Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Photogrammetry Related Abstracts

11 An Investigation of Direct and Indirect Geo-Referencing Techniques on the Accuracy of Points in Photogrammetry

Authors: F. Yildiz, S. Y. Oturanc

Abstract:

Advances technology in the field of photogrammetry replaces analog cameras with reflection on aircraft GPS/IMU system with a digital aerial camera. In this system, when determining the position of the camera with the GPS, camera rotations are also determined by the IMU systems. All around the world, digital aerial cameras have been used for the photogrammetry applications in the last ten years. In this way, in terms of the work done in photogrammetry it is possible to use time effectively, costs to be reduced to a minimum level, the opportunity to make fast and accurate. Geo-referencing techniques that are the cornerstone of the GPS / INS systems, photogrammetric triangulation of images required for balancing (interior and exterior orientation) brings flexibility to the process. Also geo-referencing process; needed in the application of photogrammetry targets to help to reduce the number of ground control points. In this study, the use of direct and indirect geo-referencing techniques on the accuracy of the points was investigated in the production of photogrammetric mapping.

Keywords: Photogrammetry, GPS/IMU systems, geo-referecing, digital aerial camera

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10 The Effect of Fixing Kinesiology Tape onto the Plantar Surface during Loading Phase of Gait

Authors: Albert K. Chong, Jasim Ahmed Ali Al-Baghdadi, Peter B. Milburn

Abstract:

Precise capture of plantar 3D surface of the foot at the loading gait phases on rigid substrate was found to be valuable for the assessment of the physiology, health and problems of the feet. Photogrammetry, a precision 3D spatial data capture technique is suitable for this type of dynamic application. In this research, the technique is utilised to study of the effect on the plantar deformation for having a strip of kinesiology tape on the plantar surface while going through the loading phase of gait. For this pilot study, one healthy adult male subject was recruited under the USQ University human research ethics guidelines for this preliminary study. The 3D plantar deformation data of both with and without applying the tape were analysed. The results and analyses are presented together with the detail of the findings.

Keywords: Photogrammetry, gait, human plantar, plantar loading, kinesiology tape

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9 Satellite Photogrammetry for DEM Generation Using Stereo Pair and Automatic Extraction of Terrain Parameters

Authors: Tridipa Biswas, Kamal Pandey

Abstract:

A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is a simple representation of a surface in 3 dimensional space with elevation as the third dimension along with X (horizontal coordinates) and Y (vertical coordinates) in rectangular coordinates. DEM has wide applications in various fields like disaster management, hydrology and watershed management, geomorphology, urban development, map creation and resource management etc. Cartosat-1 or IRS P5 (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) is a state-of-the-art remote sensing satellite built by ISRO (May 5, 2005) which is mainly intended for cartographic applications.Cartosat-1 is equipped with two panchromatic cameras capable of simultaneous acquiring images of 2.5 meters spatial resolution. One camera is looking at +26 degrees forward while another looks at –5 degrees backward to acquire stereoscopic imagery with base to height ratio of 0.62. The time difference between acquiring of the stereopair images is approximately 52 seconds. The high resolution stereo data have great potential to produce high-quality DEM. The high-resolution Cartosat-1 stereo image data is expected to have significant impact in topographic mapping and watershed applications. The objective of the present study is to generate high-resolution DEM, quality evaluation in different elevation strata, generation of ortho-rectified image and associated accuracy assessment from CARTOSAT-1 data based Ground Control Points (GCPs) for Aglar watershed (Tehri-Garhwal and Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India). The present study reveals that generated DEMs (10m and 30m) derived from the CARTOSAT-1 stereo pair is much better and accurate when compared with existing DEMs (ASTER and CARTO DEM) also for different terrain parameters like slope, aspect, drainage, watershed boundaries etc., which are derived from the generated DEMs, have better accuracy and results when compared with the other two (ASTER and CARTO) DEMs derived terrain parameters.

Keywords: Photogrammetry, RPC, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), ASTER-DEM, CARTO-DEM, CARTOSAT-1, ortho-rectified image, stereo pair, terrain parameters

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8 3D Point Cloud Model Color Adjustment by Combining Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Close Range Photogrammetry Datasets

Authors: M. Pepe, S. Ackermann, L. Fregonese, C. Achille

Abstract:

3D models obtained with advanced survey techniques such as close-range photogrammetry and laser scanner are nowadays particularly appreciated in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology fields. In order to produce high quality models representing archaeological evidences and anthropological artifacts, the appearance of the model (i.e. color) beyond the geometric accuracy, is not a negligible aspect. The integration of the close-range photogrammetry survey techniques with the laser scanner is still a topic of study and research. By combining point cloud data sets of the same object generated with both technologies, or with the same technology but registered in different moment and/or natural light condition, could construct a final point cloud with accentuated color dissimilarities. In this paper, a methodology to uniform the different data sets, to improve the chromatic quality and to highlight further details by balancing the point color will be presented.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage, Photogrammetry, color models, laser scanner

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7 Comparison between Photogrammetric and Structure from Motion Techniques in Processing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Imageries

Authors: Ahmed Elaksher

Abstract:

Over the last few years, significant progresses have been made and new approaches have been proposed for efficient collection of 3D spatial data from Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with reduced costs compared to imagery from satellite or manned aircraft. In these systems, a low-cost GPS unit provides the position, velocity of the vehicle, a low-quality inertial measurement unit (IMU) determines its orientation, and off-the-shelf cameras capture the images. Structure from Motion (SfM) and photogrammetry are the main tools for 3D surface reconstruction from images collected by these systems. Unlike traditional techniques, SfM allows the computation of calibration parameters using point correspondences across images without performing a rigorous laboratory or field calibration process and it is more flexible in that it does not require consistent image overlap or same rotation angles between successive photos. These benefits make SfM ideal for UAVs aerial mapping. In this paper, a direct comparison between SfM Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and those generated through traditional photogrammetric techniques was performed. Data was collected by a 3DR IRIS+ Quadcopter with a Canon PowerShot S100 digital camera. Twenty ground control points were randomly distributed on the ground and surveyed with a total station in a local coordinate system. Images were collected from an altitude of 30 meters with a ground resolution of nine mm/pixel. Data was processed with PhotoScan, VisualSFM, Imagine Photogrammetry, and a photogrammetric algorithm developed by the author. The algorithm starts with performing a laboratory camera calibration then the acquired imagery undergoes an orientation procedure to determine the cameras’ positions and orientations. After the orientation is attained, correlation based image matching is conducted to automatically generate three-dimensional surface models followed by a refining step using sub-pixel image information for high matching accuracy. Tests with different number and configurations of the control points were conducted. Camera calibration parameters estimated from commercial software and those obtained with laboratory procedures were comparable. Exposure station positions were within less than few centimeters and insignificant differences, within less than three seconds, among orientation angles were found. DEM differencing was performed between generated DEMs and few centimeters vertical shifts were found.

Keywords: Photogrammetry, UAV, DEM, SfM

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6 Resilience Assessment for Power Distribution Systems

Authors: Mahdi Safa, Berna Eren Tokgoz, Seokyon Hwang

Abstract:

Power distribution systems are essential and crucial infrastructures for the development and maintenance of a sustainable society. These systems are extremely vulnerable to various types of natural and man-made disasters. The assessment of resilience focuses on preparedness and mitigation actions under pre-disaster conditions. It also concentrates on response and recovery actions under post-disaster situations. The aim of this study is to present a methodology to assess the resilience of electric power distribution poles against wind-related events. The proposed methodology can improve the accuracy and rapidity of the evaluation of the conditions and the assessment of the resilience of poles. The methodology provides a metric for the evaluation of the resilience of poles under pre-disaster and post-disaster conditions. The metric was developed using mathematical expressions for physical forces that involve various variables, such as physical dimensions of the pole, the inclination of the pole, and wind speed. A three-dimensional imaging technology (photogrammetry) was used to determine the inclination of poles. Based on expert opinion, the proposed metric was used to define zones to visualize resilience. Visual representation of resilience is helpful for decision makers to prioritize their resources before and after experiencing a wind-related disaster. Multiple electric poles in the City of Beaumont, TX were used in a case study to evaluate the proposed methodology.  

Keywords: Photogrammetry, Power Distribution Systems, System Resilience, resilience metric, wind-related disasters

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5 Accuracy of Autonomy Navigation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems through Imagery

Authors: Sidney A. Lima, Hermann J. H. Kux, Elcio H. Shiguemori

Abstract:

The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) usually navigate through the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) associated with an Inertial Navigation System (INS). However, GNSS can have its accuracy degraded at any time or even turn off the signal of GNSS. In addition, there is the possibility of malicious interferences, known as jamming. Therefore, the image navigation system can solve the autonomy problem, because if the GNSS is disabled or degraded, the image navigation system would continue to provide coordinate information for the INS, allowing the autonomy of the system. This work aims to evaluate the accuracy of the positioning though photogrammetry concepts. The methodology uses orthophotos and Digital Surface Models (DSM) as a reference to represent the object space and photograph obtained during the flight to represent the image space. For the calculation of the coordinates of the perspective center and camera attitudes, it is necessary to know the coordinates of homologous points in the object space (orthophoto coordinates and DSM altitude) and image space (column and line of the photograph). So if it is possible to automatically identify in real time the homologous points the coordinates and attitudes can be calculated whit their respective accuracies. With the methodology applied in this work, it is possible to verify maximum errors in the order of 0.5 m in the positioning and 0.6º in the attitude of the camera, so the navigation through the image can reach values equal to or higher than the GNSS receivers without differential correction. Therefore, navigating through the image is a good alternative to enable autonomous navigation.

Keywords: Security, Remote Sensing, Photogrammetry, Navigation, Autonomy, UAS, spatial resection

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4 Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs Using Prestressing Bars

Authors: Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi, Haifa Saleh, Kamiran Abduka

Abstract:

The effectiveness of using pre-stressing steel bars for shear strengthening of high strength reinforced concrete (RC) slabs was assessed. Two large-scale RC slabs were tested, one without shear reinforcement and the second strengthened against punching shear failure using pre-stressing steel bars. The two slabs had the same dimensions, flexural reinforcement ratio, loading and support arrangements. The experimental program including the method of strengthening, set up and instrumentation are described in this paper. The experimental results are analyzed and discussed in terms of the structural behavior of the RC slabs, the performance of pre-stressing steel bolts and failure modes. The results confirmed that the shear strengthening technique increased the shear capacity, ductility and yield capacity of the slab by up to 15%, 44%, and 22%, respectively compared to the unstrengthened slab. The strengthening technique also successfully contributed to changing the failure mode from a brittle punching shear mode to ductile flexural failure mode. Vic3D digital image correlation system (photogrammetry) was also used in this research. This technique holds several advantages over traditional contact instrumentations including that it is inexpensive, it produces results that are simple to analyze and it is remote visualization technique. The displacement profile along the span of the slab and rotation has been found and compared with the results obtained from traditional sensors. The performance of the photogrammetry technique was very good and the results of both measurements were in very close agreement.

Keywords: Photogrammetry, Strengthening, flat slab, punching shear

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3 3D Printing for Maritime Cultural Heritage: A Design for All Approach to Public Interpretation

Authors: Anne Eugenia Wright

Abstract:

This study examines issues in accessibility to maritime cultural heritage. Using the Pillar Dollar Wreck in Biscayne National Park, Florida, this study presents an approach to public outreach based on the concept of Design for All. Design for All advocates creating products that are accessible and functional for all users, including those with visual, hearing, learning, mobility, or economic impairments. As a part of this study, a small exhibit was created that uses 3D products as a way to bring maritime cultural heritage to the public. It was presented to the public at East Carolina University’s Joyner Library. Additionally, this study presents a methodology for 3D printing scaled photogrammetry models of archaeological sites in full color. This methodology can be used to present a realistic depiction of underwater archaeological sites to those who are incapable of accessing them in the water. Additionally, this methodology can be used to present underwater archaeological sites that are inaccessible to the public due to conditions such as visibility, depth, or protected status. This study presents a practical use for 3D photogrammetry models, as well as an accessibility strategy to expand the outreach potential for maritime archaeology.

Keywords: Photogrammetry, underwater archaeology, Design for All

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2 Approach for Updating a Digital Factory Model by Photogrammetry

Authors: R. Hellmuth, F. Wehner

Abstract:

Factory planning has the task of designing products, plants, processes, organization, areas, and the construction of a factory. The requirements for factory planning and the building of a factory have changed in recent years. Regular restructuring is becoming more important in order to maintain the competitiveness of a factory. Restrictions in new areas, shorter life cycles of product and production technology as well as a VUCA world (Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity & Ambiguity) lead to more frequent restructuring measures within a factory. A digital factory model is the planning basis for rebuilding measures and becomes an indispensable tool. Short-term rescheduling can no longer be handled by on-site inspections and manual measurements. The tight time schedules require up-to-date planning models. Due to the high adaptation rate of factories described above, a methodology for rescheduling factories on the basis of a modern digital factory twin is conceived and designed for practical application in factory restructuring projects. The focus is on rebuild processes. The aim is to keep the planning basis (digital factory model) for conversions within a factory up to date. This requires the application of a methodology that reduces the deficits of existing approaches. The aim is to show how a digital factory model can be kept up to date during ongoing factory operation. A method based on photogrammetry technology is presented. The focus is on developing a simple and cost-effective solution to track the many changes that occur in a factory building during operation. The method is preceded by a hardware and software comparison to identify the most economical and fastest variant. 

Keywords: Photogrammetry, Factory Planning, restructuring, digital factory model

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1 Project Controlling of Construction Sites by Unmanned Aerial Systems and Photogrammetry

Authors: Tino Walther, Christian Wolf, Hans-Joachim Bargstaedt

Abstract:

Continuous project control is crucial for the benefit of smooth progress in construction projects. It implies the comparison of the target model with the actual situation of the building site when done on the basis of digital design. Due to the continuous development of the unmanned aerial systems (UAS) technology and its decreasing costs, this technology offers itself to be implemented as a controlling system with UAS-mounted photogrammetry. The aim of this work is to gain a comprehensive insight into project controlling via UAS photogrammetry and to give an example of implementation by a real case project. This serves to examine a real construction project in regard to the controlling at predefined periods and according to its costs and benefits. With the help of continuous imaging of construction progress, as well as the boundary conditions of the construction process, an exact controlling of as-built data is carried out, which lead to the potential that the parties involved in the construction can react to possible shifts in execution on short term and short notice. The generated as-planned simulation model can also be used to identify possible structural deviations. By enlarging this BIM model to 5D, the costs are also monitored during the construction phase. A photogrammetric construction project controlling process can be modeled using UAS. Especially the fast implementation of UAS-devices for photogrammetry on the construction site and the relatively low costs prove to be great advantages. Thus an automated and practical project controlling will be developed. This implementation proves that a photogrammetric UAS controlling for construction projects is feasible.

Keywords: Decision Support Systems, Photogrammetry, bim, UAS, construction progress

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