Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Photoluminescence Related Abstracts

36 Light Emission Enhancement of Silicon Nanocrystals by Gold Layer

Authors: R. Karmouch

Abstract:

A thin gold metal layer was deposited on the top of silicon oxide films containing embedded Si nanocrystals (Si-nc). The sample was annealed in gas containing nitrogen, and subsequently characterized by photoluminescence. We obtained 3-fold enhancement of photon emission from the Si-nc embedded in silicon dioxide covered with a Gold layer as compared with an uncovered sample. We attribute this enhancement to the increase of the spontaneous emission rate caused by the coupling of the Si-nc emitters with the surface plasmons (SP). The evolution of PL emission with laser irradiated time was also collected from covered samples, and compared to that from uncovered samples. In an uncovered sample, the PL intensity decreases with time, approximately with two decay constants. Although the decrease of the initial PL intensity associated with the increase of sample temperature under CW pumping is still observed in samples covered with a gold layer, this film significantly contributes to reduce the permanent deterioration of the PL intensity. The resistance to degradation of light-emitting silicon nanocrystals can be increased by SP coupling to suppress the permanent deterioration. Controlling the permanent photodeterioration can allow to perform a reliable optical gain measurement.

Keywords: Ion implantation, Surface Plasmons, Photoluminescence, photodeterioration, silicon nanocrystals

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
35 Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector Based on Porous In0.08Ga0.92N

Authors: Z. Hassan, Saleh H. Abud, F. K. Yam

Abstract:

Characteristics of MSM photodetector based on a porous In0.08Ga0.92N thin film were reported. Nanoporous structures of n-type In0.08Ga0.92N/AlN/Si thin films were synthesized by photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching at a ratio of 1:4 of HF:C2H5OH solution for 15 min. The structural and optical properties of pre- and post-etched thin films were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope images showed that the pre-etched thin film has a sufficiently smooth surface over a large region and the roughness increased for porous film. Blue shift has been observed in photoluminescence emission peak at 300 K for porous sample. The photoluminescence intensity of the porous film indicated that the optical properties have been enhanced. A high work function metals (Pt and Ni) were deposited as a metal contact on the porous films. The rise and recovery times of the devices were investigated at 390 nm chopped light. Finally, the sensitivity and quantum efficiency were also studied.

Keywords: Atomic Force Microscopy, Photoluminescence, porous InGaN, SMS photodetector

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
34 Multifunctional 1D α-Fe2O3/ZnO Core/Shell Semiconductor Nano-Heterostructures: Heterojunction Engineering

Authors: Ashutosh K. Singh, Gobinda Gopal Khan, Debasish Sarkar

Abstract:

This study reports the facile fabrication of 1D ZnO/α-Fe2O3 semiconductor nano-heterostructures (SNHs), and we investigate the strong interfacial interactions at the heterojunction, resulting in novel multifunctionality in the hybrid structure. ZnO-coated α-Fe2O3 nanowires (NWs) have been prepared by combining electrodeposition and wet chemical methods. Significant improvement in electrical conductivity, photoluminescence, and room temperature magnetic properties have been observed for the ZnO/α-Fe2O3 SNHs over the pristine α-Fe2O3 NWs because of the contribution of the ZnO nanolayer. The increase in electrical conductivity in ZnO/α-Fe2O3 SNHs is because of the increase in free electrons in the conduction band of the SNHs due to the formation of type-II n-n band configuration at the heterojunction. The SNHs are found to exhibit enhanced visible green photoluminescence along with the UV emission at room temperature. The band-gap emission of the α-Fe2O3 NWs coupled to the defect emissions of the ZnO in SNHs can be attributed to the profound enhancement of the visible green luminescence. Ferromagnetism of the SNHs is found to be increased nearly five times in magnitude over the primeval α-Fe2O3 NWs, which can be ascribed to the exchange coupling of the interfacial spin at ZnO/α-Fe2O3 interface, the surface spin of ZnO nanolayer, along with the structural defects like the cation vacancies (VZn) and the singly ionized oxygen vacancies (Vo•) present in SNHs.

Keywords: Magnetism, Photoluminescence, nano-heterostructures, electrical property

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
33 Effect of Ti+ Irradiation on the Photoluminescence of TiO2 Nanofibers

Authors: L. Chetibi, D. Hamana, T. O. Busko, M. P. Kulish, S. Achour

Abstract:

TiO2 nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their optical, dielectric and photocatalytic properties as well as applications including optical coating, photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical solar cells. This work aims to prepare TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) on titanium substrate (Ti) by in situ oxidation of Ti foils in a mixture solution of concentrated H2O2 and NaOH followed by proton exchange and calcinations. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) revealed an obvious network of TiO2 nanofibers. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of these nanostructures revealed a broad intense band in the visible light range with a reduced near edge band emission. The PL bands in the visible region, mainly, results from surface oxygen vacancies and others defects. After irradiation with Ti+ ions (the irradiation energy was E = 140 keV with doses of 1013 ions/cm2), the intensity of the PL spectrum decreased as a consequence of the radiation treatment. The irradiation with Ti+ leads to a reduction of defects and generation of non irradiative defects near to the level of the conduction band as evidenced by the PL results. On the other hand, reducing the surface defects on TiO2 nanostructures may improve photocatalytic and optoelectronic properties of this nanostructure.

Keywords: Nanofibers, Photoluminescence, TiO2, irradiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
32 Two-Photon Fluorescence in N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Chi Man Luk, Ming Kiu Tsang, Chi Fan Chan and Shu Ping Lau

Abstract:

Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) were fabricated by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The optical properties of the N-GQDs were studied. The luminescence of the N-GQDs can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength. Furthermore, two-photon luminescence of the N-GQDs excited by near-infrared laser can be obtained. It is shown that N-doping play a key role on two-photon luminescence. The N-GQDs are expected to find application in biological applications including bioimaging and sensing.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, graphene quantum dots, nitrogen doping, two-photon fluorescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 472
31 Characteristics of Photoluminescence in Resonant Quasiperiodic Double-period Quantum Wells

Authors: C. H. Chang, R. Z. Qiu, C. W. Tsao, Y. H. Cheng, C. H. Chen, W. J. Hsueh

Abstract:

Characteristics of photoluminescence (PL) in a resonant quasi-periodic double-period quantum wells (DPQW) are demonstrated. The maximum PL intensity in the DPQW is remarkably greater than that in a traditional periodic QW (PQW) under the Bragg or anti-Bragg conditions. The optimal PL spectrum in the DPQW has an asymmetrical form instead of the symmetrical form in the PQW. Moreover, there are two large values of PL intensity in the DPQW, which also differs from the PQW.

Keywords: Quantum Wells, Photoluminescence, quasiperiodic structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 553
30 Photoluminescence Study of Erbium-Mixed Alkylated Silicon Nanocrystals

Authors: Khamael M. Abualnaja, Lidija Šiller, Benjamin R. Horrocks

Abstract:

Alkylated silicon nanocrystals (C11-SiNCs) were prepared successfully by galvanostatic etching of p-Si(100) wafers followed by a thermal hydrosilation reaction of 1-undecene in refluxing toluene in order to extract C11-SiNCs from porous silicon. Erbium trichloride was added to alkylated SiNCs using a simple mixing chemical route. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on mixing SiNCs with erbium ions (III) by this chemical method. The chemical characterization of C11-SiNCs and their mixtures with Er3+ (Er/C11-SiNCs) were carried out using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of C11-SiNCs and their mixtures with Er3+ were investigated using Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). The erbium-mixed alkylated SiNCs shows an orange PL emission peak at around 595 nm that originates from radiative recombination of Si. Er/C11-SiNCs mixture also exhibits a weak PL emission peak at 1536 nm that originates from the intra-4f transition in erbium ions (Er3+). The PL peak of Si in Er/C11-SiNCs mixture is increased in the intensity up to three times as compared to pure C11-SiNCs. The collected data suggest that this chemical mixing route leads instead to a transfer of energy from erbium ions to alkylated SiNCs.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, Photoluminescence, silicon nanocrystals, erbium

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
29 Tuning the Emission Colour of Phenothiazine by Introduction of Withdrawing Electron Groups

Authors: Luminita Marin, Dalila Belei, Andrei Bejan

Abstract:

Phenothiazine with electron-rich nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms has a high electron-donating ability which promotes a good conjugation and therefore low band-gap with consequences upon charge carrier mobility improving and shifting of light emission in visible domain. Moreover, its non-planar butterfly conformation inhibits molecular aggregation and thus preserves quite well the fluorescence quantum yield in solid state compared to solution. Therefore phenothiazine and its derivatives are promising hole transport materials for use in organic electronic and optoelectronic devices as light emitting diodes, photovoltaic cells, integrated circuit sensors or driving circuits for large area display devices. The objective of this paper was to obtain a series of new phenothiazine derivatives by introduction of different electron withdrawing substituents as formyl, carboxyl and cyanoacryl units in order to create a push pull system which has potential to improve the electronic and optical properties. Bromine atom was used as electrono-donor moiety to extend furthermore the existing conjugation. The understudy compounds were structural characterized by FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Besides, the single crystal X-ray diffraction brought information regarding the supramolecular architecture of the compounds. Photophysical properties were monitored by UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy, while the electrochemical behavior was established by cyclic voltammetry. The absorption maxima of the studied compounds vary in a large range (322-455 nm), reflecting the different electronic delocalization degree, depending by the substituent nature. In a similar manner, the emission spectra reveal different color of emitted light, a red shift being evident for the groups with higher electron withdrawing ability. The emitted light is pure and saturated for the compounds containing strong withdrawing formyl or cyanoacryl units and reach the highest quantum yield of 71% for the compound containing bromine and cyanoacrilic units. Electrochemical study show reversible oxidative and reduction processes for all the compounds and a close correlation of the HOMO-LUMO band gap with substituent nature. All these findings suggest the obtained compounds as promising materials for optoelectronic devices.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, electrochemical properties, phenothiazine derivatives, quantum yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
28 Optical Characterization of Erbium-Mixed Silicon Nanocrystals

Authors: Khamael M. Abualnaja, Lidija Šiller, Ben R. Horrocks

Abstract:

The structural characterization of silicon nano crystals (SiNCs) have been carried out using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SiNCs are crystalline with an average diameter of 65 nm. Erbium trichloride was added to silicon nano crystals using a simple chemical procedure. Erbium is useful in this context because it has a narrow emission band at ⋍1536 nm which corresponds to a standard optical telecommunication wavelength. The optical properties of SiNCs and erbium-mixed SiNCs samples have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). SiNCs and erbium-mixed SiNCs samples exhibit an orange PL emission peak at around 595 nm that arise from radiative recombination of Si. Erbium-mixed SiNCs also shows a weak PL emission peak at ⋍1536 nm that attributed to the intra-4f transition in erbium ions. The intensity of the PL peak of Si in erbium-mixed SiNCs is increased in the intensity up to ×3 as compared to pure SiNCs. It was observed that intensity of 1536 nm peak decreased dramatically in the presence of silicon nano crystals and the PL emission peak of silicon nano crystals is increased. Therefore, the resulted data present that the energy transfer from erbium ions to SiNCs due to the chemical mixing method which used in this work.

Keywords: Energy transfer, Photoluminescence, silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs), Erbium Ion

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
27 Photoresponse of Epitaxial GaN Films Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Nisha Prakash, Kritika Anand, Arun Barvat, Prabir Pal, Sonachand Adhikari, Suraj P. Khanna

Abstract:

Group-III nitride semiconductors (GaN, AlN, InN and their ternary and quaternary compounds) have attracted a great deal of attention for the development of high-performance Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. Any midgap defect states in the epitaxial grown film have a direct influence on the photodetectors responsivity. The proportion of the midgap defect states can be controlled by the growth parameters. To study this we have grown high quality epitaxial GaN films on MOCVD- grown GaN template using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) with different growth parameters. Optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized by room temperature photoluminescence and photoconductivity measurements, respectively. The observed persistent photoconductivity behaviour is proportional to the yellow luminescence (YL) and the absolute responsivity has been found to decrease with decreasing YL. The results will be discussed in more detail later.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, Photoconductivity, gallium nitride, plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, persistent photoconductivity, yellow luminescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
26 Luminescent Si Nanocrystals Synthesized by Si Ion Implantation and Reactive Pulsed Laser Deposition: The Effects of RTA, Excimer-Uv and E-Beam Irradiation

Authors: Tsutomu Iwayama, Takayuki Hama

Abstract:

Si ion implantation was widely used to synthesize specimens of SiO2 containing supersaturated Si and subsequent high temperature annealing induces the formation of embedded luminescent Si nanocrystals. In this work, the potentialities of excimer UV-light (172 nm, 7.2 eV) irradiation and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) to enhance the photoluminescence and to achieve low temperature formation of Si nanocrystals have been investigated. The Si ions were introduced at acceleration energy of 180 keV to fluence of 7.5 x 1016 ions/cm2. The implanted samples were subsequently irradiated with an excimer-UV lamp. After the process, the samples were rapidly thermal annealed before furnace annealing (FA). Photoluminescence spectra were measured at various stages at the process. We found that the luminescence intensity is strongly enhanced with excimer-UV irradiation and RTA. Moreover, effective visible photoluminescence is found to be observed even after FA at 900 oC, only for specimens treated with excimer-UV lamp and RTA. We also prepared specimens of Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 by reactive pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in an oxygen atmosphere. We will make clear the similarities and differences with the way of preparation.

Keywords: Ion implantation, Photoluminescence, pulsed laser deposition, rapid thermal anneal, Si nanocrystals

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
25 A Spectroscopic Study by Photoluminescence of Erbium in Gallium Nitride

Authors: A. Melouah, M. Diaf

Abstract:

The III-N nitride semiconductors appear to be excellent host materials, in particular, GaN epilayers doped with Erbium ions have shown a highly reduced thermal quenching of the Er luminescence intensity from cryogenic to elevated temperatures. The remarkable stability may be due to the large energy band gap of the material. Two methods are used for doping the Gallium nitride films with Erbium ions; ion implantation in the wafers obtained by (CVDOM) and in-situ incorporation during epitaxial growth of the layers by (MBE). Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been the main optical technique used to characterize the emission of Er-doped III-N semiconductor materials. This technique involves optical excitation of Er3+ ions and measurement of the spectrum of the light emission as a function of energy (wavelength). Excitation at above band gap energy leads to the creation of Electron-Hole pairs. Some of this pairs may transfer their energy to the Er3+ ions, exciting the 4f-electrons and resulting in optical emission. This corresponds to an indirect excitation of the Er3+ ions by electron-hole pairs. The direct excitation by the optical pumping of the radiation can be obtained.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, gan, erbium, semiconductor materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
24 Effect of Oxygen Ion Irradiation on the Structural, Spectral and Optical Properties of L-Arginine Acetate Single Crystals

Authors: N. Renuka, R. Ramesh Babu, N. Vijayan

Abstract:

Ion beams play a significant role in the process of tuning the properties of materials. Based on the radiation behavior, the engineering materials are categorized into two different types. The first one comprises organic solids which are sensitive to the energy deposited in their electronic system and the second one comprises metals which are insensitive to the energy deposited in their electronic system. However, exposure to swift heavy ions alters this general behavior. Depending on the mass, kinetic energy and nuclear charge, an ion can produce modifications within a thin surface layer or it can penetrate deeply to produce long and narrow distorted area along its path. When a high energetic ion beam impinges on a material, it causes two different types of changes in the material due to the columbic interaction between the target atom and the energetic ion beam: (i) inelastic collisions of the energetic ion with the atomic electrons of the material; and (ii) elastic scattering from the nuclei of the atoms of the material, which is extremely responsible for relocating the atoms of matter from their lattice position. The exposure of the heavy ions renders the material return to equilibrium state during which the material undergoes surface and bulk modifications which depends on the mass of the projectile ion, physical properties of the target material, its energy, and beam dimension. It is well established that electronic stopping power plays a major role in the defect creation mechanism provided it exceeds a threshold which strongly depends on the nature of the target material. There are reports available on heavy ion irradiation especially on crystalline materials to tune their physical and chemical properties. L-Arginine Acetate [LAA] is a potential semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal and its optical, mechanical and thermal properties have already been reported The main objective of the present work is to enhance or tune the structural and optical properties of LAA single crystals by heavy ion irradiation. In the present study, a potential nonlinear optical single crystal, L-arginine acetate (LAA) was grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown LAA single crystal was irradiated with oxygen ions at the dose rate of 600 krad and 1M rad in order to tune the structural and optical properties. The structural properties of pristine and oxygen ions irradiated LAA single crystals were studied using Powder X- ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared spectral studies which reveal the structural changes that are generated due to irradiation. Optical behavior of pristine and oxygen ions irradiated crystals is studied by UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence analyses. From this investigation we can concluded that oxygen ions irradiation modifies the structural and optical properties of LAA single crystals.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, heavy ion irradiation, NLO single crystal, X-ray diffractometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
23 Anomalous Behaviors of Visible Luminescence from Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Hyunho Shin, Jaekwang Jung, Jeongho Park, Sungwon Hwang

Abstract:

For the application of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to optoelectronic nanodevices, it is of critical importance to understand the mechanisms which result in novel phenomena of their light absorption/emission. The optical transitions are known to be available up to ~6 eV in GQDs, especially useful for ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs). Here, we present size-dependent shape/edge-state variations of GQDs and visible photoluminescence (PL) showing anomalous size dependencies. With varying the average size (da) of GQDs from 5 to 35 nm, the peak energy of the absorption spectra monotonically decreases, while that of the visible PL spectra unusually shows nonmonotonic behaviors having a minimum at diameter ∼17 nm. The PL behaviors can be attributed to the novel feature of GQDs, that is, the circular-to-polygonal-shape and corresponding edge-state variations of GQDs at diameter ∼17 nm as the GQD size increases, as demonstrated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. We believe that such a comprehensive scheme in designing device architecture and the structural formulation of GQDs provides a device for practical realization of environmentally benign, high performance flexible devices in the future.

Keywords: Graphene, Quantum Dot, Photoluminescence, size

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
22 Low Temperature PVP Capping Agent Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles by a Simple Chemical Precipitation Method and Their Properties

Authors: V. P. Muhamed Shajudheen, K. Viswanathan, K. Anitha Rani, A. Uma Maheswari, S. Saravana Kumar

Abstract:

We are reporting a simple and low-cost chemical precipitation method adopted to prepare zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was applied on the dried gel sample to record the phase transformation temperature of zinc hydroxide Zn(OH)2 to zinc oxide (ZnO) to obtain the annealing temperature of 800C. The thermal, structure, morphology and optical properties have been employed by different techniques such as DSC-TGA, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Micro Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). X-ray diffraction results confirmed the wurtzite hexagonal structure of ZnO nanoparticles. The two intensive peaks at 160 and 432 cm-1 in the Raman Spectrum are mainly attributed to the first order modes of the wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles. The energy band gap obtained from the UV-Vis absorption spectra, shows a blue shift, which is attributed to increase in carrier concentration (Burstein Moss Effect). Photoluminescence studies of the single crystalline ZnO nanoparticles, show a strong peak centered at 385 nm, corresponding to the near band edge emission in ultraviolet range. The mixed shape of grapes, sphere, hexagonal and rock like structure has been noticed in FESEM. The results showed that PVP is a suitable capping agent for the preparation of ZnO nanoparticles by simple chemical precipitation method.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, ZnO nanoparticles, simple chemical precipitation route, mixed shape morphology, UV-visible absorption, Fourier transform infra-Red spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
21 Photoluminescence Properties of Lu1.98Er0.02Ti2O7 Pyrochlore (A2B2O7) Phosphor

Authors: Esra Öztürk, Erkul Karacaoglu

Abstract:

Pyrochlores, having compounds of the general formula, A2B2O7 (A and B are metals/rare earths) are important class of materials thanks to having technological applications like in luminescence, ionic conductivity, nuclear waste immobilization etc. The rare earths included pyrochlore compounds have also potential photoluminescence characteristics. In this context, Er3+-activated Lu2Ti2O7 pyrochlore was chosen and synthesized through a high-temperature solid-state reaction route that was sintered under the open atmosphere in this study. The optimal reaction conditions to obtain expected single phase system, the thermal analysis (DTA/TG) were carried out. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to determine phase properties of the sample. The photoluminescence (PL) results were done to obtain excitation, emission and decay time properties by a PL spectrometer under room temperature. According to the PL, there are excitation bands at 352 nm, 388 nm, 423 nm and 453 nm that are due to 4I15/2 → 2G7/2, 4I15/2 → 4G11/2 and 4I15/2 → 4F5/2 transitions of Er3+ ions, respectively. The emission bands are placed at 582 nm, 677 nm and 762 nm that are associated with 2H11/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2, 4F9/2 → 4I15/2, 4I9/2 → 4I15/2 transitions of Er3+ ions, respectively.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, Er3+, Lu2Ti2O7, pyrochlore, rare-earths

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
20 Optical Characterization of Transition Metal Ion Doped ZnO Microspheres Synthesized via Laser Ablation in Air

Authors: Parvathy Anitha, Nilesh J. Vasa, M. S. Ramachandra Rao

Abstract:

ZnO is a semiconducting material with a direct wide band gap of 3.37 eV and a large exciton binding energy of 60 meV at room temperature. Microspheres with high sphericity and symmetry exhibit unique functionalities which makes them excellent omnidirectional optical resonators. Hence there is an advent interest in fabrication of single crystalline semiconductor microspheres especially magnetic ZnO microspheres, as ZnO is a promising material for semiconductor device applications. Also, ZnO is non-toxic and biocompatible, implying it is a potential material for biomedical applications. Room temperature Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the fabricated ZnO microspheres were measured, at an excitation wavelength of 325 nm. The ultraviolet (UV) luminescence observed is attributed to the room-temperature free exciton related near-band-edge (NBE) emission in ZnO. Besides the NBE luminescence, weak and broad visible luminescence (~560nm) was also observed. This broad emission band in the visible range is associated with oxygen vacancies related to structural defects. In transition metal (TM) ion-doped ZnO, 3d levels emissions of TM ions will modify the inherent characteristic emissions of ZnO. A micron-sized ZnO crystal has generally a wurtzite structure with a natural hexagonal cross section, which will serve as a WGM (whispering gallery mode) lasing micro cavity due to its high refractive index (~2.2). But hexagonal cavities suffers more optical loss at their corners in comparison to spherical structures; hence spheres may be a better candidate to achieve effective light confinement. In our study, highly smooth spherical shaped micro particles with different diameters ranging from ~4 to 6 μm were grown on different substrates. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) images show the presence of uniform smooth surfaced spheres. Raman scattering measurements from the fabricated samples at 488 nm light excitation provide convincing supports for the wurtzite structure of the prepared ZnO microspheres. WGM lasing studies from TM-doped ZnO microparticles are in progress.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, Laser Ablation, Microcavity, ZnO microsphere

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
19 Synthesis, Microstructure and Photoluminescence Properties of Yttrium Orthovanadates: Influences of Silica Nano-Particles and Nano-Layers

Authors: Seyed Mahdi Rafiaei

Abstract:

In this investigation, firstly Eu3+ doped YVO4 phosphor was synthesized using solid-state method. Then silica was coated on the surface of particles via sol-gel method. To study the influence of SiO2 addition on microstructure and photoluminescence characteristics of YVO4:4% Eu3+ phosphor materials, we employed X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), High-Resolution Transmitted Electron Microscope (HRTEM), Focused Ion Beam (FIB), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET), Inductively coupled plasma (ICP), Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and Photoluminescence (PL) equipments. The XPS characterization confirmed the formation of Y–O–Si and V-O-Si bondings between YVO4:Eu3+ phosphor particle and SiO2 coating. In addition, it was found that although the amounts of added SiO2 were not remarkable, but it resulted in enhancement of emission intensity of the phosphors. Finally by employing ESR analysis, it was shown that surface oxygen vacancies, result in reduction of V5+ to the lower valence state of V4+.

Keywords: Coating, Solid State, Photoluminescence, sol-gel, silica

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
18 Growth and Characterization of Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O) Nanorods by Reactive Ion Beam Sputter Deposition (Ibsd) Method

Authors: Assamen Ayalew Ejigu, Liang-Chiun Chao

Abstract:

In recent semiconductor and nanotechnology, quality material synthesis, proper characterizations, and productions are the big challenges. As cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is a promising semiconductor material for photovoltaic (PV) and other optoelectronic applications, this study was aimed at to grow and characterize high quality Cu2O nanorods for the improvement of the efficiencies of thin film solar cells and other potential applications. In this study, well-structured cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanorods were successfully fabricated using IBSD method in which the Cu2O samples were grown on silicon substrates with a substrate temperature of 400°C in an IBSD chamber of pressure of 4.5 x 10-5 torr using copper as a target material. Argon, and oxygen gases were used as a sputter and reactive gases, respectively. The characterization of the Cu2O nanorods (NRs) were done in comparison with Cu2O thin film (TF) deposited with the same method but with different Ar:O2 flow rates. With Ar:O2 ratio of 9:1 single phase pure polycrystalline Cu2O NRs with diameter of ~500 nm and length of ~4.5 µm were grow. Increasing the oxygen flow rates, pure single phase polycrystalline Cu2O thin film (TF) was found at Ar:O2 ratio of 6:1. The field emission electron microscope (FE-SEM) measurements showed that both samples have smooth morphologies. X-ray diffraction and Rama scattering measurements reveals the presence of single phase Cu2O in both samples. The differences in Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) bands of the two samples were also investigated and the results showed us there are differences in intensities, in number of bands and in band positions. Raman characterization shows that the Cu2O NRs sample has pronounced Raman band intensities, higher numbers of Raman bands than the Cu2O TF which has only one second overtone Raman signal at 2 (217 cm-1). The temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra measurements, showed that the defect luminescent band centered at 720 nm (1.72 eV) is the dominant one for the Cu2O NRs and the 640 nm (1.937 eV) band was the only PL band observed from the Cu2O TF. The difference in optical and structural properties of the samples comes from the oxygen flow rate change in the process window of the samples deposition. This gave us a roadmap for further investigation of the electrical and other optical properties for the tunable fabrication of the Cu2O nano/micro structured sample for the improvement of the efficiencies of thin film solar cells in addition to other potential applications. Finally, the novel morphologies, excellent structural and optical properties seen exhibits the grown Cu2O NRs sample has enough quality to be used in further research of the nano/micro structured semiconductor materials.

Keywords: nanorods, Photoluminescence, defect levels, Raman modes

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
17 Eu+3 Ion as a Luminescent Probe in ZrO2: Gd+3 Co-Doped Nanophosphor

Authors: M. S. Dharmaprakash, S. Manjunatha

Abstract:

Well-defined 2D Eu+3 co-doped ZrO2: Gd+3 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by microwave assisted solution combustion technique for luminescent applications. The present investigation reports the rapid and effective method for the synthesis of the Eu+3 co-doped ZrO2:Gd+3 nanoparticles and study of the luminescence behavior of Eu+3 ion in ZrO2:Gd+3 nanostructures. The optical properties of the prepared nanostructures were investigated by using UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectra. The phase formation and the morphology of the nanoplatelets were studied by XRD, FESEM and HRTEM. The average grain size was found to be 45-50 nm. The presence of Gd3+ ion increases the crystallinity of the material and hence acts as a good nucleating agent. The ZrO2:Gd3+ co-doped with Eu+3 nanoplatelets gives an emission at 607 nm, a strong red emission under the excitation wavelength of 255 nm.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Photoluminescence, XRD, TEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
16 Growth Mechanism and Sensing Behaviour of Sn Doped ZnO Nanoprisms Prepared by Thermal Evaporation Technique

Authors: Sudip Kumar Sinha, Saptarshi Ghosh

Abstract:

While there’s a perpetual buzz around zinc oxide (ZnO) superstructures for their unique optical features, the versatile material has been constantly utilized to manifest tailored electronic properties through rendition of distinct morphologies. And yet, the unorthodox approach of implementing the novel 1D nanostructures of ZnO (pristine or doped) for volatile sensing applications has ample scope to accommodate new unconventional morphologies. In the last two decades, solid-state sensors have attracted much curiosity for their relevance in identifying pollutant, toxic and other industrial gases. In particular gas sensors based on metal oxide semiconducting (wide Eg) nanomaterials have recently attracted intensive attention owing to their high sensitivity and fast response and recovery time. These materials when exposed to air, the atmospheric O2 dissociates and get absorb on the surface of the sensors by trapping the outermost shell electrons. Finally a depleted zone on the surface of the sensors is formed, that enhances the potential barrier height at grain boundary . Once a target gas is exposed to the sensor, the chemical interaction between the chemisorbed oxygen and the specific gas liberates the trapped electrons. Therefore altering the amount of adsorbate is a considerable approach to improve the sensitivity of any target gas/vapour molecule. Likewise, this study presents a spontaneous but self catalytic creation of Sn-doped ZnO hexagonal nanoprisms on Si (100) substrates through thermal evaporation-condensation method, and their subsequent deployment for volatile sensing. In particular, the sensors were utilized to detect molecules of ethanol, acetone and ammonia below their permissible exposure limits which returned sensitivities of around 85%, 80% and 50% respectively. The influence of Sn concentration on the growth, microstructural and optical properties of the nanoprisms along with its role in augmenting the sensing parameters has been detailed. The single-crystalline nanostructures have a typical diameter ranging from 300 to 500 nm and a length that extends up to few micrometers. HRTEM images confirmed the hexagonal crystallography for the nanoprisms, while SAED pattern asserted the single crystalline nature. The growth habit is along the low index <0001>directions. It has been seen that the growth mechanism of the as-deposited nanostructures are directly influenced by varying supersaturation ratio, fairly high substrate temperatures, and specified surface defects in certain crystallographic planes, all acting cooperatively decide the final product morphology. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of this rod like structures exhibits a weak ultraviolet (UV) emission peak at around 380 nm and a broad green emission peak in the 505 nm regime. An estimate of the sensing parameters against dispensed target molecules highlighted the potential for the nanoprisms as an effective volatile sensing material. The Sn-doped ZnO nanostructures with unique prismatic morphology may find important applications in various chemical sensors as well as other potential nanodevices.

Keywords: Ultraviolet, Photoluminescence, Gas Sensor, zinc oxide, HRTEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
15 Photoluminescence and Energy Transfer Studies of Dy3+ Ions Doped Lithium Lead Alumino Borate Glasses for W-LED and Laser Applications

Authors: Nisha Deopa, A. S. Rao

Abstract:

Lithium Lead Alumino Borate (LiPbAlB) glasses doped with different Dy3+ ions concentration were synthesized to investigate their viability in solid state lighting (SSL) technology by melt quenching techniques. From the absorption spectra, bonding parameters (ð) were investigated to study the nature of bonding between Dy3+ ions and its surrounding ligands. Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters (Ω = 2, 4, 6), estimated from the experimental oscillator strengths (fex) of the absorption spectral features were used to evaluate the radiative parameters of different transition levels. From the decay curves, experimental lifetime (τex) were measured and coupled with the radiative lifetime to evaluate the quantum efficiency of the as-prepared glasses. As Dy3+ ions concentration increases, decay profile changes from exponential to non-exponential through energy transfer mechanism (ETM) in turn decreasing experimental lifetime. In order to investigate the nature of ETM, non-exponential decay curves were fitted to Inkuti–Hirayama (I-H) model which further confirms dipole-dipole interaction. Among all the emission transition, 4F9/2  6H15/2 transition (483 nm) is best suitable for lasing potentialities. By exciting titled glasses in n-UV to blue regions, CIE chromaticity coordinates and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) were calculated to understand their capability in cool white light generation. From the evaluated radiative parameters, CIE co-ordinates, quantum efficiency and confocal images it was observed that glass B (0.5 mol%) is a potential candidate for developing w-LEDs and lasers.

Keywords: Glasses, Energy transfer, Photoluminescence, J-O parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
14 MAS Capped CdTe/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dot Based Sensor for Detection of Hg(II)

Authors: Dilip Saikia, Suparna Bhattacharjee, Nirab Adhikary

Abstract:

In this piece of work, we have presented the synthesis and characterization of CdTe/ZnS core/shell (CS) quantum dots (QD). CS QDs are used as a fluorescence probe to design a simple cost-effective and ultrasensitive sensor for the detection of toxic Hg(II) in an aqueous medium. Mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) has been used as a capping agent for the synthesis CdTe/ZnS CS QD. Photoluminescence quenching mechanism has been used in the detection experiment of Hg(II). The designed sensing technique shows a remarkably low detection limit of about 1 picomolar (pM). Here, the CS QDs are synthesized by a simple one-pot aqueous method. The synthesized CS QDs are characterized by using advanced diagnostics tools such as UV-vis, Photoluminescence, XRD, FTIR, TEM and Zeta potential analysis. The interaction between CS QDs and the Hg(II) ions results in the quenching of photoluminescence (PL) intensity of QDs, via the mechanism of excited state electron transfer. The proposed mechanism is explained using cyclic voltammetry and zeta potential analysis. The designed sensor is found to be highly selective towards Hg (II) ions. The analysis of the real samples such as drinking water and tap water has been carried out and the CS QDs show remarkably good results. Using this simple sensing method we have designed a prototype low-cost electronic device for the detection of Hg(II) in an aqueous medium. The findings of the experimental results of the designed sensor is crosschecked by using AAS analysis.

Keywords: Quantum Dots, Sensor, quenching, Photoluminescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
13 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO/Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposite

Authors: K. Sowri Babu, P. Srinath, N. Rajeswara Rao, K. Venugopal Reddy

Abstract:

The effect of gamma ray irradiation on morphology and optical properties of ZnO/Mesoporous silica (MPS) nanocomposite was studied. The ZnO/MPS nanocomposite was irradiated with gamma rays of doses 30, 60, and 90 kGy and dose-rate of irradiation was 0.15 kGy/hour. Irradiated samples are characterized with FE-SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectrometers. SEM pictures showed that morphology changed from spherical to flake like morphology. UV-vis analysis showed that the band gap increased with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. This enhancement of the band gap is assigned to the depletion of oxygen vacancies with irradiation. The intensity of PL peak decreased gradually with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. The decrease in PL intensity is attributed to the decrease of oxygen vacancies at the interface due to poor interface and improper passivation between ZnO/MPS.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Photoluminescence, mesoporous silica, ZnO nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
12 Synthesis and Characterization of Nickel and Sulphur Sensitized Zinc Oxide Structures

Authors: Sanjay Mathur, Ella C. Linganiso, Bonex W. Mwakikunga, Trilock Singh, Odireleng M. Ntwaeaborwa

Abstract:

The use of nanostructured semiconducting material to catalyze degradation of environmental pollutants still receives much attention to date. One of the desired characteristics for pollutant degradation under ultra-violet visible light is the materials with extended carrier charge separation that allows for electronic transfer between the catalyst and the pollutants. In this work, zinc oxide n-type semiconductor vertically aligned structures were fabricated on silicon (100) substrates using the chemical bath deposition method. The as-synthesized structures were treated with nickel and sulphur. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the phase purity, structural dimensions and elemental composition of the obtained structures respectively. Photoluminescence emission measurements showed a decrease in both the near band edge emission as well as the defect band emission upon addition of nickel and sulphur with different concentrations. This was attributed to increased charger-carrier-separation due to the presence of Ni-S material on ZnO surface, which is linked to improved charge transfer during photocatalytic reactions.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, Nickel, zinc oxide, sulphur, Carrier-charge-separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
11 Spectroscopic Investigations of Nd³⁺ Doped Lithium Lead Alumino Borate Glasses for 1.06μM Laser Applications

Authors: Nisha Deopa, A. S. Rao

Abstract:

Neodymium doped lithium lead alumino borate glasses were synthesized with the molar composition 10Li₂O – 10PbO – (10-x) Al₂O₃ – 70B₂O₃ – xNd₂O₃ (where, x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol %) via conventional melt quenching technique to understand their lasing potentiality. From the absorption spectra, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters along with various spectroscopic parameters have been estimated. The emission spectra recorded for the as-prepared glasses under investigation exhibit two emission transitions, ⁴F₃/₂→⁴I₁₁/₂ (1063 nm) and ⁴F₃/₂→⁴I₉/₂ (1350 nm) for which radiative parameters have been evaluated. The emission intensity increases with increase in Nd³⁺ ion concentration up to 1 mol %, and beyond concentration quenching took place. The decay profile shows single exponential nature for lower Nd³⁺ ions concentration and non-exponential for higher concentration. To elucidate the nature of energy transfer process, non-exponential decay curves were well fitted to Inokuti-Hirayama model. The relatively high values of emission cross-section, branching ratio, lifetimes and quantum efficiency suggest that 1.0 mol% of Nd³⁺ in LiPbAlB glasses is aptly suitable to generate lasing action in NIR region at 1063 nm.

Keywords: Glasses, Energy transfer, Photoluminescence, J-O parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
10 Spectroscopic Studies of Dy³⁺ Ions in Alkaline-Earth Boro Tellurite Glasses for Optoelectronic Devices

Authors: K. Swapna

Abstract:

A Series of Alkali-Earth Boro Tellurite (AEBT) glasses doped with different concentrations of Dy³⁺ ions have been prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized through spectroscopic techniques such as optical absorption, excitation, emission and photoluminescence decay to understand their utility in optoelectronic devices such as lasers and white light emitting diodes (w-LEDs). Raman spectrum recorded for an undoped glass is used to measure the phonon energy of the host glass and various functional groups present in the host glass (AEBT). The intensities of the electronic transitions and the ligand environment around the Dy³⁺ ions were studied by applying Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory to the recorded absorption spectra of the glasses. The evaluated J-O parameters are subsequently used to measure various radiative parameters such as transition probability (AR), radiative branching ratio (βR) and radiative lifetimes (τR) for the prominent fluorescent levels of Dy³⁺ ions in the as-prepared glasses. The luminescence spectra recorded at 387 nm excitation show three emission transitions (⁴F9/2→⁶H15/2 (blue), ⁴F9/2→⁶H13/2 (yellow) and ⁴F9/2 → ⁶H11/2 (red)) of which the yellow transition observed at 575 nm is found to be highly intense. The experimental branching ratio (βexp) and stimulated emission crosssection (σse) were measured from luminescence spectra. The experimental lifetimes (τexp) measured from the decay spectral profiles are combined with radiative lifetimes to measure quantum efficiencies of the as-prepared glasses. The yellow to blue intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates are found to vary with Dy³⁺ ion concentrations. The aforementioned results reveal that these glasses are aptly suitable for w-LEDs and laser devices.

Keywords: Glasses, Photoluminescence, J-O parameters, I-H model

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
9 Spectroscopic Study of Eu³⁺ Ions Doped Potassium Lead Alumino Borate Glasses for Photonic Device Application

Authors: Allam Srinivasa Rao, Nisha Deopa

Abstract:

Quaternary potassium lead alumino borate (KPbAlB) glasses doped with different concentration of Eu³⁺ ions have been synthesized by melt quench technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Photoluminescence (PL), Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and CIE-chromaticity co-ordinates to study their luminescence behavior. A broad hump was observed in XRD spectrum confirms glassy nature of as-prepared glasses. By using Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory, various radiative parameters for the prominent fluorescent levels of Eu³⁺ have been investigated. The intense emission peak was observed at 613 nm (⁵D₀→⁷F₂) under 393 nm excitation, matches well with the excitation of n-UV LED chips. The decay profiles observed for ⁵D₀ level were exponential for lower Eu³⁺ ion concentration while non-exponential for higher concentration, which may be due to efficient energy transfer between Eu³⁺-Eu³⁺ through cross relaxation and subsequent quenching observed. From the emission cross-sections, branching ratios, quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates, it was concluded that 7 mol % of Eu³⁺ ion concentration (glass B) is optimum in KPbAlB glasses for photonic device application.

Keywords: Glasses, Energy transfer, Photoluminescence, J-O parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
8 Spectroscopic Study of Tb³⁺ Doped Calcium Aluminozincate Phosphor for Display and Solid-State Lighting Applications

Authors: Allam Srinivasa Rao, Sumandeep Kaur, Mula Jayasimhadri

Abstract:

In recent years, rare earth (RE) ions doped inorganic luminescent materials are seeking great attention due to their excellent physical and chemical properties. These materials offer high thermal and chemical stability and exhibit good luminescence properties due to the presence of RE ions. The luminescent properties of these materials are attributed to their intra-configurational f-f transitions in RE ions. A series of Tb³⁺ doped calcium aluminozincate has been synthesized via sol-gel method. The structural and morphological studies have been carried out by recording X-ray diffraction patterns and SEM image. The luminescent spectra have been recorded for a comprehensive study of their luminescence properties. The XRD profile reveals the single-phase orthorhombic crystal structure with an average crystallite size of 65 nm as calculated by using DebyeScherrer equation. The SEM image exhibits completely random, irregular morphology of micron size particles of the prepared samples. The optimization of luminescence has been carried out by varying the dopant Tb³⁺ concentration within the range from 0.5 to 2.0 mol%. The as-synthesized phosphors exhibit intense emission at 544 nm pumped at 478 nm excitation wavelength. The optimized Tb³⁺ concentration has been found to be 1.0 mol% in the present host lattice. The decay curves show bi-exponential fitting for the as-synthesized phosphor. The colorimetric studies show green emission with CIE coordinates (0.334, 0.647) lying in green region for the optimized Tb³⁺ concentration. This report reveals the potential utility of Tb³⁺ doped calcium aluminozincate phosphors for display and solid-state lighting devices.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, XRD, phosphor, concentration quenching

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
7 Organic Light Emitting Devices Based on Low Symmetry Coordination Structured Lanthanide Complexes

Authors: Zubair Ahmed, Andrea Barbieri

Abstract:

The need to reduce energy consumption has prompted a considerable research effort for developing alternative energy-efficient lighting systems to replace conventional light sources (i.e., incandescent and fluorescent lamps). Organic light emitting device (OLED) technology offers the distinctive possibility to fabricate large area flat devices by vacuum or solution processing. Lanthanide β-diketonates complexes, due to unique photophysical properties of Ln(III) ions, have been explored as emitting layers in OLED displays and in solid-state lighting (SSL) in order to achieve high efficiency and color purity. For such applications, the excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and stability are the two key points that can be achieved simply by selecting the proper organic ligands around the Ln ion in a coordination sphere. Regarding the strategies to enhance the PLQY, the most common is the suppression of the radiationless deactivation pathways due to the presence of high-frequency oscillators (e.g., OH, –CH groups) around the Ln centre. Recently, a different approach to maximize the PLQY of Ln(β-DKs) has been proposed (named 'Escalate Coordination Anisotropy', ECA). It is based on the assumption that coordinating the Ln ion with different ligands will break the centrosymmetry of the molecule leading to less forbidden transitions (loosening the constraints of the Laporte rule). The OLEDs based on such complexes are available, but with low efficiency and stability. In order to get efficient devices, there is a need to develop some new Ln complexes with enhanced PLQYs and stabilities. For this purpose, the Ln complexes, both visible and (NIR) emitting, of variant coordination structures based on the various fluorinated/non-fluorinated β-diketones and O/N-donor neutral ligands were synthesized using a one step in situ method. In this method, the β-diketones, base, LnCl₃.nH₂O and neutral ligands were mixed in a 3:3:1:1 M ratio in ethanol that gave air and moisture stable complexes. Further, they were characterized by means of elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Thereafter, their photophysical properties were studied to select the best complexes for the fabrication of stable and efficient OLEDs. Finally, the OLEDs were fabricated and investigated using these complexes as emitting layers along with other organic layers like NPB,N,N′-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (hole-transporting layer), BCP, 2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (hole-blocker) and Alq3 (electron-transporting layer). The layers were sequentially deposited under high vacuum environment by thermal evaporation onto ITO glass substrates. Moreover, co-deposition techniques were used to improve charge transport in the devices and to avoid quenching phenomena. The devices show strong electroluminescence at 612, 998, 1064 and 1534 nm corresponding to ⁵D₀ →⁷F₂(Eu), ²F₅/₂ → ²F₇/₂ (Yb), ⁴F₃/₂→ ⁴I₉/₂ (Nd) and ⁴I1₃/₂→ ⁴I1₅/₂ (Er). All the devices fabricated show good efficiency as well as stability.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, electroluminescence, lanthanides, paramagnetic NMR

Procedia PDF Downloads 9