Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Photoelasticity Related Abstracts

3 Photoelastic Analysis of the Proximal Femur in Deviations of the Mechanical Axis of the Lower Limb

Authors: S. F. Fakhouri, M.M. Shimano, D. Maranho, C. A. Araújo, M. V. Guimarães, A. C. Shimano, J. B. Volpon


Pathological deviations of the mechanical axis of the lower limbs deeply alter the stress distributions on the femur and tibia and the hip, knee, and ankle articulations. The purpose of this research was to assess the effects of pathological deviations in different levels of the lower limbs in the distribution of stress in the proximal femur region using photoelasticity of plane transmission. For most of the types of deviations studied, the results showed that the internal stress was generally higher in the calcar region than in the trochanteric region, followed by the third distal of the femur head. This study allowed for the development of better criteria for the correction of angular deviations and helped identify the deviations that are most harmful to the mechanical axis in terms of the effects on the bone and the articular effort of the lower limbs. These results will lead to future improvements in studies on prostheses.

Keywords: stress, Photoelasticity, alignment, deviations, inferior limbs, mechanical axis

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2 Stress Analysis of Vertebra Using Photoelastic and Finite Element Methods

Authors: Jamal A. Hassan, Ali Q. Abdulrazzaq, Sadiq J. Abass


In this study, both the photoelastic, as well as the finite element methods, are used to study the stress distribution within human vertebra (L4) under forces similar to those that occur during normal life. Two & three dimensional models of vertebra were created by the software AutoCAD. The coordinates obtained were fed into a computer numerical control (CNC) tensile machine to fabricate the models from photoelastic sheets. Completed models were placed in a transmission polariscope and loaded with static force (up to 1500N). Stresses can be quantified and localized by counting the number of fringes. In both methods the Principle stresses were calculated at different regions. The results noticed that the maximum von-mises stress on the area of the extreme superior vertebral body surface and the facet surface with high normal stress (σ) and shear stress (τ). The facets and other posterior elements have a load-bearing function to help support the weight of the upper body and anything that it carries, and are also acted upon by spinal muscle forces. The numerical FE results have been compared with the experimental method using photoelasticity which shows good agreement between experimental and simulation results.

Keywords: stress, Photoelasticity, finite element, load

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1 Photoelastic Analysis and Finite Elements Analysis of a Stress Field Developed in a Double Edge Notched Specimen

Authors: S. Larbi, S. Djebali, A. Bilek, M. Beldi, T. Cherfi


Finite elements analysis and photoelasticity are used to determine the stress field developed in a double edge notched specimen loaded in tension. The specimen is cut in a birefringent plate. Experimental isochromatic fringes are obtained with circularly polarized light on the analyzer of a regular polariscope. The fringes represent the loci of points of equal maximum shear stress. In order to obtain the stress values corresponding to the fringe orders recorded in the notched specimen, particularly in the neighborhood of the notches, a calibrating disc made of the same material is loaded in compression along its diameter in order to determine the photoelastic fringe value. This fringe value is also used in the finite elements solution in order to obtain the simulated photoelastic fringes, the isochromatics as well as the isoclinics. A color scale is used by the software to represent the simulated fringes on the whole model. The stress concentration factor can be readily obtained at the notches. Good agreements are obtained between the experimental and the simulated fringe patterns and between the graphs of the shear stress particularly in the neighborhood of the notches. The purpose in this paper is to show that one can obtain rapidly and accurately, by the finite element analysis, the isochromatic and the isoclinic fringe patterns in a stressed model as the experimental procedure can be time consuming. Stress fields can therefore be analyzed in three dimensional models as long as the meshing and the limit conditions are properly set in the program.

Keywords: Photoelasticity, stress concentration factor, isochromatic fringe, isoclinic fringe

Procedia PDF Downloads 122