Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Photovoltaic System Related Abstracts

14 Comparative Study of IC and Perturb and Observe Method of MPPT Algorithm for Grid Connected PV Module

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Dattatraya H. Nagaraj, Amanpreet Singh, Jayanthi Prattapati


The purpose of this paper is to study and compare two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms in a photovoltaic simulation system and also show a simulation study of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems using perturb and observe algorithm and Incremental conductance algorithm. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize the array efficiency and minimize the overall system cost. Since the maximum power point (MPP) varies, based on the irradiation and cell temperature, appropriate algorithms must be utilized to track the (MPP) and maintain the operation of the system in it. MATLAB/Simulink is used to establish a model of photovoltaic system with (MPPT) function. This system is developed by combining the models established of solar PV module and DC-DC Boost converter. The system is simulated under different climate conditions. Simulation results show that the photovoltaic simulation system can track the maximum power point accurately.

Keywords: Photovoltaic System, incremental conductance algorithm, perturb and observe algorithm, simulation results

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13 Comparison Between Fuzzy and P&O Control for MPPT for Photovoltaic System Using Boost Converter

Authors: M. Doumi, A. Miloudi, A. G. Aissaoui, K. Tahir, C. Belfedal, S. Tahir


The studies on the photovoltaic system are extensively increasing because of a large, secure, essentially exhaustible and broadly available resource as a future energy supply. However, the output power induced in the photovoltaic modules is influenced by an intensity of solar cell radiation, temperature of the solar cells and so on. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic system, it is necessary to track the maximum power point of the PV array, for this Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is used. Some MPPT techniques are available in that perturbation and observation (P&O) and Fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The fuzzy control method has been compared with perturb and observe (P&O) method as one of the most widely conventional method used in this area. Both techniques have been analyzed and simulated. MPPT using fuzzy logic shows superior performance and more reliable control with respect to the P&O technique for this application.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Photovoltaic System, MPPT, perturb and observe

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12 A Comparative Study of the Maximum Power Point Tracking Methods for PV Systems Using Boost Converter

Authors: M. Doumi, A. Miloudi, A.G. Aissaoui, K. Tahir, C. Belfedal, S. Tahir


The studies on the photovoltaic system are extensively increasing because of a large, secure, essentially exhaustible and broadly available resource as a future energy supply. However, the output power induced in the photovoltaic modules is influenced by an intensity of solar cell radiation, temperature of the solar cells and so on. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic system, it is necessary to track the maximum power point of the PV array, for this Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is used. These algorithms are based on the Perturb-Observe, Conductance-Increment and the Fuzzy Logic methods. These techniques vary in many aspects as: simplicity, convergence speed, digital or analogical implementation, sensors required, cost, range of effectiveness, and in other aspects. This paper presents a comparative study of three widely-adopted MPPT algorithms; their performance is evaluated on the energy point of view, by using the simulation tool Simulink®, considering different solar irradiance variations. MPPT using fuzzy logic shows superior performance and more reliable control to the other methods for this application.

Keywords: Photovoltaic System, MPPT, incremental conductance (INC), perturb and observe (P&O), Fuzzy Logic (FLC)

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11 Water Heating System with Solar Energy from Solar Panel as Absorber to Reduce the Reduction of Efficiency Solar Panel Use

Authors: Mas Aji Rizki Widjayanto, Rizka Yunita


The building which has an efficient and low-energy today followed by the developers. It’s not because trends on the building nowaday, but rather because of its positive effects in the long term, where the cost of energy per month to be much cheaper, along with the high price of electricity. The use of solar power (Photovoltaic System) becomes one source of electrical energy for the apartment so that will efficiently use energy, water, and other resources in the operations of the apartment. However, more than 80% of the solar radiation is not converted into electrical energy, but reflected and converted into heat energy. This causes an increase on the working temperature of solar panels and consequently decrease the efficiency of conversion to electrical energy. The high temperature solar panels work caused by solar radiation can be used as medium heat exchanger or heating water for the apartments, so that the working temperature of the solar panel can be lowered to reduce the reduction on the efficiency of conversion to electrical energy.

Keywords: Heat Energy, Photovoltaic System, heat exchanger, efficient, efficiency of conversion

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10 Study of Two MPPTs for Photovoltaic Systems Using Controllers Based in Fuzzy Logic and Sliding Mode

Authors: N. Ould cherchali, M. S. Boucherit, L. Barazane, A. Morsli


Photovoltaic power is widely used to supply isolated or unpopulated areas (lighting, pumping, etc.). Great advantage is that this source is inexhaustible, it offers great safety in use and it is clean. But the dynamic models used to describe a photovoltaic system are complicated and nonlinear and due to nonlinear I-V and P–V characteristics of photovoltaic generators, a maximum power point tracking technique (MPPT) is required to maximize the output power. In this paper, two online techniques of maximum power point tracking using robust controller for photovoltaic systems are proposed, the first technique use fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and the second use sliding mode controller (SMC) for photovoltaic systems. The two maximum power point tracking controllers receive the partial derivative of power as inputs, and the output is the duty cycle corresponding to maximum power. A Photovoltaic generator with Boost converter is developed using MATLAB/Simulink to verify the preferences of the proposed techniques. SMC technique provides a good tracking speed in fast changing irradiation and when the irradiation changes slowly or is constant the panel power of FLC technique presents a much smoother signal with less fluctuations.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic Controller, Photovoltaic System, sliding mode controller, maximum power point, tracker

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9 Embodiment Design of an Azimuth-Altitude Solar Tracker

Authors: M. Culman, O. Lengerke


To provide an efficient solar generation system, the embodiment design of a two axis solar tracker for an array of photovoltaic (PV) panels destiny to supply the power demand on off-the-grid areas was developed. Photovoltaic cells have high costs in relation to t low efficiency; and while a lot of research and investment has been made to increases its efficiency a few points, there is a profitable solution that increases by 30-40% the annual power production: two axis solar trackers. A solar tracker is a device that supports a load in a perpendicular position toward the sun during daylight. Mounted on solar trackers, the solar panels remain perpendicular to the incoming sunlight at day and seasons so the maximum amount of energy is outputted. Through a preview research done it was justified why the generation of solar energy through photovoltaic panels mounted on dual axis structures is an attractive solution to bring electricity to remote off-the-grid areas. The work results are the embodiment design of an azimuth-altitude solar tracker to guide an array of photovoltaic panels based on a specific design methodology. The designed solar tracker is mounted on a pedestal that uses two slewing drives‚ with a nominal torque of 1950 Nm‚ to move a solar array that provides 3720 W from 12 PV panels.

Keywords: Solar energy, Photovoltaic System, azimuth-altitude sun tracker, dual-axis solar tracker, stand-alone power system

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8 Proposed Location of Grid Connected Wind-Pv Hybrid System Based on Load Flow and Voltage Stability Indices Study

Authors: Bazilah Ismail, Muhammad Mat Naain, Ibrahim Alhamrouni, Lilik Jamilatul Awalin, Fadi Albatsh, Mohd Fairuz Abdul Hamid


Rapid depletion and prices of the conventional energy sources have stimulated the development of the renewable energy source (RES). Due to the unpredicted and intermittent nature of RES, the hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) is the best solution to complement the nature of the respective sources, and the combination of the wind and solar energy is rapidly gaining popularity. The significant challenges on the operation and planning of the grid system with a high HRES penetration has become an important subject since the location of HRES plant give impact towards the existing system. This paper aims to propose the location of the grid connected Wind-PV hybrid plant (WPHP) based on load flow and voltage stability indices study. Several case studies are carried out using IEEE 14 bus system, and the system is modeled and tested in DigSILENT PowerFactory.

Keywords: Photovoltaic System, Wind Farm, hybrid renewable energy system, voltage stability and load flow

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7 An Efficient Tool for Mitigating Voltage Unbalance with Reactive Power Control of Distributed Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa


With the rapid increase of grid-connected PV systems over the last decades, genuine challenges have arisen for engineers and professionals of energy field in the planning and operation of existing distribution networks with the integration of new generation sources. However, the conventional distribution network, in its design was not expected to receive other generation outside the main power supply. The tools generally used to analyze the networks become inefficient and cannot take into account all the constraints related to the operation of grid-connected PV systems. Some of these constraints are voltage control difficulty, reverse power flow, and especially voltage unbalance which could be due to the poor distribution of single-phase PV systems in the network. In order to analyze the impact of the connection of small and large number of PV systems to the distribution networks, this paper presents an efficient optimization tool that minimizes voltage unbalance in three-phase distribution networks with active and reactive power injections from the allocation of single-phase and three-phase PV plants. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. Good reduction of voltage unbalance can be achieved by reactive power control of the PV systems. The presented tool is based on the three-phase current injection method and the PV systems are modeled via an equivalent circuit. The primal-dual interior point method is used to obtain the optimal operating points for the systems.

Keywords: Photovoltaic System, voltage unbalance, primal-dual interior point method, Three-phase optimal power flow

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6 Analysis of DC\DC Converter of Photovoltaic System with MPPT Algorithms Comparison

Authors: Badr M. Alshammari, Mohamed A. Khlifi


This paper presents the analysis of DC/DC converter including a comparative study of control methods to extract the maximum power and to track the maximum power point (MPP) from photovoltaic (PV) systems under changeable environmental conditions. This paper proposes two methods of maximum power point tracking algorithm for photovoltaic systems, based on the first hand on P&O control and the other hand on the first order IC. The MPPT system ensures that solar cells can deliver the maximum power possible to the load. Different algorithms are used to design it. Here we compare them and simulate the photovoltaic system with two algorithms. The algorithms are used to control the duty cycle of a DC-DC converter in order to boost the output voltage of the PV generator and guarantee the operation of the solar panels in the Maximum Power Point (MPP). Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed algorithms can effectively improve the efficiency of a photovoltaic array output.

Keywords: Solar Cell, Photovoltaic System, MPPT, DC/DC Boost converter

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5 Performance Evaluation of Grid Connected Photovoltaic System

Authors: Abdulkadir Magaji


This study analyzes and compares the actual measured and simulated performance of a 3.2 kwP grid-connected photovoltaic system. The system is located at the Outdoor Facility of Government Day secondary School Katsina State, which lies approximately between coordinate of 12°15′N 7°30′E. The system consists of 14 Mono crystalline silicon modules connected in two strings of 7 series-connected modules, each facing north at a fixed tilt of 340. The data presented in this study were measured in the year 2015, where the system supplied a total of 4628 kWh to the local electric utility grid. The performance of the system was simulated using PVsyst software using measured and Meteonorm derived climate data sets (solar radiation, ambient temperature and wind speed). The comparison between measured and simulated energy yield are discussed. Although, both simulation results were similar, better comparison between measured and predicted monthly energy yield is observed with simulation performed using measured weather data at the site. The measured performance ratio in the present study shows 58.4% is higher than those reported elsewhere as compared in the study.

Keywords: Performance, Evaluation, grid connection, Photovoltaic System

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4 Photovoltaic System: An Alternative to Energy Efficiency in a Residence

Authors: Arsenio Jose Mindu


The concern to carry out a study related to Energy Efficiency arose based on the various debates in international television networks and not only, but also in several forums of national debates. The concept of Energy Efficiency is not yet widely disseminated and /or taken into account in terms of energy consumption, not only at the domestic level but also at the industrial level in Mozambique. In the context of the energy audit, the time during which each of the appliances is connected to the voltage source, the time during which they are in standby mode was recorded on a spreadsheet basis. Based on these data, daily and monthly consumption was calculated. In order to have more accurate information on the daily levels of daily consumption, the electricity consumption was read every hour of the day (from 5:00 am to 11:00 pm), since after 23:00 the energy consumption remains constant. For ten days. Based on the daily energy consumption and the maximum consumption power, the design of the photovoltaic system for the residence was made. With the implementation of the photovoltaic system in order to guarantee energy efficiency, there was a significant reduction in the use of electricity from the public grid, increasing from approximately 17 kwh per day to around 11 kwh, thus achieving an energy efficiency of 67.4 %. That is to say, there was a reduction not only in terms of the amount of energy consumed but also of the monthly expenses with electricity, having increased from around 2,500,00Mt (2,500 meticais) to around 800Mt per month.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Photovoltaic System, residential sector, Mozambique

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3 Design and Implementation of 3kVA Grid-Tied Transformerless Power Inverter for Solar Photovoltaic Application

Authors: Daniel O. Johnson, Abiodun A. Ogunseye, Aaron Aransiola, Majors Samuel


Power Inverter is a very important device in renewable energy use particularly for solar photovoltaic power application because it is the effective interface between the DC power generator and the load or the grid. Transformerless inverter is getting more and more preferred to the power converter with galvanic isolation transformer and may eventually supplant it. Transformerless inverter offers advantages of improved DC to AC conversion and power delivery efficiency; and reduced system cost, weight and complexity. This work presents thorough analysis of the design and prototyping of 3KVA grid-tie transformerless inverter. The inverter employs electronic switching method with minimised heat generation in the system and operates based on the principle of pulse-width modulation (PWM). The design is such that it can take two inputs, one from PV arrays and the other from Battery Energy Storage BES and addresses the safety challenge of leakage current. The inverter system was designed around microcontroller system, modeled with Proteus® software for simulation and testing of the viability of the designed inverter circuit. The firmware governing the operation of the grid-tied inverter is written in C language and was developed using MicroC software by Mikroelectronica® for writing sine wave signal code for synchronization to the grid. The simulation results show that the designed inverter circuit performs excellently with very high efficiency, good quality sinusoidal output waveform, negligible harmonics and gives very stable performance under voltage variation from 36VDC to 60VDC input. The prototype confirmed the simulated results and was successfully synchronized with the utility supply. The comprehensive analyses of the circuit design, the prototype and explanation on overall performance will be presented.

Keywords: power electronic, Photovoltaic System, transformerless inverter, leakage current, grid-tied inverter

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2 Solar-Assisted City Bus Electrical Installation: Opportunities and Impact on the Environment in Sydney

Authors: M. J. Geca, T. Tulwin, A. Majczak


On-board electricity consumption in the diesel city bus during operation is an important energy source. Electricity is generated by a combustion engine-driven alternator. Increased fuel consumption to generate on-board electricity in the bus has a negative impact on the emission of toxic components and carbon dioxide. At the same time, the bus roof surface allows placing a set of lightweight photovoltaic panels with power from 1 to 1.5 kW. The article presents an experimental study of electricity consumption of a city bus with diesel engine equipped with photovoltaic installation. The stream of electricity consumed by the bus and generated by a standard alternator and PV system was recorded. Base on the experimental research carried out in central Europe; the article analyses the impact of an additional source of electricity in the form of a photovoltaic installation on fuel consumption and emissions of toxic components of vehicles located in the latitude of Sydney. In Poland, the maximum global value of horizontal irradiation GHI is 1150 kWh/m², while for Sydney 1652 kWh/m². In addition, the profile of temperature and sunshine per year is different for these two different latitudes as presented in the article. Electricity generated directly from the sun powers the bus's electrical receivers. The photovoltaic system is able to replace 23% of annual electricity consumption, which at the same time will reduce 4% of fuel consumption and CO₂ reduction. Approximately 25% of the light is lost during vehicle traffic in Sydney latitude. The temperature losses of photovoltaic panels are comparable due to the cooling during vehicle motion. Acknowledgement: The project/research was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology - Regional Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: CO2, Electric Energy, Fuel Consumption, Photovoltaic System

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1 Statistical Analysis to Compare between Smart City and Traditional Housing

Authors: Taha Anjamrooz, Sareh Rajabi, Ayman Alzaatreh


Smart cities are playing important roles in real life. Integration and automation between different features of modern cities and information technologies improve smart city efficiency, energy management, human and equipment resource management, life quality and better utilization of resources for the customers. One of difficulties in this path, is use, interface and link between software, hardware, and other IT technologies to develop and optimize processes in various business fields such as construction, supply chain management and transportation in parallel to cost-effective and resource reduction impacts. Also, Smart cities are certainly intended to demonstrate a vital role in offering a sustainable and efficient model for smart houses while mitigating environmental and ecological matters. Energy management is one of the most important matters within smart houses in the smart cities and communities, because of the sensitivity of energy systems, reduction in energy wastage and maximization in utilizing the required energy. Specially, the consumption of energy in the smart houses is important and considerable in the economic balance and energy management in smart city as it causes significant increment in energy-saving and energy-wastage reduction. This research paper develops features and concept of smart city in term of overall efficiency through various effective variables. The selected variables and observations are analyzed through data analysis processes to demonstrate the efficiency of smart city and compare the effectiveness of each variable. There are ten chosen variables in this study to improve overall efficiency of smart city through increasing effectiveness of smart houses using an automated solar photovoltaic system, RFID System, smart meter and other major elements by interfacing between software and hardware devices as well as IT technologies. Secondly to enhance aspect of energy management by energy-saving within smart house through efficient variables. The main objective of smart city and smart houses is to reproduce energy and increase its efficiency through selected variables with a comfortable and harmless atmosphere for the customers within a smart city in combination of control over the energy consumption in smart house using developed IT technologies. Initially the comparison between traditional housing and smart city samples is conducted to indicate more efficient system. Moreover, the main variables involved in measuring overall efficiency of system are analyzed through various processes to identify and prioritize the variables in accordance to their influence over the model. The result analysis of this model can be used as comparison and benchmarking with traditional life style to demonstrate the privileges of smart cities. Furthermore, due to expensive and expected shortage of natural resources in near future, insufficient and developed research study in the region, and available potential due to climate and governmental vision, the result and analysis of this study can be used as key indicator to select most effective variables or devices during construction phase and design

Keywords: Energy Saving, Energy Efficiency, RFID, Smart City, Traditional Housing, Photovoltaic System

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