Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Photovoltaic Related Abstracts

46 Comparative Study of Two New Configurations of Solar Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors

Authors: K. Touafek, A. Khelifa, E. H. Khettaf, A. Embarek

Abstract:

Hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar system comprises a solar collector which is disposed on photovoltaic solar cells. The disadvantage of a conventional photovoltaic cell is that its performance decreases as the temperature increases. Indeed, part of the solar radiation is converted into electricity and is dissipated as heat, increasing the temperature of the photovoltaic cell with respect to the ambient temperature. The objective of this work is to study experimentally and implement a hybrid prototype to evaluate electrical and thermal performance. In this paper, an experimental study of two new configurations of hybrid collectors is exposed. The results are given and interpreted. The two configurations of absorber studied are a new combination with tubes and galvanized tank, the other is a tubes and sheet.

Keywords: Experimental, Solar, temperature, Photovoltaic

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45 Thermal Performance of Hybrid PVT Collector with Natural Circulation

Authors: K. Touafek, A. Khelifa, I. Tabet, H. Haloui, H. Bencheikh El Houcine, M. Adouane

Abstract:

Hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collectors allow simultaneous production of electrical energy thus heat energy. There are several configurations of hybrid collectors (to produce water or air). For hybrids water collectors, there are several configurations that differ by the nature of the absorber (serpentine, tubes...). In this paper, an absorber tank is studied. The circulation of the coolant is natural (we do not use the pump). We present the obtained results in our experimental study and we analyzed the data, and then we compare the results with the theory practices. The electrical performances of the hybrid collector are compared with those of conventional photovoltaic module mounted on the same structure and measured under the same conditions. We conducted experiments with natural circulation of the coolant (Thermosyphon), for a flow rate of 0.025kg/m².

Keywords: Experimental, Solar, temperature, Photovoltaic, tank

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44 Optimizing Operation of Photovoltaic System Using Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic

Authors: N. Drir, L. Barazane, M. Loudini

Abstract:

It is well known that photovoltaic (PV) cells are an attractive source of energy. Abundant and ubiquitous, this source is one of the important renewable energy sources that have been increasing worldwide year by year. However, in the V-P characteristic curve of GPV, there is a maximum point called the maximum power point (MPP) which depends closely on the variation of atmospheric conditions and the rotation of the earth. In fact, such characteristics outputs are nonlinear and change with variations of temperature and irradiation, so we need a controller named maximum power point tracker MPPT to extract the maximum power at the terminals of photovoltaic generator. In this context, the authors propose here to study the modeling of a photovoltaic system and to find an appropriate method for optimizing the operation of the PV generator using two intelligent controllers respectively to track this point. The first one is based on artificial neural networks and the second on fuzzy logic. After the conception and the integration of each controller in the global process, the performances are examined and compared through a series of simulation. These two controller have prove by their results good tracking of the MPPT compare with the other method which are proposed up to now.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Photovoltaic, maximum power point tracking, P&O

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43 Photovoltaic Performance of AgInSe2-Conjugated Polymer Hybrid Systems

Authors: Dinesh Pathaka, Tomas Wagnera, J. M. Nunzib

Abstract:

We investigated blends of MdPVV.PCBM.AIS for photovoltaic application. AgInSe2 powder was synthesized by sealing and heating the stoichiometric constituents in evacuated quartz tube ampule. Fine grinded AIS powder was dispersed in MD-MOPVV and PCBM with and without surfactant. Different concentrations of these particles were suspended in the polymer solutions and spin casted onto ITO glass. Morphological studies have been performed by atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy. The blend layers were also investigated by various techniques like XRD, UV-VIS optical spectroscopy, AFM, PL, after a series of various optimizations with polymers/concentration/deposition/ suspension/surfactants etc. XRD investigation of blend layers shows clear evidence of AIS dispersion in polymers. Diode behavior and cell parameters also revealed it. Bulk heterojunction hybrid photovoltaic device Ag/MoO3/MdPVV.PCBM.AIS/ZnO/ITO was fabricated and tested with standard solar simulator and device characterization system. The best performance and photovoltaic parameters we obtained was an open-circuit voltage of about Voc 0.54 V and a photocurrent of Isc 117 micro A and an efficiency of 0.2 percent using a white light illumination intensity of 23 mW/cm2. Our results are encouraging for further research on the fourth generation inorganic organic hybrid bulk heterojunction photovoltaics for energy. More optimization with spinning rate/thickness/solvents/deposition rates for active layers etc. need to be explored for improved photovoltaic response of these bulk heterojunction devices.

Keywords: Hybrid systems, Thin Films, Photovoltaic, heterojunction

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42 Assessment of Solar Hydrogen Production in Energetic Hybrid PV-PEMFC System

Authors: H. Rezzouk, M. Hatti, H. Rahmani, S. Atoui

Abstract:

This paper discusses the design and analysis of a hybrid PV-Fuel cell energy system destined to power a DC load. The system is composed of a photovoltaic array, a fuel cell, an electrolyzer and a hydrogen tank. HOMER software is used in this study to calculate the optimum capacities of the power system components that their combination allows an efficient use of solar resource to cover the hourly load needs. The optimal system sizing allows establishing the right balance between the daily electrical energy produced by the power system and the daily electrical energy consumed by the DC load using a 28 KW PV array, a 7.5 KW fuel cell, a 40KW electrolyzer and a 270 Kg hydrogen tank. The variation of powers involved into the DC bus of the hybrid PV-fuel cell system has been computed and analyzed for each hour over one year: the output powers of the PV array and the fuel cell, the input power of the elctrolyzer system and the DC primary load. Equally, the annual variation of stored hydrogen produced by the electrolyzer has been assessed. The PV array contributes in the power system with 82% whereas the fuel cell produces 18%. 38% of the total energy consumption belongs to the DC primary load while the rest goes to the electrolyzer.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Photovoltaic, electrolyzer, hydrogen fueled cell

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41 Sliding Mode Speed Controller of Photovoltaic Pumping System

Authors: Kessal Abdelhalim, Zebiri Fouad, Rahmani Lazhar

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis by which the dynamic performances of a permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor is controlled through a hysteresis current loop and an outer speed loop with different controllers. The dynamics of the photovoltaic pumping drive system with sliding mode speed controllers are presented. The proposed structure is constituted of photovoltaic generator associated to DC-DC converter controlled by fuzzy logic to ensure the maximum power point tracking. The PWM signals are generated by the interaction of the motor speed closed-loop system and the current hysteresis. The motor reference current is compared with the motor speed feedback signal. The considered model has been implemented in Matlab/Simpower environment. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method to increase the performance of the water pumping system.

Keywords: Fuzzy, Photovoltaic, Speed Control, MPPT, sliding mode, permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor

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40 Implementation of Renewable Energy Technologies in Rural Africa

Authors: Joseph Levodo, Andy Ford, ISSA Chaer

Abstract:

Africa enjoys some of the best solar radiation levels in the world averaging between 4-6 kWh/m2/day for most of the year and the global economic and political conditions that tend to make African countries more dependent on their own energy resources have caused growing interest in wanting renewable energy based technologies. However to-date, implementation of Modern Energy Technologies in Africa is still very low especially the use of solar conversion technologies. It was initially speculated that the low uptake of solar technology in Africa was associated with the continent’s high poverty levels and limitations in technical capacity as well as awareness. Nonetheless, this is not an academic based speculation and the exact reasons for this low trend in technology adoption are unclear and require further investigation. This paper presents literature review and analysis relating to the techno-economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic power generation in Africa. The literature review would include the following four main categories: design methods, techno-economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic power generation, performance evaluations of various systems, Then it looks at the role of policy and potential future of technological development of photovoltaic (PV) by exploring the impact of alternative policy instruments and technology cost reductions on the financial viability of investing solar photovoltaic (PV) in Africa.

Keywords: Policy, technologies, Photovoltaic, Africa Solar Potential

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39 Design of a Small Mobile PV Driven RO Water Desalination Plant to be Deployed at the North West Coast of Egypt

Authors: Hosam A. Shawky, Amr A. Abdel Fatah, Moustafa M. S. Abo ElFad, Abdel Hameed M. El-Aassar

Abstract:

Water desalination projects based on reverse osmosis technology are being introduced in Egypt to combat drinking water shortage in remote areas. Reverse osmosis (RO) desalination is a pressure driven process. This paper focuses on the design of an integrated brackish water and seawater RO desalination and solar Photovoltaic (PV) technology. A small Mobile PV driven RO desalination plant prototype without batteries is designed and tested. Solar-driven reverse osmosis desalination can potentially break the dependence of conventional desalination on fossil fuels, reduce operational costs, and improve environmental sustainability. Moreover, the innovative features incorporated in the newly designed PV-RO plant prototype are focusing on improving the cost effectiveness of producing drinkable water in remote areas. This is achieved by maximizing energy yield through an integrated automatic single axis PV tracking system with programmed tilting angle adjustment. An autonomous cleaning system for PV modules is adopted for maximizing energy generation efficiency. RO plant components are selected so as to produce 4-5 m3/day of potable water. A basic criterion in the design of this PV-RO prototype is to produce a minimum amount of fresh water by running the plant during peak sun hours. Mobility of the system will provide potable water to isolated villages and population as well as ability to provide good drinking water to different number of people from any source that is not drinkable.

Keywords: Energy, Design, Desalination, Reverse osmosis, Photovoltaic, Egypt

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38 A 3kW Grid Connected Residential Energy Storage System with PV and Li-Ion Battery

Authors: Moiz Masood Syed, Seong-Jun Hong, Geun-Hie Rim, Kyung-Ae Cho, Hyoung-Suk Kim

Abstract:

In the near future, energy storage will play a vital role to enhance the present changing technology. Energy storage with power generation becomes necessary when renewable energy sources are connected to the grid which consequently adjoins to the total energy in the system since utilities require more power when peak demand occurs. This paper describes the operational function of a 3 kW grid-connected residential Energy Storage System (ESS) which is connected with Photovoltaic (PV) at its input side. The system can perform bidirectional functions of charging from the grid and discharging to the grid when power demand becomes high and low respectively. It consists of PV module, Power Conditioning System (PCS) containing a bidirectional DC/DC Converter and bidirectional DC/AC inverter and a Lithium-ion battery pack. ESS Configuration, specifications, and control are described. The bidirectional DC/DC converter tracks the maximum power point (MPPT) and maintains the stability of PV array in case of power deficiency to fulfill the load requirements. The bidirectional DC/AC inverter has good voltage regulation properties like low total harmonic distortion (THD), low electromagnetic interference (EMI), faster response and anti-islanding characteristics. Experimental results satisfy the effectiveness of the proposed system.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, Energy Storage System, DC/DC converter, DC/AC inverter

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37 Simulation of Photovoltaic Array for Specified Ratings of Converter

Authors: Ratna Dahiya, Smita Pareek

Abstract:

The power generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) module depends on surrounding irradiance, temperature, shading conditions, and shading pattern. This paper presents a simulation of photovoltaic module using Matlab/Simulink. PV Array is also simulated by series and parallel connections of modules and their characteristics curves are given. Further PV module topology/configuration are proposed for 5.5kW inverter available in the literature. Shading of a PV array either complete or partial can have a significant impact on its power output and energy yield; therefore, the simulated model characteristics curves (I-V and P-V) are drawn for uniform shading conditions (USC) and then output power, voltage and current are calculated for variation in insolation for shading conditions. Additionally the characteristics curves are also given for a predetermined shadowing condition.

Keywords: Parallel, Photovoltaic, series, array, partial shading

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36 Three Phase PWM Inverter for Low Rating Energy Efficient Systems

Authors: Nelson Lujara

Abstract:

The paper presents a practical three-phase PWM inverter suitable for low voltage, low rating energy efficient systems. The work in the paper is conducted with the view to establishing the significance of the loss contribution from the PWM inverter in the determination of the complete losses of a photovoltaic (PV) array-powered induction motor drive water pumping system. Losses investigated include; conduction and switching loss of the devices and gate drive losses. It is found that the PWM inverter operates at a reasonable variable efficiency that does not fall below 92% depending on the load. The results between the simulated and experimental results for the system with or without a maximum power tracker (MPT) compares very well, within an acceptable range of 2% margin.

Keywords: Energy, Photovoltaic, Inverter, losses

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35 Maximaxing the Usage of Solar Energy in an Area of Low Peak Sunlight Hours

Authors: Ohabuiro John Uwabunkeonye

Abstract:

Source of green energy is becoming a concern in developing countries where most energy source in use emits high level of carbon (IV) oxide which contributes to global warming. More so, even with the generation of energy from fossil fuel, the electricity supply is still very inadequate. Therefore, this paper examines different ways of designing and installing photovoltaic (PV) system in terms of optimal sizing of PV array and battery storage in an area of very low peak sunlight hours (PSH) and inadequate supply of electricity from utility companies. Different sample of Peak sunlight hour for selected areas in Nigeria are considered and the lowest of it all is taken. Some means of ensuring that the available solar energy is harnessed properly and converted into electrical energy are discussed for usage in such areas as mentioned above.

Keywords: Green Energy, Photovoltaic, Fossil Fuel, peak sunlight hour

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34 Inventory Policy with Continuous Price Reduction in Solar Photovoltaic Supply Chain

Authors: Xiangrong Liu, Chuanhui Xiong

Abstract:

With the concern of large pollution emissions from coal-fired power plants and new commitment to green energy, global solar power industry was emerging recently. Due to the advanced technology, the price of solar photovoltaic(PV) module was reduced at a fast rate, which arose an interesting but challenge question to solar supply chain. This research is modeling the inventory strategies for a PV supply chain with a PV manufacturer, an assembler and an end customer. Through characterizing the manufacturer's and PV assembler's optimal decision in decentralized and centralized situation, this study shed light on how to improve supply chain performance through parameters setting in the contract design. The results suggest the assembler to lower the optimal stock level gradually each period before price reduction and set up a newsvendor base-stock policy in all periods after price reduction. As to the PV module manufacturer, a non-stationary produce-up-to policy is optimal.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Photovoltaic, inventory policy, base-stock policy

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33 Electrodeposition and Selenization of Cuin Alloys for the Synthesis of Photoactive Cu2in1-X Gax Se2 (Cigs) Thin Films

Authors: Mohamed Benaicha, Mahdi Allam

Abstract:

A new two stage electrochemical process as a safe, large area and low processing cost technique for the production of semi-conducting CuInSe2 (CIS) thin films is studied. CuIn precursors were first potentiostatically electrodeposited onto molybdenum substrates from an acidic thiocyanate electrolyte. In a second stage, the prepared metallic CuIn layers were used as substrate in the selenium electrochemical deposition system and subjected to a thermal treatment in vacuum atmosphere, to eliminate binary phase formation by reaction of the Cu2-x Se and InxSey selenides, leading to the formation of CuInSe2 thin film. Electrochemical selenization from aqueous electrolyte is introduced as an alternative to toxic and hazardous H2Se or Se vapor phase selenization used in physical techniques. In this study, the influence of film deposition parameters such as bath composition, temperature and potential on film properties was studied. The electrochemical, morphological, structural and compositional properties of electrodeposited thin films were characterized using various techniques. Results of Cyclic and Stripping-Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, SCV), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray microanalysis (EDX) investigations revealed good reproducibility and homogeneity of the film composition. Thereby optimal technological parameters for the electrochemical production of CuIn, Se as precursors for CuInSe2 thin layers are determined.

Keywords: Thin Films, Photovoltaic, Copper Alloys, electrodeposition, CIGS

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32 Regulated Output Voltage Double Switch Buck-Boost Converter for Photovoltaic Energy Application

Authors: A. Cheriti, M. Kaouane, A. Boukhelifa

Abstract:

In this paper, a new Buck-Boost DC-DC converter is designed and simulated for photovoltaic energy system. The presented Buck-Boost converter has a double switch. Moreover, its output voltage is regulated to a constant value whatever its input is. In the presented work, the Buck-Boost transfers the produced energy from the photovoltaic generator to an R-L load. The converter is controlled by the pulse width modulation technique in a way to have a suitable output voltage, in the other hand, to carry the generator’s power, and put it close to the maximum possible power that can be generated by introducing the right duty cycle of the pulse width modulation signals that control the switches of the converter; each component and each parameter of the proposed circuit is well calculated using the equations that describe each operating mode of the converter. The proposed configuration of Buck-Boost converter has been simulated in Matlab/Simulink environment; the simulation results show that it is a good choice to take in order to maintain the output voltage constant while ensuring a good energy transfer.

Keywords: Power, Energy transfer, Photovoltaic, PWM, buck-boost converter, switch

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31 Power Energy Management For A Grid-Connected PV System Using Rule-Base Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Shoab Ahmad Khan, Nousheen Hashmi

Abstract:

Active collaboration among the green energy sources and the load demand leads to serious issues related to power quality and stability. The growing number of green energy resources and Distributed-Generators need newer strategies to be incorporated for their operations to keep the power energy stability among green energy resources and micro-grid/Utility Grid. This paper presents a novel technique for energy power management in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic with energy storage system under set of constraints including weather conditions, Load Shedding Hours, Peak pricing Hours by using rule-based fuzzy smart grid controller to schedule power coming from multiple Power sources (photovoltaic, grid, battery) under the above set of constraints. The technique fuzzifies all the inputs and establishes fuzzify rule set from fuzzy outputs before defuzzification. Simulations are run for 24 hours period and rule base power scheduler is developed. The proposed fuzzy controller control strategy is able to sense the continuous fluctuations in Photovoltaic power generation, Load Demands, Grid (load Shedding patterns) and Battery State of Charge in order to make correct and quick decisions.The suggested Fuzzy Rule-based scheduler can operate well with vague inputs thus doesn’t not require any exact numerical model and can handle nonlinearity. This technique provides a framework for the extension to handle multiple special cases for optimized working of the system.

Keywords: Power, Fuzzy Logic, Photovoltaic, distributed generators, load shedding, membership functions, state of charge

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30 Thermal Analysis of Photovoltaic Integrated Greenhouse Solar Dryer

Authors: Rohit Tripathi, Sumit Tiwari, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

Present study focused on the utilization of solar energy by the help of photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer under forced mode. A single slope photovoltaic greenhouse solar dryer has been proposed and thermal modelling has been developed. Various parameters have been calculated by thermal modelling such as greenhouse room temperature, cell temperature, crop temperature and air temperature at exit of greenhouse. Further cell efficiency, thermal efficiency, and overall thermal efficiency have been calculated for a typical day of May and November. It was found that system can generate equivalent thermal energy up to 7.65 kW and 6.66 kW per day for clear day of May and November respectively.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, Thermal Modelling, Thermal Efficiency, characteristics curve

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29 Cloud Effect on Power Generation of Grid-Connected Small PV Systems

Authors: Yehya Abdellatif, Ahmed Alsalaymeh, Iyad Muslih, Ali Alshduifat

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems, mainly small scale, are rapidly being deployed in Jordan. The impact of these systems on the grid has not been studied or analyzed. These systems can cause many technical problems such as reverse power flows and voltage rises in distribution feeders, and real and reactive power transients that affect the operation of the transmission system. To fully understand and address these problems, extensive research, simulation, and case studies are required. To this end, this paper studies the cloud shadow effect on the power generation of a ground mounted PV system installed at the test field of the Renewable Energy Center at the Applied Science University.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, MPPT, cloud effect, power transients

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28 Shade Effect on Photovoltaic Systems: A Comparison between String and Module-Based Solution

Authors: Yehya Abdellatif, Iyad M. Muslih

Abstract:

In general, shading will reduce the electrical power produced from PV modules and arrays in locations where shading is unavoidable or caused by dynamic moving parts. This reduction is based on the shade effect on the I-V curve of the PV module or array and how the DC/AC inverter can search and control the optimum value of power from this module or array configuration. This is a very complicated task due to different patterns of shaded PV modules and arrays. One solution presented by the inverter industry is to perform the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) at the module level rather than the series string level. This solution is supposed to reduce the shade effect on the total harvested energy. However, this isn’t necessarily the best solution to reduce the shade effect as will be shown in this study.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, MPPT, shade effect, I-V curve

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27 Use of GIS and Remote Sensing for Calculating the Installable Photovoltaic and Thermal Power on All the Roofs of the City of Aix-en-Provence, France

Authors: Sofiane Bourchak, Sébastien Bridier

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to show how to calculate and map solar energy’s quantity (instantaneous and accumulated global solar radiation during the year) available on roofs in the city Aix-en-Provence which has a population of 140,000 inhabitants. The result is a geographic information system (GIS) layer, which represents hourly and monthly the production of solar energy on roofs throughout the year. Solar energy professionals can use it to optimize implementations and to size energy production systems. The results are presented as a set of maps, tables and histograms in order to determine the most effective costs in Aix-en-Provence in terms of photovoltaic power (electricity) and thermal power (hot water).

Keywords: Thermal, Geographic Information System, Photovoltaic, Solar Radiation, solar potential

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26 Analysis on Solar Panel Performance and PV-Inverter Configuration for Tropical Region

Authors: Eko Adhi Setiawan, Duli Asih Siregar, Aiman Setiawan

Abstract:

Solar energy is abundant in nature, particularly in the tropics which have peak sun hour that can reach 8 hours per day. In the fabrication process, Photovoltaic’s (PV) performance are tested in standard test conditions (STC). It specifies a module temperature of 25°C, an irradiance of 1000 W/ m² with an air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) spectrum and zero wind speed. Thus, the results of the performance testing of PV at STC conditions cannot fully represent the performance of PV in the tropics. For example Indonesia, which has a temperature of 20-40°C. In this paper, the effect of temperature on the choice of the 5 kW AC inverter topology on the PV system such as the Central Inverter, String Inverter and AC-Module specifically for the tropics will be discussed. The proper inverter topology can be determined by analysis of the effect of temperature and irradiation on the PV panel. The effect of temperature and irradiation will be represented in the characteristics of I-V and P-V curves. PV’s characteristics on high temperature would be analyzed using Solar panel modeling through MATLAB Simulink based on mathematical equations that form Solar panel’s characteristic curve. Based on PV simulation, it is known then that temperature coefficients of short circuit current (ISC), open circuit voltage (VOC), and maximum output power (PMAX) consecutively as high as 0.56%/oC, -0.31%/oC and -0.4%/oC. Those coefficients can be used to calculate PV’s electrical parameters such as ISC, VOC, and PMAX in certain earth’s surface’s certain point. Then, from the parameters, the utility of the 5 kW AC inverter system can be determined. As the result, for tropical area, string inverter topology has the highest utility rates with 98, 80 %. On the other hand, central inverter and AC-Module Topology has utility rates of 92.69 % and 87.7 % eventually.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, PV Modeling, PV-Inverter Configuration, Solar Panel Characteristics

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25 Insertion of Photovoltaic Energy at Residential Level at Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela, Honduras

Authors: Tannia Vindel, Angel Matute, Erik Elvir, Kelvin Santos

Abstract:

Currently in Honduras, is been incentivized the generation of energy using renewable fonts, such as: hydroelectricity, wind power, biomass and, more recently with the strongest growth, photovoltaic energy. In July 2015 were installed 455.2 MW of photovoltaic energy, increasing by 24% the installed capacity of the national interconnected system existing in 2014, according the National Energy Company (NEC), that made possible reduce the thermoelectric dependency of the system. Given the good results of those large-scale photovoltaic plants, arises the question: is it interesting for the distribution utility and for the consumers the integration of photovoltaic systems in micro-scale in the urban and rural areas? To answer that question has been researched the insertion of photovoltaic energy in the residential sector in Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela (Central District), Honduras to determine the technical and economic viability. Francisco Morazán department, according the National Statistics Institute (NSI), in 2001 had more than 180,000 houses with power service. Tegucigalpa, department and Honduras capital, and Comayagüela, both, have the highest population density in the region, with 1,300,000 habitants in 2014 (NSI). The residential sector in the south-central region of Honduras represents a high percentage being 49% of total consumption, according with NEC in 2014; where 90% of this sector consumes in a range of 0 to 300 kWh / month. All this, in addition to the high level of losses in the transmission and distribution systems, 31.3% in 2014, and the availability of an annual average solar radiation of 5.20 kWh/(m2∙day) according to the NASA, suggests the feasibility of the implementation of photovoltaic systems as a solution to give a level of independency to the households, and besides could be capable of injecting the non-used energy to the grid. The capability of exchange of energy with the grid could make the photovoltaic systems acquisition more affordable to the consumers, because of the compensation energy programs or other kinds of incentives that could be created. Technical viability of the photovoltaic systems insertion has been analyzed, considering the solar radiation monthly average to determine the monthly average of energy that would be generated with the technology accessible locally and the effects of the injection of the energy locally generated on the grid. In addition, the economic viability has been analyzed too, considering the photovoltaic systems high costs, costs of the utility, location and monthly energy consumption requirements of the families. It was found that the inclusion of photovoltaic systems in Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela could decrease in 6 MW the demand for the region if 100% of the households use photovoltaic systems, which acquisition may be more accessible with the help of government incentives and/or the application of energy exchange programs.

Keywords: Residential, Photovoltaic, technical analysis, grid connected

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24 A Photovoltaic Micro-Storage System for Residential Applications

Authors: Alia Al Nuaimi, Ayesha Al Aberi, Faiza Al Marzouqi, Shaikha Salem Ali Al Yahyaee, Ala Hussein

Abstract:

In this paper, a PV micro-storage system for residential applications is proposed. The term micro refers to the size of the PV storage system, which is in the range of few kilo-watts, compared to the grid size (~GWs). Usually, in a typical load profile of a residential unit, two peak demand periods exist: one at morning and the other at evening time. The morning peak can be partly covered by the PV energy directly, while the evening peak cannot be covered by the PV alone. Therefore, an energy storage system that stores solar energy during daytime and use this stored energy when the sun is absent is a must. A complete design procedure including theoretical analysis followed by simulation verification and economic feasibility evaluation is addressed in this paper.

Keywords: energy storage, Smart Grid, Photovoltaic, Battery, peak shaving

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23 Optimal Operation of a Photovoltaic Induction Motor Drive Water Pumping System

Authors: Nelson K. Lujara

Abstract:

The performance characteristics of a photovoltaic induction motor drive water pumping system with and without maximum power tracker is analyzed and presented. The analysis is done through determination and assessment of critical loss components in the system using computer aided design (CAD) tools for optimal operation of the system. The results can be used to formulate a well-calibrated computer aided design package of photovoltaic water pumping systems based on the induction motor drive. The results allow the design engineer to pre-determine the flow rate and efficiency of the system to suit particular application.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, Induction Motor, losses, water pumping

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22 Experimental Study of Sahara Climat Effect in Photovoltaic Solar Module

Authors: A. Hadjadj, A. Benatiallah, A. Harrouz, D. Benatiallah, F. Abaidi

Abstract:

Photovoltaic system is established as a reliable and economical source of electricity in rural and Sahara areas, especially in developing countries where the population is dispersed, has low consumption of energy and the grid power is not extended to these areas due to viability and financial problems. The production of energy by the photovoltaic system is very fluctuates and depend of meteorological conditions. Wind is a very important and often neglected parameter in the behavior of the solar module. The electric performances of a solar module to the silicon are very appreciable to the blows; in the present work we have studies the behavior of multi-crystal solar module according to the density of dust, and the principals electric feature of the solar module. An evaluation permits to affirm that a solar module under the effect of sand will collect a lower flux to the normal conditions.

Keywords: Experimental, Photovoltaic, Performances, multi-crystal module, effect of dust

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21 Process for Separating and Recovering Materials from Kerf Slurry Waste

Authors: Nadjib Drouiche, Abdenour Lami, Salaheddine Aoudj, Tarik Ouslimane, Mouna Hecini, Ouahiba Bouchelaghem

Abstract:

Slurry waste is a byproduct generated from the slicing process of multi-crystalline silicon ingots. This waste can be used as a secondary resource to recover high purity silicon which has a great economic value. From the management perspective, the ever increasing generation of kerf slurry waste loss leads to significant challenges for the photovoltaic industry due to the current low use of slurry waste for silicon recovery. Slurry waste, in most cases, contains silicon, silicon carbide, metal fragments and mineral-oil-based or glycol-based slurry vehicle. As a result, of the global scarcity of high purity silicon supply, the high purity silicon content in slurry has increasingly attracted interest for research. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for high purity silicon recovery from kerf slurry waste. Hydrometallurgy is continuously a matter of study and research. However, in this review paper, several new techniques about the process of high purity silicon recovery from slurry waste are introduced. The purpose of the information presented is to improve the development of a clean and effective recovery process of high purity silicon from slurry waste.

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, Photovoltaic, Kerf-loss, slurry waste, silicon recovery, high purity silicon, polyethylen glycol

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20 Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Solar Energy Systems

Authors: Zakariyya Hassan Abdullahi, Zainab Suleiman Abdullahi, Nuhu Alhaji Muhammad

Abstract:

In this paper, a thorough review of photovoltaic and photovoltaic thermal systems is done on the basis of its performance based on electrical as well as thermal output. Photovoltaic systems are classified according to their use, i.e., electricity production, and thermal, Photovoltaic systems behave in an extraordinary and useful way, they react to light by transforming part of it into electricity useful way and unique, since photovoltaic and thermal applications along with the electricity production. The application of various photovoltaic systems is also discussed in detail. The performance analysis including all aspects, e.g., electrical, thermal, energy, and energy efficiency are also discussed. A case study for PV and PV/T system based on energetic analysis is presented.

Keywords: Energy, renewable, Performance, Efficiency, Photovoltaic

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19 Sustainability of Photovoltaic Recycling Planning

Authors: Jun-Ki Choi

Abstract:

The usage of valuable resources and the potential for waste generation at the end of the life cycle of photovoltaic (PV) technologies necessitate a proactive planning for a PV recycling infrastructure. To ensure the sustainability of PV in large scales of deployment, it is vital to develop and institute low-cost recycling technologies and infrastructure for the emerging PV industry in parallel with the rapid commercialization of these new technologies. There are various issues involved in the economics of PV recycling and this research examine those at macro and micro levels, developing a holistic interpretation of the economic viability of the PV recycling systems. This study developed mathematical models to analyze the profitability of recycling technologies and to guide tactical decisions for allocating optimal location of PV take-back centers (PVTBC), necessary for the collection of end of life products. The economic decision is usually based on the level of the marginal capital cost of each PVTBC, cost of reverse logistics, distance traveled, and the amount of PV waste collected from various locations. Results illustrated that the reverse logistics costs comprise a major portion of the cost of PVTBC; PV recycling centers can be constructed in the optimally selected locations to minimize the total reverse logistics cost for transporting the PV wastes from various collection facilities to the recycling center. In the micro- process level, automated recycling processes should be developed to handle the large amount of growing PV wastes economically. The market price of the reclaimed materials are important factors for deciding the profitability of the recycling process and this illustrates the importance of the recovering the glass and expensive metals from PV modules.

Keywords: Sustainability, Mathematical Models, Recycling, Photovoltaic

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18 Problems of Using Mobile Photovoltaic Installations

Authors: Ksenia Siadkowska, Łukasz Grabowski, Michał Gęca

Abstract:

The dynamic development of photovoltaics in the 21st century has resulted in more possibilities for using photovoltaic systems. In order to reduce emissions, a retrofitting of vehicles with photovoltaic modules has recently become increasingly popular. Preparing such an installation, however, requires professional knowledge and compliance with safety rules. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of some types of flexible photovoltaic modules that can be applied to mobile installations, types and causes of damage to photovoltaic modules as well as the most frequent types of misinstallation. Our attention has been drawn to the risk of fire caused by misintallation or defective insulation and the need to closely monitor mobile installations, for example by a non-destructive testing with a thermal imaging camera. The paper also presents certain selected results of the research conducted at the Lublin University of Technology. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, under Grant Agreement No. PBS2/A6/16/2013.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, photovoltaic module, flexible PV module, mobile PV module

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17 Technologic Information about Photovoltaic Applied in Urban Residences

Authors: Suzana Leitao Russo, Stephanie Fabris Russo, Daiane Costa Guimarães, Jonas Pedro Fabris, Maria Emilia Camargo, José Augusto Andrade Filho

Abstract:

Among renewable energy sources, solar energy is the one that has stood out. Solar radiation can be used as a thermal energy source and can also be converted into electricity by means of effects on certain materials, such as thermoelectric and photovoltaic panels. These panels are often used to generate energy in homes, buildings, arenas, etc., and have low pollution emissions. Thus, a technological prospecting was performed to find patents related to the use of photovoltaic plates in urban residences. The patent search was based on ESPACENET, associating the keywords photovoltaic and home, where we found 136 patent documents in the period of 1994-2015 in the fields title and abstract. Note that the years 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 had the highest number of applicants, with respectively, 11, 13, 23, 29, 15 and 21. Regarding the country that deposited about this technology, it is clear that China leads with 67 patent deposits, followed by Japan with 38 patents applications. It is important to note that most depositors, 50% are companies, 44% are individual inventors and only 6% are universities. On the International Patent classification (IPC) codes, we noted that the most present classification in results was H02J3/38, which represents provisions in parallel to feed a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers. Among all categories, there is the H session, which means Electricity, with 70% of the patents.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, Technology Forecasting, urban residences, prospecting

Procedia PDF Downloads 127