Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Phosphorus Related Abstracts

24 Osmotic Dehydration of Fruit Slices in Concentrated Sugar Solution

Authors: Farid Amidi Fazli, Neda Amidi Fazli

Abstract:

Enriched fruits by minerals provide minerals which are needed to human body the minerals are used by body cells for daily activities. This paper indicates the result of mass transfer in fruit slices in 55% sucrose syrup in presence of calcium and phosphorus ions. Osmosis agent 55% (w/w) was prepared by solving sucrose in deionized water and adding calcium or phosphorus in 1 and 2% concentration. Dry matter, solid gain, water loss as well as weight reduction were calculated. Results showed that by increasing of calcium concentration in osmosis solution solid gain, water loss and weight reduction were increased in short experiment time in kiwi fruit but the parameters decreased in long experiment time by concentration increasing and rise of calcium concentration caused decrease of osmosis parameters in banana. In the case of phosphorus, increasing of ion concentration had adverse effect on all treatments, this may be due to different osmosis force that is created by two types of ions. The mentioned parameters decreased in all treatments by increasing of ion concentration. Highest mass transfer in kiwi fruit occurs when 1% calcium solution applied for 60 minutes, values obtained for solid gain, water loss and weight reduction were 42.60, 51.97, and 9.37 respectively. In the case of banana, when 2% phosphorus concentration was applied as osmosis agent for 60 minutes highest values for solid gain, water loss and weight reduction obtained as 21, 25.84, and 4.84 respectively.

Keywords: Concentration, Calcium, Phosphorus, osmotic dehydration

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23 Simulation of 'Net' Nutrients Removal by Green Mussel (Perna viridis) in Estuarine and Coastal Areas

Authors: Chayarat Tantanasarit, Sandhya Babel

Abstract:

Green mussels (Perna viridis) can effectively remove nutrients from seawater through their filtration process. This study aims to estimate 'net' nutrient removal rate by green mussel through calculation of nutrient uptake and release. Nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) uptake was calculated based on the mussel filtration rate. Nutrient release was evaluated from carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus released as mussel feces. By subtracting nutrient release from nutrient uptake, net nutrient removal by green mussel can be found as 3302, 380 and 124 mg/year/indv. Mass balance model was employed to simulate nutrient removal in actual green mussel farming conditions. Mussels farm area, seawater flow rate and amount of mussels were considered in the model. Results show that although larger quantity of green mussel farms lead to higher nutrient removal rate, the maximum green mussel cultivation should be taken into consideration as nutrients released through mussel excretion can strongly affect marine ecosystem.

Keywords: Carbon, Nitrogen, Filtration, Phosphorus, ecretion

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22 Effects of Molybdenum on Phosphorus Concentration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Hamed Zakikhani, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Amin Soltangheisi

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A hydroponic trial was carried out to investigate the effect of molybdenum (Mo) on uptake of phosphorus (P) in different rice cultivars. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete-block design, with a split-plot arrangement of treatments and three replications. Four rates of Mo (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg L−1) and five cultivars (MR219, HASHEMI, MR232, FAJRE and MR253) provided the main and sub-plots, respectively. Interaction of molybdenum×variety was significant on shoot phosphorus uptake (p≤0.01). Highest and lowest shoot phosphorus uptake were seen in Mo3V3 (0.6% plant-1) and Mo0V3 (0.14% plant-1) treatments, respectively. Molybdenum did not have a significant effect on root phosphorus content. According to results, application of molybdenum has a synergistic effect on uptake of phosphorus by rice plants.

Keywords: Molybdenum, uptake, Rice, Phosphorus

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21 The Effects of Organic or Inorganic Zinc and Microbial Phytase, Alone or in Combination, on the Performance, Biochemical Parameters and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers Fed a Diet Low in Available Phosphorus

Authors: Mustafa Salman, Mustafa Midilli, Omer Hakan Muglali, Tülay Ögretmen, Sena Cenesiz, Neslihan Ormanci

Abstract:

This study examined the effects of zinc (Zn) from different sources and microbial phytase on the broiler performance, biochemical parameters and digestibility of nutrients when they were added to broiler diets containing low available phosphorus. A total of 875, 1-day-old male broilers of the Ross 308 strain were randomly separated into two control groups (positive and negative) and five treatment groups each containing 125 birds; each group was divided into 5 replicates of 25 birds. The positive control (PC) group was fed a diet containing adequate concentration (0.45%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The negative control (NC) group was fed a basal diet including low concentration (0.30%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.30% phosphorus and 500 FTU phytase (PH); 0.30% phosphorus and organic zinc (OZ; 75mg/kg of Zn from Zn-proteinate); 0.30% phosphorus and inorganic zinc (IZ; 75 mg/kg of Zn from ZnSO4); 0.30% phosphorus, organic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (OZ + PH); and 0.30% phosphorus, inorganic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (IZ + PH) in the treatment groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The lowest value for mean body weight was in the negative control group on a diet containing low available phosphorus. The use of supplementation with organic and inorganic zinc alone or in combination with microbial phytase significantly (P<0.05) increased the digestibility of Zn in the male broilers. Supplementation of those diets with OZ + PH or IZ + PH was very effective for increasing the body weight, body weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. In conclusion, the effects on broilers of diets with low phosphorus levels may be overcome by the addition of inorganic or organic zinc compounds in combination with microbial phytase.

Keywords: Performance, Phosphorus, broiler, phytase, zinc

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20 High Phosphate-Containing Foods and Beverages: Perceptions of the Future Healthcare Providers on Their Harmful Effect in Excessive Consumption

Authors: ATM Emdadul Haque

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Phosphorus is an essential nutrient which is regularly consumed with food and exists in the body as phosphate. Phosphate is an important component of cellular structures and needed for bone mineralization. Excessive accumulation of phosphate is an important driving factor of mortality in chronic renal failure patients; of relevance, these patients are usually provided health care by doctors, nurses, and pharmacists. Hence, this study was planned to determine the level of awareness of the future healthcare providers about the phosphate-containing foods and beverages and to access their knowledge on the harmful effects of excess phosphate consumption. A questionnaire was developed and distributed among the year-1 medical, nursing and pharmacy students. 432 medical, nursing and pharmacy students responded with age ranging from 18-24 years. About 70% of the respondents were female with a majority (90.7%) from Malay ethnicity. Among the respondents, 29.9% were medical, 35.4% were the pharmacy and 34.7% were nursing students. 79.2% students knew that phosphate was an important component of the body, but only 61.8% knew that consuming too much phosphate could be harmful to the body. Despite 97% of the students knew that carbonated soda contained high sugar, surprisingly 77% of them did not know the presence of high phosphate in the same soda drinks; in the similar line of observation, 67% did not know the presence of it in the fast food. However, it was encouraging that 94% of the students wanted to know more about the effects of phosphate consumption, 74.3% were willing to give up drinking soda and eating fast food, and 52% considered taking green coconut water instead of soda drinks. It is, therefore, central to take an educational initiative to increase the awareness of the future healthcare providers about phosphate-containing food and its harmful effects in excessive consumptions.

Keywords: Phosphorus, high phosphate containing foods and beverages, excessive consumption, future health care providers

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19 Gamma Irradiated Sodium Alginate and Phosphorus Fertilizer Enhances Seed Trigonelline Content, Biochemical Parameters and Yield Attributes of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)

Authors: Moinuddin, M. Masroor A. Khan, Tariq Ahmad Dar

Abstract:

There is considerable need in enhancing the content and yield of active constituents of medicinal plants keeping in view their massive demand worldwide. Different strategies have been employed to enhance the active constituents of medicinal plants and the use of phytohormones has been proved effective in this regard. Gamma-irradiated Sodium alginate (ISA) is known to elicit an array of plant defense responses and biological activities in plants. Considering the medicinal importance, a pot experiment was conducted to explore the effect of ISA and phosphorus on growth, yield and quality of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). ISA spray treatments (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1) were applied alone and in combination with 40 kg P ha-1 (P40). Crop performance was assessed in terms of plant growth characteristics, physiological attributes, seed yield and the content of seed trigonelline. Of the ten-treatments, P40 + 80 mg L−1 of ISA proved the best. The results showed that foliar spray of ISA alone or in combination with P40 augmented the plant vegetative growth, enzymatic activities, trigonelline content, trigonelline yield and economic yield of fenugreek. Application of 80 mg L−1 of ISA applied with P40 gave the best results for almost all the parameters studied compared to control or to 80 mg L−1 of ISA applied alone. This treatment increased the total content of chlorophyll, carotenoids, leaf -N, -P and -K and trigonelline compared to the control by 24.85 and 27.40%, 15 and 23.52%, 18.70 and 16.84%, 15.88 and 18.92%, 12 and 14.44%, at 60 and 90 DAS respectively. The combined application of 80 mg L−1 of ISA along with P40 resulted in the maximum increase in seed yield, trigonelline content and trigonelline yield by146, 34 and 232.41%, respectively, over the control. Gel permeation chromatography revealed the formation of low molecular weight fractions in ISA samples, containing even less than 20,000 molecular weight oligomers, which might be responsible for plant growth promotion in this study. Trigonelline content was determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with C-18 column.

Keywords: HPLC, Yield, Phosphorus, gamma-irradiated sodium alginate, gel permeation chromatography, trigonelline content

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18 Wastewater Treatment Using Microalgae

Authors: Chigbo Ikechukwu Emmanuel

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Microalgae can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater due to their capacity to assimilate nutrients. The pH increase which is mediated by the growing algae also induces phosphorus precipitation and ammonia stripping to the air, and may in addition act disinfecting on the wastewater. Domestic wastewater is ideal for algal growth since it contains high concentrations of all necessary nutrients. The growth limiting factor is rather light, especially at higher latitudes. The most important operational factors for successful wastewater treatment with microalgae are depth, turbulence and hydraulic retention time.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Growth, Nitrogen, operation, Light, Microalgae, Phosphorus, ponds

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17 How Does Vicia faba-rhizobia Symbiosis Improve Its Performance under Low Phosphorus Availability?

Authors: B. Makoudi, R. Ghanimi, M. Mouradi, A. Kabbadj, M. Farissi, J. J. Drevon, C. Ghoulam

Abstract:

This work focuses on the responses of Vicia fabarhizobia symbiosis to phosphorus deficiency and their contribution to tolerate this constraint. The study was carried out on four faba bean varieties, Aguadulce, Alfia, Luz Otono, and Reina Mora submitted to two phosphorus treatments, deficient and sufficient and cultivated under field and greenhouse hydroaeroponic culture. Plants were harvested at flowering stage for growth, nodulation and phosphorus content assessment. Phosphatases in nodules and rhizospheric soil were analyzed. The impact of phosphorus deficiency on yield component was assessed at maturity stage. Under field conditions, phosphorus deficiency affected negatively nodule biomass and nodule phosphorus content with Alfia and Reina Mora showing the highest biomass reduction. The phosphatase activities in nodules and rhizospheric soil were increased under phosphorus deficiency. At maturity stage, under soil low available phosphorus, the pods number and 100 seeds weight were reduced. The genotypic variation was evident for almost all tested parameters.

Keywords: Yield, Phosphorus, rhizobia, faba bean

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16 Active Filtration of Phosphorus in Ca-Rich Hydrated Oil Shale Ash Filters: The Effect of Organic Loading and Form of Precipitated Phosphatic Material

Authors: Päärn Paiste, Margit Kõiv, Riho Mõtlep, Kalle Kirsimäe

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For small-scale wastewater management, the treatment wetlands (TWs) as a low cost alternative to conventional treatment facilities, can be used. However, P removal capacity of TW systems is usually problematic. P removal in TWs is mainly dependent on the physico–chemical and hydrological properties of the filter material. Highest P removal efficiency has been shown trough Ca-phosphate precipitation (i.e. active filtration) in Ca-rich alkaline filter materials, e.g. industrial by-products like hydrated oil shale ash (HOSA), metallurgical slags. In this contribution we report preliminary results of a full-scale TW system using HOSA material for P removal for a municipal wastewater at Nõo site, Estonia. The main goals of this ongoing project are to evaluate: a) the long-term P removal efficiency of HOSA using real waste water; b) the effect of high organic loading rate; c) variable P-loading effects on the P removal mechanism (adsorption/direct precipitation); and d) the form and composition of phosphate precipitates. Onsite full-scale experiment with two concurrent filter systems for treatment of municipal wastewater was established in September 2013. System’s pretreatment steps include septic tank (2 m2) and vertical down-flow LECA filters (3 m2 each), followed by horizontal subsurface HOSA filters (effective volume 8 m3 each). Overall organic and hydraulic loading rates of both systems are the same. However, the first system is operated in a stable hydraulic loading regime and the second in variable loading regime that imitates the wastewater production in an average household. Piezometers for water and perforated sample containers for filter material sampling were incorporated inside the filter beds to allow for continuous in-situ monitoring. During the 18 months of operation the median removal efficiency (inflow to outflow) of both systems were over 99% for TP, 93% for COD and 57% for TN. However, we observed significant differences in the samples collected in different points inside the filter systems. In both systems, we observed development of preferred flow paths and zones with high and low loadings. The filters show formation and a gradual advance of a “dead” zone along the flow path (zone with saturated filter material characterized by ineffective removal rates), which develops more rapidly in the system working under variable loading regime. The formation of the “dead” zone is accompanied by the growth of organic substances on the filter material particles that evidently inhibit the P removal. Phase analysis of used filter materials using X-ray diffraction method reveals formation of minor amounts of amorphous Ca-phosphate precipitates. This finding is supported by ATR-FTIR and SEM-EDS measurements, which also reveal Ca-phosphate and authigenic carbonate precipitation. Our first experimental results demonstrate that organic pollution and loading regime significantly affect the performance of hydrated ash filters. The material analyses also show that P is incorporated into a carbonate substituted hydroxyapatite phase.

Keywords: Phosphorus, organic pollution, active filtration, apatite, hydrated oil shale ash

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15 Effects of Reclamation on Seasonal Dynamic of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Stoichiometry in Suaeda salsa

Authors: Ning Li, Yaner Yan, Yajun Qiao, Shuqing An

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In order to relieve the pressure on a land resource from a huge population, reclamation has occurred in many coastal wetlands. Plants can maintain their elemental composition within normal limits despite the variations of external conditions. Reclamation may affect carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry in the plant to some extent by altering physical and chemical properties of soil in a coastal wetland. We reported the seasonal dynamic of C, N and P stoichiometry in root, stem and leaf of Suaeda salsa (L.) Pall. and in soil between reclamation plots and natural plots. Our results of three-way ANOVA indicated that sampling season always had significant effect on C, N, P concentrations and their ratios; organ had no significant effect on N, P concentration and N:P; plot type had no significant effect on N concentration and C:N. Sampling season explained the most variability of tissue N and P contents, C:N, C:P and N:P, while it’s organ for C using the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. By independent sample T-test, we found that reclamation affect more on C, N and P stoichiometry of stem than that of root or leaf on the whole. While there was no difference between reclamation plots and natural plots for soil in four seasons. For three organs, C concentration had peak values in autumn and minimum values in spring while N concentration had peak values in spring and minimum values in autumn. For P concentration, three organs all had peak values in spring; however, the root had minimum value in winter, the stem had that in autumn, and leaf had that in summer. The seasonal dynamic of C, N and P stoichiometry in a leaf of Suaeda salsa were much steadier than that in root or stem under the drive of reclamation.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, reclamation, seasonal dynamic, Suaeda salsa

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14 Wadi Halfa Oolitic Ironstone Formation, Wadi Halfa and Argein Areas, North Sudan

Authors: Mutwakil Nafi, Abed Elaziz El Amein, Muna El Dawi, Khalafala Salih, Osma Elbahi, Abed Elhalim Abou

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Recently a large deposit of oolitic iron ore of Late Carboniferous-Permotriassic-Lower Jurassic age was discovered in Wadi Halfa and Argein areas, North Sudan. It seems that the iron ore mineralization exists in the west and east bank of the River Nile of the study area that are found on the Egyptian-Sudanese border. The Carboniferous-Lower Jurassic age strata were covered by 67 sections and each section has been examined and carefully described. The iron-ore in Wadi Halfa occurs as oolitic ironstone and contained two horizons: (A) horizon and (B) horizon. Only horizon (A) was observed in southern Argein area. The texture of the ore is variable depending on the volume of the component. In thin sections the average of the ooids were ranged between 90% - 80%. The matrix varies between 10%-20% by volume and detritus quartz in other component my reach up to 30% by volume in sandy massive ore. Ooids size ranges from 0.2mm-1.00 mm on average in very coarse ooids may attend up to 1 mm in size. The matrix around the ooids is dominated by iron hydroxide, carbonate, fine and amorphous silica. The probable ore reserve estimate of 1.234 billion at a head grade of 41.29% Fe for the Wadi Halfa Oolitic Ironstone Formation. The iron ore shows higher content of phosphorus ranges from 6.15% to 0.16%, with mean 1.45%. The new technology Hatch–Ironstone Chloride Segregation (HICS) can be used to produce commercial-quality of iron and reduce phosphorus and silica to acceptable levels for steel industry. The development of infra structures and presence huge quantity of iron ore would make exploitation of the iron ore economic.

Keywords: Phosphorus, HICS, Late Carboniferous age, oolitic iron ore

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13 Soil Macronutrients Sensing for Precision Agriculture Purpose Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Hossein Navid, Maryam Adeli Khadem, Shahin Oustan, Mahmoud Zareie

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Among the nutrients needed by the plants, three elements containing nitrate, phosphorus and potassium are more important. The objective of this research was measuring these nutrient amounts in soil using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in range of 400- 4000 cm-1. Soil samples for different soil types (sandy, clay and loam) were collected from different areas of East Azerbaijan. Three types of fertilizers in conventional farming (urea, triple superphosphate, potassium sulphate) were used for soil treatment. Each specimen was divided into two categories: The first group was used in the laboratory (direct measurement) to extract nitrate, phosphorus and potassium uptake by colorimetric method of Olsen and ammonium acetate. The second group was used to measure drug absorption spectrometry. In spectrometry, the small amount of soil samples mixed with KBr and was taken in a small pill form. For the tests, the pills were put in the center of infrared spectrometer and graphs were obtained. Analysis of data was done using MINITAB and PLSR software. The data obtained from spectrometry method were compared with amount of soil nutrients obtained from direct drug absorption using EXCEL software. There were good fitting between these two data series. For nitrate, phosphorus and potassium R2 was 79.5%, 92.0% and 81.9%, respectively. Also, results showed that the range of MIR (mid-infrared) is appropriate for determine the amount of soil nitrate and potassium and can be used in future research to obtain detailed maps of land in agricultural use.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Phosphorus, potassium, nitrate, soil nutrients

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12 Determination of Cyanotoxins from Leeukraal and Klipvoor Dams

Authors: Moletsane Makgotso, Mogakabe Elijah, Marrengane Zinhle

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South Africa’s water resources quality is becoming more and more weakened by eutrophication, which deteriorates its usability. Thirty five percent of fresh water resources are eutrophic to hypertrophic, including grossly-enriched reservoirs that go beyond the globally-accepted definition of hypertrophy. Failing infrastructure adds to the problem of contaminated urban runoff which encompasses an important fraction of flows to inland reservoirs, particularly in the non-coastal, economic heartland of the country. Eutrophication threatens the provision of potable and irrigation water in the country because of the dependence on fresh water resources. Eutrophicated water reservoirs increase water treatment costs, leads to unsuitability for recreational purposes and health risks to human and animal livelihood due to algal proliferation. Eutrophication is caused by high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in water bodies. In South Africa, Microsystis and Anabaena are widely distributed cyanobacteria, with Microcystis being the most dominant bloom-forming cyanobacterial species associated with toxin production. Two impoundments were selected, namely the Klipvoor and Leeukraal dams as they are mainly used for fishing, recreational, agricultural and to some extent, potable water purposes. The total oxidized nitrogen and total phosphorus concentration were determined as causative nutrients for eutrophication. Chlorophyll a and total microcystins, as well as the identification of cyanobacteria was conducted as indicators of cyanobacterial infestation. The orthophosphate concentration was determined by subjecting the samples to digestion and filtration followed by spectrophotometric analysis of total phosphates and dissolved phosphates using Aquakem kits. The total oxidized nitrates analysis was conducted by initially conducting filtration followed by spectrophotometric analysis. Chlorophyll a was quantified spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance of before and after acidification. Microcystins were detected using the Quantiplate Microcystin Kit, as well as microscopic identification of cyanobacterial species. The Klipvoor dam was found to be hypertrophic throughout the study period as the mean Chlorophyll a concentration was 269.4µg/l which exceeds the mean value for the hypertrophic state. The mean Total Phosphorus concentration was >0.130mg/l, and the total microcystin concentration was > 2.5µg/l throughout the study. The most predominant algal species were found to be the Microcystis. The Leeukraal dam was found to be mesotrophic with the potential of it becoming eutrophic as the mean concentration for chlorophyll a was 18.49 µg/l with the mean Total Phosphorus > 0.130mg/l and the Total Microcystin concentration < 0.16µg/l. The cyanobacterial species identified in Leeukraal have been classified as those that do not pose a potential risk to any impoundment. Microcystis was present throughout the sampling period and dominant during the warmer seasons. The high nutrient concentrations led to the dominance of Microcystis that resulted in high levels of microcystins rendering the impoundments, particularly Klipvoor undesirable for utilisation.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Cyanobacteria, Phosphorus, microcystins

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11 Use of Silicate or Chicken Compost in Calacarious Soil on Productivity and Mineral Status of Wheat Plants under Different Levels of Phosphorus

Authors: Hanan, S. Siam, Safaa A. Mahmoud, A. S. Taalab

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A pot experiment was conducted in greenhouse of NRC, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt to study the response of wheat plants to different levels of superphosphate at (60kg P2O5 or 30 kg P2O5) with or without potassium silicate or chicken compost (2.5 ton/fed.) on growth yield and nutrients status especially, and phosphorus and silica availability. Data reveal that the addition either chicken or compost increased significantly affected on all the growth and yield parameters as well as nutrients status and protein of the different parts of wheat plants if compared with control (60kg P2O5 or 30 kg P2O5). Data also reveal that the highest mean values were obtained when potassium silicate with was added to 60 kg P2O5, while the lowest values of the previous parameters were obtained when 30 kg P2O5 alone was added to plants. Furthermore, data indicated that the highest mean values of all mentioned parameters were obtained when chicken compost was applied with any rate of P as compared with silica addition at the same rates of P. According to the results, the highest values of all mentioned parameters were obtained when addition of chicken compost and potassium silicate including the high rate of P at (60 kg P2O5) while the lowest values of the previous parameters were obtained when plants received of phosphorus (30 kg P2O5) alone.

Keywords: Wheat, Yield, Phosphorus, potassium, chicken compost, silicate, nutrients status

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10 Ecological Study of Habitat Conditions and Distribution of Cistanche tubulosa (Rare Plant Species) in Pakpattan District, Pakistan

Authors: Shumaila Shakoor

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C. tubulosa is a rare parasitic plant. It is found to be endangered and it acquires nutrition by penetrating roots deep in host roots. It has momentous potential to fulfill local and national health needs. This specie became endangered due to its parasitic mode of life and lack of awareness. Investigation of distribution and habitat conditions of C. tubulosa from District Pakpattan is the objective of this study. To explore its habitat conditions and community ecology phytosociological survey of C. tubulosa in different habitats i.e roadsides and graveyards was carried out. It was found that C. tubulosa occurs successfully in different habitats like graveyards and roadsides with specific neighboring species. Soil analysis was carried out by taking soil samples from seven sites. Soil was analyzed for pH, EC, soil texture, OM, N %age, Ca, Mg, P and K, which shows that soil of C. tubulosa is rich in all these nutrients.

Keywords: Organic Matter, Magnesium, Phosphorus, potassium

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9 Effect of Phosphate and Zinc Biofertilizers on Seed Yield and Molar Ratio of Phytic Acid to Zinc in Two Cultivars of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Authors: M. Mohammadi

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In order to evaluate the effect of phosphate and Zn bio-fertilizers on the yield, phytic acid (PA), Zn concentration and PA/Zn molar ratio in bean, a field experiment was carried out for two years. The treatments included two cultivars of bean (Talash and Sadri), four levels of P (P0, P1: 100 kg ha-1 triple super phosphate (TSP), P2: 50 kg ha-1 TSP + phosphate bio-fertilizer, P3: phosphate bio-fertilizer), three levels of Zn (Zn0, Zn1: 50 kg ha-1 ZnSO4, Zn2: Zn bio-fertilizer). Phosphate bio-fertilizer consisted of inoculum of mycorrhizal fungus and Azotobacter and Zn bio-fertilizer consisted of Pseudomonas bacteria. The results revealed that there was significant difference between yield and Zn concentration between years. The effect of cultivar was significant on studied parameters. The lowest content of PA and PA/Zn were obtained from Talash. P treatment caused to significant difference on parameters in which P2 caused to increase yield, P and Zn concentration, and decrease PA and PA/Zn by 21.8%, 38.2%, 33.4%, 17.4% and 38.6% respectively. Zn treatment caused to significant difference on studied parameters. The maximum number of parameters were obtained from Zn1 and Zn2. The higher Zn concentration led to lower content of PA and PA/Zn. Using of P and Zn bio–fertilizers were caused to increasing nutrient uptake, improving growth condition and reducing PA and PA/Zn molar ratio.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, Phosphorus, zinc, mycorrhizae

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8 Assessment of Escherichia coli along Nakibiso Stream in Mbale Municipality, Uganda

Authors: Abdul Walusansa

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The aim of this study was to assess the level of microbial pollution along Nakibiso stream. The study was carried out in polluted waters of Nakibiso stream, originating from Mbale municipality and running through ADRA Estates to Namatala Wetlands in Eastern Uganda. Four sites along the stream were selected basing on the activities of their vicinity. A total of 120 samples were collected in sterile bottles from the four sampling locations of the stream during the wet and dry seasons of the year 2011. The samples were taken to the National water and Sewerage Cooperation Laboratory for Analysis. Membrane filter technique was used to test for Erischerichia coli. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, turbidity and temperature were also measured. Results for Nitrogen and Phosphorus for sites; 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 1.8, 8.8, 7.7 and 13.8 NH4-N mg/L; and 1.8, 2.1, 1.8 and 2.3 PO4-P mg/L respectively. Basing on these results, it was estimated that farmers use 115 and 24 Kg/acre of Nitrogen and Phosphorus respectively per month. Taking results for Nitrogen, the same amount of Nutrients in artificial fertilizers would cost $ 88. This shows that reuse of wastewater has a potential in terms of nutrients. The results for E. coli for sites 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 1.1 X 107, 9.1 X 105, 7.4 X 105, and 3.4 X 105 respectively. E. coli hence decreased downstream with statistically significant variations between sites 1 and 4. Site 1 had the highest mean E.coli counts. The bacterial contamination was significantly higher during the dry season when more water was needed for irrigation. Although the water had the potential for reuse in farming, bacterial contamination during both seasons was higher than 103 FC/100ml recommended by WHO for unrestricted Agriculture.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Waste water, Water reuse, Phosphorus, E. coli

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7 Erosion and Deposition of Terrestrial Soil Supplies Nutrients to Estuaries and Coastal Bays: A Flood Simulation Study of Sediment-Nutrient Flux

Authors: Kaitlyn O'Mara, Michele Burford

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Estuaries and coastal bays can receive large quantities of sediment from surrounding catchments during flooding or high flow periods. Large river systems that feed freshwater into estuaries can flow through several catchments of varying geology. Human modification of catchments for agriculture, industry and urban use can contaminate soils with excess nutrients, trace metals and other pollutants. Land clearing, especially clearing of riparian vegetation, can accelerate erosion, mobilising, transporting and depositing soil particles into rivers, estuaries and coastal bays. In this study, a flood simulation experiment was used to study the flux of nutrients between soil particles and water during this erosion, transport and deposition process. Granite, sedimentary and basalt surface soils (as well as sub-soils of granite and sedimentary) were collected from eroding areas surrounding the Brisbane River, Australia. The <63 µm size fraction of each soil type was tumbled in freshwater for 3 days, to simulation flood erosion and transport, followed by stationary exposure to seawater for 4 weeks, to simulate deposition into estuaries. Filtered water samples were taken at multiple time points throughout the experiment and analysed for water nutrient concentrations. The highest rates of nutrient release occurred during the first hour of exposure to freshwater and seawater, indicating a chemical reaction with seawater that may act to release some nutrient particles that remain bound to the soil during turbulent freshwater transport. Although released at a slower rate than the first hour, all of the surface soil types showed continual ammonia, nitrite and nitrate release over the 4-week seawater exposure, suggesting that these soils may provide ongoing supply of these nutrients to estuarine waters after deposition. Basalt surface soil released the highest concentrations of phosphates and dissolved organic phosphorus. Basalt soils are found in much of the agricultural land surrounding the Brisbane River and contributed largely to the 2011 Brisbane River flood plume deposit in Moreton Bay, suggesting these soils may be a source of phosphate enrichment in the bay. The results of this study suggest that erosion of catchment soils during storm and flood events may be a source of nutrient supply in receiving waterways, both freshwater and marine, and that the amount of nutrient release following these events may be affected by the type of soil deposited. For example, flooding in different catchments of a river system over time may result in different algal and food web responses in receiving estuaries.

Keywords: Flood, nutrient, Soil, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sediment

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6 Phosphorus Recovery Optimization in Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Abdullah Almatouq

Abstract:

Understanding the impact of key operational variables on concurrent energy generation and phosphorus recovery in microbial fuel cell is required to improve the process and reduce the operational cost. In this study, full factorial design (FFD) and central composite designs (CCD) were employed to identify the effect of influent COD concentration and cathode aeration flow rate on energy generation and phosphorus (P) recovery and to optimise MFC power density and P recovery. Results showed that influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and cathode aeration flow rate had a significant effect on power density, coulombic efficiency, phosphorus precipitation efficiency and phosphorus precipitation rate at the cathode. P precipitation was negatively affected by the generated current during the batch duration. The generated energy was reduced due to struvite being precipitated on the cathode surface, which might obstruct the mass transfer of ions and oxygen. Response surface mathematical model was used to predict the optimum operating conditions that resulted in a maximum power density and phosphorus precipitation efficiency of 184 mW/m² and 84%, and this corresponds to COD= 1700 mg/L and aeration flow rate=210 mL/min. The findings highlight the importance of the operational conditions of energy generation and phosphorus recovery.

Keywords: Energy, Phosphorus, microbial fuel cell, struvite

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5 The Interactions between Phosphorus Leaching and Lime Application in Undisturbed Soil Columns with Different Soil Textures

Authors: Faezeh Eslamian, Zhiming Qi, Michael J. Tate

Abstract:

Phosphorus losses from agricultural fields through leaching is one of the main contributors to eutrophication of lakes in Quebec as well as North America. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the application of high calcium hydrated lime as a soil amendment in reducing the subsurface transport of phosphorus to water bodies by studying the interactions between phosphorus leaching and lime application in three common agricultural soil textures (sandy loam, loam and clay loam) in Quebec. For this purpose, 6 intact soil columns of 10 cm diameter and 20 cm deep were taken from each of the three different soil textured agricultural fields. Lime (high calcium hydrated lime) was applied to the top 5 cm of half of the intact soil columns while the rest were left as controls. The columns were leached with artificial rainwater in-consecutively at a rate of 3 mm h-1 over a 90-day period. The total amount of water added was equal to the average total rainfall of the region in fall. The leachate samples were collected daily and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron. The results showed that lime was able to significantly reduce dissolved reactive phosphorus concentrations in the leachates by 70 and 40 percent in sandy loam and loam soil columns, respectively, while phosphorus concentration in the clay loam soil leachates were increased by 40 percent. The calcium in lime has P-binding capabilities. Soil chemical properties in sandy and loamy soils can affect phosphorus leaching, whereas, transport mechanisms in clay soils with macropores dominate phosphorus leaching behaviors. The presence of preferential pathways and cracks in the clay soil columns has led to a quick transport of phosphorus through the soil and the less contact time with the soil matrix, therefore, causing less opportunity for P sorption and larger P release. Application of lime to agricultural fields can be considered as a promising measure in mitigating phosphorus loss from sandy loam and loam soils.

Keywords: Leaching, lime, Phosphorus, soil texture

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4 Bioavailability of Zinc to Wheat Grown in the Calcareous Soils of Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Muhammed Saeed Rasheed

Abstract:

Knowledge of the zinc and phytic acid (PA) concentrations of staple cereal crops are essential when evaluating the nutritional health of national and regional populations. In the present study, a total of 120 farmers’ fields in Iraqi Kurdistan were surveyed for zinc status in soil and wheat grain samples; wheat is the staple carbohydrate source in the region. Soils were analysed for total concentrations of phosphorus (PT) and zinc (ZnT), available P (POlsen) and Zn (ZnDTPA) and for pH. Average values (mg kg-1) ranged between 403-3740 (PT), 42.0-203 (ZnT), 2.13-28.1 (POlsen) and 0.14-5.23 (ZnDTPA); pH was in the range 7.46-8.67. The concentrations of Zn, PA/Zn molar ratio and estimated Zn bioavailability were also determined in wheat grain. The ranges of Zn and PA concentrations (mg kg⁻¹) were 12.3-63.2 and 5400 – 9300, respectively, giving a PA/Zn molar ratio of 15.7-30.6. A trivariate model was used to estimate intake of bioaccessible Zn, employing the following parameter values: (i) maximum Zn absorption = 0.09 (AMAX), (ii) equilibrium dissociation constant of zinc-receptor binding reaction = 0.680 (KP), and (iii) equilibrium dissociation constant of Zn-PA binding reaction = 0.033 (KR). In the model, total daily absorbed Zn (TAZ) (mg d⁻¹) as a function of total daily nutritional PA (mmole d⁻¹) and total daily nutritional Zn (mmole Zn d⁻¹) was estimated assuming an average wheat flour consumption of 300 g day⁻¹ in the region. Consideration of the PA and Zn intake suggest only 21.5±2.9% of grain Zn is bioavailable so that the effective Zn intake from wheat is only 1.84-2.63 mg d-1 for the local population. Overall results suggest available dietary Zn is below recommended levels (11 mg d⁻¹), partly due to low uptake by wheat but also due to the presence of large concentrations of PA in wheat grains. A crop breeding program combined with enhanced agronomic management methods is needed to enhance both Zn uptake and bioavailability in grains of cultivated wheat types.

Keywords: Phosphorus, phytic acid, zinc, phytic acid to zinc molar ratio, zinc bioavailability

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3 Assessment of Biotic and Abiotic Water Factors of Antiao and Jiabong Rivers for Benthic Algae

Authors: Geno Paul S. Cumla, Jan Mariel M. Gentiles, M. Brenda Gajelan-Samson

Abstract:

Eutrophication is a process where in there is a surplus of nutrients present in a lake or river. Harmful cyanobacteria, hypoxia, and primarily algae, which contain toxins, grow because of the excess nutrients. Algal blooms can cause fish kills, limiting the light penetration which reduces growth of aquatic organisms, causing die-offs of plants and produce conditions that are dangerous to aquatic and human life. The main cause for eutrophication is the presence of excessive amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). Nitrogen is necessary for the production of the plant tissues and is usually used to synthesize proteins. Nitrate is a compound that contains nitrogen, and at elevated levels it can cause harmful effects. Excessive amounts of phosphorus, displaced through human activity, is the major cause of algae growth and as well as degraded water quality. To accomplish this study the Assessment of Soluble inorganic nitrogen (SIN), Assessment of Soluble reactive phosphate (SRP), Determination of Chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration, and Determination of Dominating Taxa were done. The study addresses the high probability of algal blooms in Maqueda Bay by assessing the biotic and abiotic factors of Antiao and Jiabong rivers. The data predicts the overgrowth of algae and to create awareness to prevent the event from taking place. The study assesses the adverse effects that could be prevented by understanding and controlling algae. This should predict future cases of algal blooms and allow government agencies which require data to create programs to prevent and assess these issues.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Eutrophication, sin, Phosphorus, spectrophotometer, SRP, red tide, chlorophyll a, Kjeldahl method, assessment of soluble inorganic nitrogen, assessment of soluble reactive phosphate

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2 Effect of Supplemental Phytase on the Digestibility of Crude Protein and Phosphorus of Rice Husk in Broiler Chicken

Authors: Ibinabo I. Ilaboya, Eustace A. Iyayi

Abstract:

Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable mineral in broiler diets. Rice husk contains phytate-P and other nutrients like protein, carbohydrates, which are poorly digested in broiler chickens. Broiler chickens (BC) lacks sufficient phytase to help hydrolyse phytate-bound P. Hence excess of P is excreted by these chickens into the environment causing environmental pollution. Supplementation of such diets with microbial phytase helps to improve the digestibility of these nutrients. The study was conducted to determine the effect of phytase supplementation on the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and P of rice husk in BC. Six semi-purified diets of three levels of total P (3.46, 4.91 and 6.37g/kg) without and with 1,000 units of phytase per kg were formulated. Titanium dioxide was added to the diets at the rate of 5g/kg as an indigestible marker. At 20dposthatch, 288 broilers (Abor Acre) were weighed and allotted to the diets with 6 replicates of 8 birds each in a randomized complete block design. The birds had free access to the experimental diets until day 26 post-hatch. Phytase supplementation increased (p < 0.05) digestibility of P from 75-93%. Rice husk and its interaction with phytase had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on P digestibility, whereas there was significant (p < 0.01) effect on the interaction of rice husk with phytase on CP digestibility. There were linear increases (p < 0.01) in digested P and CP with phytase supplementation. The P and CP losses from the BC was reduced with the addition of phytase. Results suggest that supplementation of rice husk-based diets with microbial phytase improved pre-caecal digestibility of P and CP in broilers.

Keywords: Phosphorus, phytase, rice husk, crude protein

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1 Practices of Waterwise Circular Economy in Water Protection: A Case Study on Pyhäjärvi, SW Finland

Authors: Jari Koskiaho, Teija Kirkkala, Jani Salminen, Sarianne Tikkanen, Sirkka Tattari

Abstract:

Here, phosphorus (P) loading to the lake Pyhäjärvi (SW Finland) was reviewed, load reduction targets were determined, and different measures of waterwise circular economy to reach the targets were evaluated. In addition to the P loading from the lake’s catchment, there is a significant amount of internal P loading occurring in the lake. There are no point source emissions into the lake. Thus, the most important source of external nutrient loading is agriculture. According to the simulations made with LLR-model, the chemical state of the lake is at the border of the classes ‘Satisfactory’ and ‘Good’. The LLR simulations suggest that a reduction of some hundreds of kilograms in annual P loading would be needed to reach an unquestionably ‘Good’ state. Evaluation of the measures of the waterwise circular economy suggested that they possess great potential in reaching the target P load reduction. If they were applied extensively and in a versatile, targeted manner in the catchment, their combined effect would reach the target reduction. In terms of cost-effectiveness, the waterwise measures were ranked as follows: The best: Fishing, 2nd best: Recycling of vegetation of reed beds, wetlands and buffer zones, 3rd best: Recycling field drainage waters stored in wetlands and ponds for irrigation, 4th best: Controlled drainage and irrigation, and 5th best: Recycling of the sediments of wetlands and ponds for soil enrichment. We also identified various waterwise nutrient recycling measures to decrease the P content of arable land. The cost-effectiveness of such measures may be very good. Solutions are needed to Finnish water protection in general, and particularly for regions like lake Pyhäjärvi catchment with intensive domestic animal production, of which the ‘P-hotspots’ are a crucial issue.

Keywords: Circular economy, Phosphorus, lake protection, mitigation measures

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