Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

photoplethysmography Related Abstracts

6 A Portable Device for Pulse Wave Velocity Measurements

Authors: Chien-Lin Wang, Cha-Ling Ko, Tainsong Chen

Abstract:

Pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood flow provides important information of vessel property and blood pressure which can be used to assess cardiovascular disease. However, the above measurements need expensive equipment, such as Doppler ultrasound, MRI, angiography etc. The photoplethysmograph (PPG) signals are commonly utilized to detect blood volume changes. In this study, two infrared (IR) probes are designed and placed at a fixed distance from finger base and fingertip. An analog circuit with automatic gain adjustment is implemented to get the stable original PPG signals from above two IR probes. In order to obtain the time delay precisely between two PPG signals, we obtain the pulse transit time from the second derivative of the original PPG signals. To get a portable, wireless and low power consumption PWV measurement device, the low energy Bluetooth 4.0 (BLE) and the microprocessor (Cortex™-M3) are used in this study. The PWV is highly correlated with blood pressure. This portable device has potential to be used for continuous blood pressure monitoring.

Keywords: Biomedical Engineering, pulse wave velocity, photoplethysmography, portable device

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
5 Photoplethysmography-Based Device Designing for Cardiovascular System Diagnostics

Authors: S. Botman, D. Borchevkin, V. Petrov, E. Bogdanov, M. Patrushev, N. Shusharina

Abstract:

In this paper, we report the development of the device for diagnostics of cardiovascular system state and associated automated workstation for large-scale medical measurement data collection and analysis. It was shown that optimal design for the monitoring device is wristband as it represents engineering trade-off between accuracy and usability. The monitoring device is based on the infrared reflective photoplethysmographic sensor, which allows collecting multiple physiological parameters, such as heart rate and pulsing wave characteristics. Developed device use BLE interface for medical and supplementary data transmission to the coupled mobile phone, which process it and send it to the doctor's automated workstation. Results of this experimental model approbation confirmed the applicability of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Diseases, photoplethysmography, health monitoring systems, pulse wave, remote diagnostics

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
4 Assessment of Five Photoplethysmographic Methods for Estimating Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Akshay B. Pawar, Rohit Y. Parasnis

Abstract:

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a widely used indicator of the regulation between the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the cardiovascular system. Besides being non-invasive, it also has the potential to predict mortality in cases involving critical injuries. The gold standard method for determining HRV is based on the analysis of RR interval time series extracted from ECG signals. However, because it is much more convenient to obtain photoplethysmogramic (PPG) signals as compared to ECG signals (which require the attachment of several electrodes to the body), many researchers have used pulse cycle intervals instead of RR intervals to estimate HRV. They have also compared this method with the gold standard technique. Though most of their observations indicate a strong correlation between the two methods, recent studies show that in healthy subjects, except for a few parameters, the pulse-based method cannot be a surrogate for the standard RR interval- based method. Moreover, the former tends to overestimate short-term variability in heart rate. This calls for improvements in or alternatives to the pulse-cycle interval method. In this study, besides the systolic peak-peak interval method (PP method) that has been studied several times, four recent PPG-based techniques, namely the first derivative peak-peak interval method (P1D method), the second derivative peak-peak interval method (P2D method), the valley-valley interval method (VV method) and the tangent-intersection interval method (TI method) were compared with the gold standard technique. ECG and PPG signals were obtained from 10 young and healthy adults (consisting of both males and females) seated in the armchair position. In order to de-noise these signals and eliminate baseline drift, they were passed through certain digital filters. After filtering, the following HRV parameters were computed from PPG using each of the five methods and also from ECG using the gold standard method: time domain parameters (SDNN, pNN50 and RMSSD), frequency domain parameters (Very low-frequency power (VLF), Low-frequency power (LF), High-frequency power (HF) and Total power or “TP”). Besides, Poincaré plots were also plotted and their SD1/SD2 ratios determined. The resulting sets of parameters were compared with those yielded by the standard method using measures of statistical correlation (correlation coefficient) as well as statistical agreement (Bland-Altman plots). From the viewpoint of correlation, our results show that the best PPG-based methods for the determination of most parameters and Poincaré plots are the P2D method (shows more than 93% correlation with the standard method) and the PP method (mean correlation: 88%) whereas the TI, VV and P1D methods perform poorly (<70% correlation in most cases). However, our evaluation of statistical agreement using Bland-Altman plots shows that none of the five techniques agrees satisfactorily well with the gold standard method as far as time-domain parameters are concerned. In conclusion, excellent statistical correlation implies that certain PPG-based methods provide a good amount of information on the pattern of heart rate variation, whereas poor statistical agreement implies that PPG cannot completely replace ECG in the determination of HRV.

Keywords: heart rate variability, photoplethysmography, correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plot

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
3 Blood Volume Pulse Extraction for Non-Contact Photoplethysmography Measurement from Facial Images

Authors: Ki Moo Lim, Iman R. Tayibnapis

Abstract:

According to WHO estimation, 38 out of 56 million (68%) global deaths in 2012, were due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). To avert NCD, one of the solutions is early detection of diseases. In order to do that, we developed 'U-Healthcare Mirror', which is able to measure vital sign such as heart rate (HR) and respiration rate without any physical contact and consciousness. To measure HR in the mirror, we utilized digital camera. The camera records red, green, and blue (RGB) discoloration from user's facial image sequences. We extracted blood volume pulse (BVP) from the RGB discoloration because the discoloration of the facial skin is accordance with BVP. We used blind source separation (BSS) to extract BVP from the RGB discoloration and adaptive filters for removing noises. We utilized singular value decomposition (SVD) method to implement the BSS and the adaptive filters. HR was estimated from the obtained BVP. We did experiment for HR measurement by using our method and previous method that used independent component analysis (ICA) method. We compared both of them with HR measurement from commercial oximeter. The experiment was conducted under various distance between 30~110 cm and light intensity between 5~2000 lux. For each condition, we did measurement 7 times. The estimated HR showed 2.25 bpm of mean error and 0.73 of pearson correlation coefficient. The accuracy has improved compared to previous work. The optimal distance between the mirror and user for HR measurement was 50 cm with medium light intensity, around 550 lux.

Keywords: Heart Rate, independent component analysis, photoplethysmography, blood volume pulse

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
2 Feature Location Restoration for Under-Sampled Photoplethysmogram Using Spline Interpolation

Authors: Hangsik Shin

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to restore the feature location of under-sampled photoplethysmogram using spline interpolation and to investigate feasibility for feature shape restoration. We obtained 10 kHz-sampled photoplethysmogram and decimated it to generate under-sampled dataset. Decimated dataset has 5 kHz, 2.5 k Hz, 1 kHz, 500 Hz, 250 Hz, 25 Hz and 10 Hz sampling frequency. To investigate the restoration performance, we interpolated under-sampled signals with 10 kHz, then compared feature locations with feature locations of 10 kHz sampled photoplethysmogram. Features were upper and lower peak of photplethysmography waveform. Result showed that time differences were dramatically decreased by interpolation. Location error was lesser than 1 ms in both feature types. In 10 Hz sampled cases, location error was also deceased a lot, however, they were still over 10 ms.

Keywords: Signal reconstruction, Sampling, photoplethysmography, peak detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
1 Development of Soft-Core System for Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation

Authors: Caje F. Pinto, Jivan S. Parab, Gourish M. Naik

Abstract:

This paper is about the development of non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation in human blood using Altera NIOS II soft-core processor system. In today's world, monitoring oxygen saturation and heart rate is very important in hospitals to keep track of low oxygen levels in blood. We have designed an Embedded System On Peripheral Chip (SOPC) reconfigurable system by interfacing two LED’s of different wavelengths (660 nm/940 nm) with a single photo-detector to measure the absorptions of hemoglobin species at different wavelengths. The implementation of the interface with Finger Probe and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) was carried out using NIOS II soft-core system running on Altera NANO DE0 board having target as Cyclone IVE. This designed system is used to monitor oxygen saturation in blood and heart rate for different test subjects. The designed NIOS II processor based non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation was verified with another Operon Pulse oximeter for 50 measurements on 10 different subjects. It was found that the readings taken were very close to the Operon Pulse oximeter.

Keywords: Heart Rate, photoplethysmography, oxygen saturation, NIOS II, soft-core, SOPC

Procedia PDF Downloads 67