photosynthesis in cyanobacteria by causing degradation of the pigments. Interestingly, the mutant cells were able to protect its photosynthetic machinery and exhibited 4.23 and 1.72 times enhanced accumulation of Chl a and phycobiliproteins, respectively, which resulted in enhanced rate of photosynthesis (2.43 times) and respiration (1.38 times) against salt stress. Phycocyanin production in mutant cells was observed to enhance by 1.63 fold. Nitrogen metabolism plays a vital role in conferring halotolerance to cyanobacterial cells by influx of nitrate and efflux of Na+ ions from the cell. The NaCl tolerant mutant cells took up 2.29 times more nitrate as compared to the wild type and efficiently reduce it. Nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activity in the mutant cells also improved by 2.45 and 2.31 times, respectively against salt stress. From these preliminary results, it could be deduced that enhanced nitrogen uptake and its efficient reduction might be a reason for adaptive and halotolerant behavior of the S. platensis mutant cells. Also, the NaCl tolerant mutant of S. platensis with significant improved growth and phycocyanin accumulation compared to the wild type can be commercially promising.

Keywords: phycocyanin, chemical mutagenesis, NaCl tolerant mutant, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthetic machinery

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1 Effect of Nutrient Limitations in Phycocyanin Formation by Spirulina platensis

Authors: Hugo F. Lobaton

Abstract:

The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is a prokaryotic photoautotrophic microorganism that is successfully cultivated for the commercialization as whole biomass due to its high protein content and promising valuable substance. For instance, phycocyanin has recently drawn the interest of the food and cosmetic industries due to its bright blue colour and its strong antioxidant capacities. The phycocyanin (PC) is the main protein-pigment in S. platensis (4% to 20%). In batches, the rate of overproduction of metabolites by cyanobacteria is limited or activated by the depletion of required substrates. The aim of this study was to develop a kinetic law that describes phycocyanin formation during batch cultivation. S. platensis was cultivated in 1 L bubble column photobioreactor with 30°C and 700 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. Culture samples were daily collected from the bubble columns in sterile conditions. The biomass (g l⁻¹) was measured directly after a biomass lyophilisation process, and phycocyanin extractions and measurements were done according to a well-established protocol. A kinetic law for phycocyanin formation that includes nitrate and bicarbonate limitations was proposed and linked to the biomass core model. The set of differential equations were solved in MATLAB. Concerning to product formation, the experimental results show that phycocyanin mass fraction is degraded as results of the complete nitrate depletion and nitrate additions during the cultivation help to keep constant this molecule until new macro-element limitation appear. According to the model, bicarbonate is this limitation.

Keywords: Spirulina, nitrate, phycocyanin, bicarbonate

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