Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Photosynthesis Related Abstracts

12 Antioxidant Defence Systems, Lipid Peroxidation, and Photosynthetic Variables in Salt-Sensitive and Salt-Tolerant Soybean Genotypes in Response to Salt Stress

Authors: Faheema Khan


We have investigated the effects of salt stress on the stability of plant growth, water relations, photosynthetic variables, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in salt-tolerant (PK-327) and salt-sensitive (PK-471) soybean genotypes. Ten-day-old salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive soybean plants were subjected to 0-150 mM NaCl for 15 days. While the growth of genotype PK-327 was not affected significantly up to 75 mM NaCl treatment, the growth of the PK-471 was reduced significantly beyond 25 mM NaCl treatments. Salt stress caused severe impairments in photosynthetic variables like photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content, being more pronounced in salt-sensitive genotype than in salt-tolerant.The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were higher in PK-327 than in PK-471 at various levels of salt treatments.It is concluded that tolerance capacity of PK-327 against salinity can be associated with the ability of this genotype in keeping an active photosynthetic system and strong antioxidant defence system.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, soybean, Salt Stress, antioxidant

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11 One Step Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Biological Activity

Authors: Samy M. Shaban, Ismail Aiad, Mohamed M. El-Sukkary, E. A. Soliman, Moshira Y. El-Awady


In situ and green synthesis of cubic and spherical silver nanoparticles were developed using sun light as reducing agent in the presence of newly prepared cationic surfactant which acting as capping agents. The morphology of prepared silver nanoparticle was estimated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the size distribution determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The hydrophobic chain length of the prepared surfactant effect on the stability of the prepared silver nanoparticles as clear from zeta-potential values. Also by increasing chain length of the used capping agent the amount of formed nanoparticle increase as indicated by increasing the absorbance. Both prepared surfactants and surfactants capping silver nanoparticles showed high antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, Biological Activity, hexaonal shapes, zetapotential

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10 Energetics of Photosynthesis with Respect to the Environment and Recently Reported New Balanced Chemical Equation

Authors: Sushil Pradhan, Suprit Pradhan


Photosynthesis is a physiological process where green plants prepare their food from carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water being absorbed from the soil in presence of sun light and chlorophyll. From this definition it is clear that four reactants (Carbon Dioxide, Water, Light and Chlorophyll) are essential for the process to proceed and the product is a sugar or carbohydrate ultimately stored as starch. The entire process has “Light Reaction” (Photochemical) and “Dark Reaction” (Biochemical). Biochemical reactions are very much complicated being catalysed by various enzymes and the path of carbon is known as “Calvin Cycle” according to the name of its discover. The overall reaction which is now universally accepted can be explained like this. Six molecules of carbon dioxide react with twelve molecules of water in presence of chlorophyll and sun light to give only one molecule of sugar (Carbohydrate) six molecules of water and six molecules of oxygen is being evolved in gaseous form. This is the accepted equation and also chemically balanced. However while teaching the subject the author came across a new balanced equation from among the students who happened to be the daughter of the author. In the new balanced equation in place of twelve water molecules in the reactant side seven molecules can be expressed and accordingly in place of six molecules of water in the product side only one molecule of water is produced. The energetics of the photosynthesis as related to the environment and the newly reported balanced chemical equation has been discussed in detail in the present research paper presentation in this international conference on energy, environmental and chemical engineering.

Keywords: Biochemistry, enzyme, Photosynthesis, Isotope

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9 Screening of Nickel-Tolerant Genotype of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) Based on Photosynthesis and Antioxidant System

Authors: Mohammad Yusuf, Qazi Fariduddin


The main aim of this study was to explore the different cultivars of Vigna radiata on basis of photosynthesis, antioxidants and proline to assess Ni-sensitive and Ni-tolerant cultivar. Seeds of five different cultivars were sown in soil amended with different levels of Ni (0, 50, 100, or 150 mg kg 1). At 30 d stage, plants were harvested to assess the various parameters. The Ni treatment diminished growth, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content and net photosynthesis along with nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities in the concentration dependent manner whereas, it enhanced proline content and various antioxidant enzymes. The varieties T-44 found least affected, whereas PDM-139 experienced maximum damage at 150 mg kg-1 of Ni. Moreover, T-44 possessed maximum activity of antioxidant enzymes and proline content at all the levels of metal whereas PDM-139 possessed minimum values. Therefore, T-44 and PDM-139 were established as the most resistant and sensitive varieties, respectively.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, Antioxidants, Nickel, proline, Vigna radiata

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8 Promotive Role of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid on Chromium-Induced Morphological, Photosynthetic and Oxidative Changes in Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea Botrytis L.)

Authors: Shafaqat Ali, Rehan Ahmad, Muhammad Rizwan


Chromium (Cr) is one of the most toxic pollutants among heavy metals that adversely affect living organisms and physiological processes in plants. The present study investigated the effect of without and with 15 mg L-1 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on morpho-physiological attributes of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis L.) under different Cr concentrations (0, 10, 100 and 200 μM) in the growth medium. Results showed that Cr stress decreased the plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and gas exchange characteristics. Chromium stress enhanced the activities of enzymatic antioxidants, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and caused oxidative stress, as observed by increased level of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), electrolyte leakage (EL), in both leaves and roots of cauliflower. Chromium concentrations and total Cr uptake increased in roots, stem and leaves of plants with increasing Cr levels in the growth medium. Foliar application of ALA increased plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments and gas exchange characteristics under Cr stress as compared to without ALA application. As compared to Cr stress alone, ALA application decreased the levels of MDA, H2O2 and EL while further enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in both leaves and roots. Chromium concentrations and total Cr uptake decreased by the ALA application as compared to without ALA. These results showed that foliar application of ALA might be effective in reducing Cr uptake and toxicity in cauliflower.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, Chromium, Hydrogen Peroxide, antioxidant enzymes, cauliflower, ALA, electrolyte leakage

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7 Physiological Responses of Dominant Grassland Species to Different Grazing Intensity in Inner Mongolia, China

Authors: Min Liu, Lili Yang, Jirui Gong, Qinpu Luo, Bo Yang, Zihe Zhang, Yan Pan, Zhanwei Zhai


Grazing disturbance is one of the important land-use types that affect plant growth and ecosystem processes. In order to study the responses of dominant species to grazing in the semiarid temperate grassland of Inner Mongolia, we set five grazing intensity plots: a control and four levels of grazing (light (LG), moderate (MG), heavy (HG) and extreme heavy grazing (EHG)) to test the morphological and physiological responses of Stipa grandis, Leymus chinensis at the individual levels. With the increase of grazing intensity, Stipa grandis and Leymus chinensis both exhibited reduced plant height, leaf area, stem length and aboveground biomass, showing a significant dwarf phenomenon especially in HG and EHG plots. The photosynthetic capacity decreased along the grazing gradient. Especially in the MG plot, the two dominant species have lowest net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE). However, in the HG and EHG plots, the two species had high light saturation point (LSP) and low light compensation point (LCP), indicating they have high light-use efficiency. They showed a stimulation of compensatory photosynthesis to the remnant leaves as compared with grasses in MG plot. For Leymus chinensis, the lipid peroxidation level did not increase with the low malondialdehyde (MDA) content even in the EHG plot. It may be due to the high enzymes activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) to reduce the damage of reactive oxygen species. Meanwhile, more carbohydrate was stored in the leaf of Leymus chinensis to provide energy to the plant regrowth. On the contrary, Stipa grandis showed the high level of lipid peroxidation especially in the HG and EHG plots with decreased antioxidant enzymes activity. The soluble protein content did not change significantly in the different plots. Therefore, with the increase of grazing intensity, plants changed morphological and physiological traits to defend themselves effectively to herbivores. Leymus chinensis is more resistant to grazing than Stipa grandis in terms of tolerance traits, particularly under heavy grazing pressure.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes activity, grazing density, morphological responses

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6 Effect of Zinc-Lysine on Growth, Photosynthesis, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System and Chromium Uptake in Rice under Cr Stress

Authors: Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Afzal Hussain, Longhua Wu


Chromium (Cr) is one of the widespread and toxic trace elements present in the agricultural land. Chromium can enter into the food chain mainly through agricultural crops grown on Cr-contaminated soils such as rice (Oryza sativa L.). The current study was done to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations foliar applied zinc (Zn) chelated with lysine (Zn-lys) (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg L⁻¹) on rice biomass, photosynthesis, oxidative stress, key antioxidant enzyme activities and Cr uptake under increasing levels of Cr in the soil (0, 100, 500 mg kg⁻¹). Cr-induced toxicity reduced the height of plants, biomass, chlorophyll contents, gas exchange parameters, and antioxidant enzyme activities while increased the Cr concentrations and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, electrolyte leakage, and H₂O₂) in shoots and roots than control plants. Foliar application of Zn-lys increased the plant growth, photosynthesis, Zn concentrations, and enzyme activities in rice seedlings. In addition, Zn-lys reduced the Cr concentrations and oxidative stress compared to the respective Cr treatments alone. The present results indicate that foliar Zn-lys stimulates the antioxidant defense system in rice, increase the rice growth while reduced the Cr concentrations in plants by promoting the Zn uptake and photosynthesis. Taken together, foliar spray of Zn-lys chelate can efficiently be employed for improving plant growth and Zn contents while reducing Cr concentration in rice grown in Cr-contaminated and Zn-deficient soils.

Keywords: Tolerance, Photosynthesis, Chromium, Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, zinc-lysine

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5 Comparative Analysis of Short and Long Term Salt Stress on the Photosynthetic Apparatus and Chloroplast Ultrastructure of Thellungiella salsuginea

Authors: Chedly Abdelly, Rahma Goussi, Walid Derbali, Arafet Manaa, Simone Cantamessa, Graziella Berta, Roberto Barbato


Salinity is one of the most important abiotic affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Photosynthesis, together with cell growth, is among the primary processes to be affected by salinity. Here, we report the effects of salinity stress on the primary processes of photosynthesis in a model halophyte Thellungiella Salsuginea. Plants were cultivated in hydroponic system with different NaCl concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 400 mM) during 2 weeks. The obtained results showed an obvious change in the photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem I (PSI) and phostosytem II (PSII), related to NaCl concentration supplemented to the medium and the stress duration considered. With moderate salinity (100 and 200 mM NaCl), no significant variation was observed in photosynthetic parameters of PSI and PSII and Chl fluorescence whatever the time of stress application. Also, the photosynthesis apparatus Fo, Fm and Fv fluorescence, as well as Fv/Fm were not affected by salt stress. While a significant decrease was observed on quantum yields Y(I), Y(II) and electron transport rate ETR(I), ETR(II) under high salt treatment (400 mM NaCl) with prolonged period (15 days). This reduction is quantitatively compensated by a corresponding increase of energy dissipation Y(NPQ) and a progressive decrease in Fv/Fm under salt treatment. The intensity of the OJIP fluorescence transient decreased with increase in NaCl concentration, with a major effect observed during prolonged period of salt stress. Ultrastructural analysis with Light Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy of T. salsuginea chloroplasts showed some cellular changes, such as the shape of the mesophyll cells and number of chloroplast/cell only under higher NaCl concentration. Salt-stress caused the swelling of thylakoids in T. Salsuginea mesophyll with more accumulation of starch as compared to control plant.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, Fluorescence, Salt Stress, halophyte

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4 Screening of Wheat Wild Relatives as a Gene Pool for Improved Photosynthesis in Wheat Breeding

Authors: Amanda J. Burridge, Keith J. Edwards, Paul A. Wilkinson, Tom Batstone, Erik H. Murchie, Lorna McAusland, Ana Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Ivan Jauregui, Tracy Lawson, Silvere R. M. Vialet-Chabrand


The rate of genetic progress in wheat production must be improved to meet global food security targets. However, past selection for domestication traits has reduced the genetic variation in modern wheat cultivars, a fact that could severely limit the future rate of genetic gain. The genetic variation in agronomically important traits for the wild relatives and progenitors of wheat is far greater than that of the current domesticated cultivars, but transferring these traits into modern cultivars is not straightforward. Between the elite cultivars of wheat, photosynthetic capacity is a key trait for which there is limited variation. Early screening of wheat wild relative and progenitors has shown differences in photosynthetic capacity and efficiency not only between wild relative species but marked differences between the accessions of each species. By identifying wild relative accessions with improved photosynthetic traits and characterising the genetic variation responsible, it is possible to incorporate these traits into advanced breeding programmes by wide crossing and introgression programmes. To identify the potential variety of photosynthetic capacity and efficiency available in the secondary and tertiary genepool, a wide scale survey was carried out for over 600 accessions from 80 species including those from the genus Aegilops, Triticum, Thinopyrum, Elymus, and Secale. Genotype data were generated for each accession using a ‘Wheat Wild Relative’ Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array composed of 35,000 SNP markers polymorphic between wild relatives and elite hexaploid wheat. This genotype data was combined with phenotypic measurements such as gas exchange (CO₂, H₂O), chlorophyll fluorescence, growth, morphology, and RuBisCO activity to identify potential breeding material with enhanced photosynthetic capacity and efficiency. The data and associated analysis tools presented here will prove useful to anyone interested in increasing the genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat or the application of complex genotyping data to plant breeding.

Keywords: Genomics, Wheat, Photosynthesis, wild relatives, pre-breeding

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3 Physiological and Biochemical Based Analysis to Assess the Efficacy of Mulch under Partial Root Zone Drying in Wheat

Authors: Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Salman Ahmad, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Rashid Iqbal, Imran Haider, Muhammad Usman Aslam, Muhammad Adnan Nazar


Among the various abiotic stresses, drought stress is one of the most challenging for field crops. Wheat is one of the major staple food of the world, which is highly affected by water deficit stress in the current scenario of climate change. In order to ensure food security by depleting water resources, there is an urgent need to adopt technologies which result in sufficient crop yield with less water consumption. Mulching and partial rootzone drying (PRD) are two important management techniques used for water conservation and to mitigate the negative impacts of drought. The experiment was conducted to screen out the best-suited mulch for wheat under PRD system. Two water application techniques (I1= full irrigation I2= PRD irrigation) and four mulch treatments (M0= un-mulched, M1= black plastic mulch, M2= wheat straw mulch and M4= cotton sticks mulch) were conducted in completely randomized design with four replications. The treatment, black plastic mulch was performed the best than other mulch treatments. For irrigation levels, higher values of growth, physiological and water-related parameters were recorded in control treatment while, quality traits and enzymatic activities were higher under partial root zone drying. The current study concluded that adverse effects of drought on wheat can be significantly mitigated by using mulches but black plastic mulch was best suited for partial rootzone drying irrigation system in wheat.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, Antioxidants, osmolytes, partial root zone drying, leaf water relations, Mulches

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2 Expression Profiling of Chlorophyll Biosynthesis Pathways in Chlorophyll B-Lacking Mutants of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Khiem M. Nguyen, Ming C. Yang


Chloroplast pigments are extremely important during photosynthesis since they play essential roles in light absorption and energy transfer. Therefore, understanding the efficiency of chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis could facilitate enhancement in photo-assimilates accumulation, and ultimately, in crop yield. The Chl-deficient mutants have been used extensively to study the Chl biosynthetic pathways and the biogenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most leading food crops, serving as staple food for many parts of the world. To author’s best knowledge, Chl b–lacking rice has been found; however the molecular mechanism of Chl biosynthesis still remains unclear compared to wild-type rice. In this study, the ultrastructure analysis, photosynthetic properties, and transcriptome profile of wild-type rice (Norin No.8, N8) and its Chl b-lacking mutant (Chlorina 1, C1) were examined. The finding concluded that total Chl content and Chl b content in the C1 leaves were strongly reduced compared to N8 leaves, suggesting that reduction in the total Chl content contributes to leaf color variation at the physiological level. Plastid ultrastructure of C1 possessed abnormal thylakoid membranes with loss of starch granule, large number of vesicles, and numerous plastoglobuli. The C1 rice also exhibited thinner stacked grana, which was caused by a reduction in the number of thylakoid membranes per granum. Thus, the different Chl a/b ratio of C1 may reflect the abnormal plastid development and function. Transcriptional analysis identified 23 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 671 transcription factors (TFs) that were involved in Chl metabolism, chloroplast development, cell division, and photosynthesis. The transcriptome profile and DEGs revealed that the gene encoding PsbR (PSII core protein) was down-regulated, therefore suggesting that the lower in light-harvesting complex proteins are responsible for the lower photosynthetic capacity in C1. In addition, expression level of cell division protein (FtsZ) genes were significantly reduced in C1, causing chloroplast division defect. A total of 19 DEGs were identified based on KEGG pathway assignment involving Chl biosynthesis pathway. Among these DEGs, the GluTR gene was down-regulated, whereas the UROD, CPOX, and MgCH genes were up-regulated. Observation through qPCR suggested that later stages of Chl biosynthesis were enhanced in C1, whereas the early stages were inhibited. Plastid structure analysis together with transcriptomic analysis suggested that the Chl a/b ratio was amplified both by the reduction in Chl contents accumulation, owning to abnormal chloroplast development, and by the enhanced conversion of Chl b to Chl a. Moreover, the results indicated the same Chl-cycle pattern in the wild-type and C1 rice, indicating another Chl b degradation pathway. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that normal grana stacking, along with the absence of Chl b and greatly reduced levels of Chl a in C1, provide evidence to support the conclusion that other factors along with LHCII proteins are involved in grana stacking. The findings of this study provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie different Chl a/b ratios in rice.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, RNA-Seq, Chl-deficient mutant, grana stacked, transcriptomic analysis

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1 Allelopathic Effect of Duranta Repens on Salinity-Stressed Solanum Lycopersicum Seedlings

Authors: Olusola Nafisat Omoniyi


Aqueous extract of Duranta repens leaves was investigated for its allelopathic effect on Solanum lycopersicum Seedlings germinated and grown under salinity condition. The study was carried out using both laboratory petri dish and pot assays to simulate the plant’s natural environmental conditions. The experiment consisted of 5 groups (1-5), each containing 5 replicates (of 10 seeds). Group 1 was treated with distilled water; Group 2 was treated with 5 mM NaCl; Group 3 was treated with the Extract, Group 4 was treated with a mixture of 5 mM NaCl and the Extract (2:1 v/v), and Group 5 was treated with a mixture of 5 mM NaCl and the Extract (1:2 v/v). The results showed that treatment with NaCl caused significant reductions in germination, growth parameters (plumule and radicle lengths), and chlorophyll concentration of S. lycopersicum seedlings when compared to those treated with D. rupens aqueous leaf extract. Salinity also caused an increase in malondialdehyde and proline concentrations and lowered the activity of superoxide dismutase. However, in the presence of the extract, the adverse effects of the NaCl were attenuated, implying that the extract improved tolerance of S. lycopersicum seedlings. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that the extract is very important in the optimal growth of the plant in saline soil, which has become useful for the management of soil salinity problems.

Keywords: Production, Agriculture, Soil, Photosynthesis, Salinity, tomato, allelopathic

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