Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

phosphorous Related Abstracts

3 The Determination of the Phosphorous Solubility in the Iron by the Function of the Other Components

Authors: Andras Dezső, Peter Baumli, George Kaptay


The phosphorous is the important components in the steels, because it makes the changing of the mechanical properties and possibly modifying the structure. The phosphorous can be create the Fe3P compounds, what is segregated in the ferrite grain boundary in the intervals of the nano-, or microscale. This intermetallic compound is decreasing the mechanical properties, for example it makes the blue brittleness which means that the brittle created by the segregated particles at 200 ... 300°C. This work describes the phosphide solubility by the other components effect. We make calculations for the Ni, Mo, Cu, S, V, C, Si, Mn, and the Cr elements by the Thermo-Calc software. We predict the effects by approximate functions. The binary Fe-P system has a solubility line, which has a determinating equation. The result is below: lnwo = -3,439 – 1.903/T where the w0 means the weight percent of the maximum soluted concentration of the phosphorous, and the T is the temperature in Kelvin. The equation show that the P more soluble element when the temperature increasing. The nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, manganese, and the chromium make dependence to the maximum soluted concentration. These functions are more dependent by the elements concentration, which are lower when we put these elements in our steels. The copper, sulphur and carbon do not make effect to the phosphorous solubility. We predict that all of cases the maximum solubility concentration increases when the temperature more and more high. Between 473K and 673 K, in the phase diagram, these systems contain mostly two or three phase eutectoid, and the singe phase, ferritic intervals. In the eutectoid areas the ferrite, the iron-phosphide, and the metal (III)-phospide are in the equilibrium. In these modelling we predicted that which elements are good for avoid the phosphide segregation or not. These datas are important when we make or choose the steels, where the phosphide segregation stopping our possibilities.

Keywords: steel, segregation, phosphorous, thermo-calc software

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2 Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilizer Response on Growth and Yield of Hybrid Luffa –Naga F1 Variety

Authors: D. R. T. N. K. Dissanayake, H. M. S. K. Herath, H. K. S. G. Gunadasa, P. Weerasinghe


Luffa is a tropical and subtropical vegetable, belongs to family Cucurbiteceae. It is predominantly monoecious in sex expression and provides an ample scope for utilization of hybrid vigor. Hybrid varieties develop through open pollination, produce higher yields due to its hybrid vigor. Naga F1 hybrid variety consists number of desirable traits other than higher yield such as strong and vigorous plants, fruits with long deep ridges, attractive green color fruits ,better fruit weight, length and early maturity compared to the local Luffa cultivars. Unavailability of fertilizer recommendations for hybrid cucurbit vegetables leads to an excess fertilizer application causing a vital environmental issue that creates undesirable impacts on nature and the human health. Main Objective of this research is to determine effect of different nitrogen and potassium fertilizer rates on growth and yield of Naga F1 Variety. Other objectives are, to evaluate specific growth parameters and yield, to identify the optimum nitrogen and potassium fertilizer levels based on growth and yield of hybrid Luffa variety. As well as to formulate the general fertilizer recommendation for hybrid Luffa -Naga F1 variety.

Keywords: Hybrid, Nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous

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1 Application of Response Surface Methodology to Assess the Impact of Aqueous and Particulate Phosphorous on Diazotrophic and Non-Diazotrophic Cyanobacteria Associated with Harmful Algal Blooms

Authors: Elizabeth Crafton, Donald Ott, Teresa Cutright


Harmful algal blooms (HABs), more notably cyanobacteria-dominated HABs, compromise water quality, jeopardize access to drinking water and are a risk to public health and safety. HABs are representative of ecosystem imbalance largely caused by environmental changes, such as eutrophication, that are associated with the globally expanding human population. Cyanobacteria-dominated HABs are anticipated to increase in frequency, magnitude, and are predicted to plague a larger geographical area as a result of climate change. The weather pattern is important as storm-driven, pulse-input of nutrients have been correlated to cyanobacteria-dominated HABs. The mobilization of aqueous and particulate nutrients and the response of the phytoplankton community is an important relationship in this complex phenomenon. This relationship is most apparent in high-impact areas of adequate sunlight, > 20ᵒC, excessive nutrients and quiescent water that corresponds to ideal growth of HABs. Typically the impact of particulate phosphorus is dismissed as an insignificant contribution; which is true for areas that are not considered high-impact. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a simulated storm-driven, pulse-input of reactive phosphorus and the response of three different cyanobacteria assemblages (~5,000 cells/mL). The aqueous and particulate sources of phosphorus and changes in HAB were tracked weekly for 4 weeks. The first cyanobacteria composition consisted of Planktothrix sp., Microcystis sp., Aphanizomenon sp., and Anabaena sp., with 70% of the total population being non-diazotrophic and 30% being diazotrophic. The second was comprised of Anabaena sp., Planktothrix sp., and Microcystis sp., with 87% diazotrophic and 13% non-diazotrophic. The third composition has yet to be determined as these experiments are ongoing. Preliminary results suggest that both aqueous and particulate sources are contributors of total reactive phosphorus in high-impact areas. The results further highlight shifts in the cyanobacteria assemblage after the simulated pulse-input. In the controls, the reactors dosed with aqueous reactive phosphorus maintained a constant concentration for the duration of the experiment; whereas, the reactors that were dosed with aqueous reactive phosphorus and contained soil decreased from 1.73 mg/L to 0.25 mg/L of reactive phosphorus from time zero to 7 days; this was higher than the blank (0.11 mg/L). Suggesting a binding of aqueous reactive phosphorus to sediment, which is further supported by the positive correlation observed between total reactive phosphorus concentration and turbidity. The experiments are nearly completed and a full statistical analysis will be completed of the results prior to the conference.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, Harmful Algal Blooms, response surface methodology, phosphorous, Anabaena, Microcystis

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