Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

phosphate Related Abstracts

7 Efficacy of Combined CHAp and Lanthanum Carbonate in Therapy for Hyperphosphatemia

Authors: Andreea Carac, Elena Moroşan, Ana Corina Ioniță, Geta Cârâc, Rica Bosencu


Lanthanum carbonate exhibits a considerable ability to bind phosphate and the substitution of Ca2+ ions by divalent or trivalent lanthanide metal ions attracted attention during the past few years. Although Lanthanum carbonate has not been approved by the FDA for treatment of hyperphosphatemia, we prospectively evaluated the efficacy of the combination of Calcium hydroxyapatite and Lanthanum carbonate for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia on mice. Calcium hydroxyapatite commonly referred as CHAp is a bioceramic material and is one of the most important implantable materials due to its biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. We prepared calcium hydroxyapatite and lanthanum carbonate. CHAp was prepared by co-precipitation method using Ca(OH)2, H3PO4, NH4OH with calcination at 1200ºC. Lanthanum carbonate was prepared by chemical method using NaHCO3 and LaCl3 at low pH environment , ph below 4.0 The confirmation of both substances structures was made using XRD characterization, FTIR spectra and SEM /EDX analysis. The study group included 20 subjects-mice divided into four groups according to the administered substance: lanthanum carbonate (group A), lanthanum carbonate + CHAp (group B), CHAp (group C) and salt water (group D). The results indicate a phosphate decrease when subjects (mice) were treated with CHAp and lanthanum carbonate (0.5 % CMC), in a single dose of 1500 mg/kg. Serum phosphate concentration decreased [from 4.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL) to 4.05 ± 0.2 mg/dL), P < 0.01] in group A and to 3.6 ± 0.2 mg/dL] only after the 24 hours of combination therapy. The combination of CHAp and lanthanum carbonate is a suitable regimen for hyperphosphatemia treatment subjects because it avoids both the hypercalcemia of CaCO3 and the adverse effects of CHAp. The ability of CHAp to decrease the serum phosphate concentration is 1/3 that of lanthanum carbonate.

Keywords: structures, calcium hydroxyapatite, hyperphosphatemia, lanthanum carbonate, phosphate

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6 Investigation of Pollution and the Physical and Chemical Condition of Polour River, East of Tehran, Iran

Authors: Azita Behbahaninia


This research has been carried out to determine the water quality and physico-chemical properties Polour River, one of the most branch of Haraz River. Polour River was studied for a period of one year Samples were taken from different stations along the main branch of River polour. In water samples determined pH, DO, SO4, Cl, PO4, NO3, EC, BOD, COD, Temprature, color and number of Caliform per liter. ArcGIS was used for the zoning of phosphate concentration in the polour River basin. The results indicated that the river is polluted in polour village station, because of discharge domestic wastewater and also river is polluted in Ziar village station, because of agricultural wastewater and water is contaminated in aquaculture station, because of fish ponds wastewater. Statistical analysis shows that between independent traits and coliform regression relationship is significant at the 1% level. Coefficient explanation index indicated independent traits control 80% coliform and 20 % is for unknown parameters. The causality analysis showed Temperature (0.6) has the most positive and direct effect on coliform and sulfate has direct and negative effect on coliform. The results of causality analysis and the results of the regression analysis are matched and other forms direct and indirect effects were negligible and ignorable. Kruskal-Wallis test showed, there is different between sampling stations and studied characters. Between stations for temperature, DO, COD, EC, sulfate and coliform is at 1 % and for phosphate 5 % level of significance.

Keywords: Pollution, GIS, phosphate, river, coliform

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5 Using Morlet Wavelet Filter to Denoising Geoelectric ‘Disturbances’ Map of Moroccan Phosphate Deposit ‘Disturbances’

Authors: Saad Bakkali


Morocco is a major producer of phosphate, with an annual output of 19 million tons and reserves in excess of 35 billion cubic meters. This represents more than 75% of world reserves. Resistivity surveys have been successfully used in the Oulad Abdoun phosphate basin. A Schlumberger resistivity survey over an area of 50 hectares was carried out. A new field procedure based on analytic signal response of resistivity data was tested to deal with the presence of phosphate deposit disturbances. A resistivity map was expected to allow the electrical resistivity signal to be imaged in 2D. 2D wavelet is standard tool in the interpretation of geophysical potential field data. Wavelet transform is particularly suitable in denoising, filtering and analyzing geophysical data singularities. Wavelet transform tools are applied to analysis of a moroccan phosphate deposit ‘disturbances’. Wavelet approach applied to modeling surface phosphate “disturbances” was found to be consistently useful.

Keywords: Wavelet, resistivity, Morocco, phosphate, Schlumberger

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4 Substitution of Phosphate with Liquid Smoke as a Binder on the Quality of Chicken Nugget

Authors: M. Yusuf, E. Abustam, M. I. Said


One of functional properties of the meat is decrease of water holding capacity (WHC) during rigor mortis. At the time of pre-rigor, WHC is higher than post-rigor. The decline of WHC has implication to the other functional properties such as decreased cooking lost and yields resulting in lower elasticity and compactness of processed meat product. In many cases, the addition of phosphate in the meat will increase the functional properties of the meat such as WHC. Furthermore, liquid smoke has also been known in increasing the WHC of fresh meat. For food safety reasons, liquid smoke in the present study was used as a substitute to phosphate in production of chicken nuggets. This study aimed to know the effect of substitution of phosphate with liquid smoke on the quality of nuggets made from post-rigor chicken thigh and breast. The study was arranged using completely randomized design of factorial pattern 2x3 with three replications. Factor 1 was thigh and breast parts of the chicken, and factor 2 was different levels of liquid smoke in substitution to phosphate (0%, 50%, and 100%). The thigh and breast post-rigor broiler aged 40 days were used as the main raw materials in making nuggets. Auxiliary materials instead of meat were phosphate, liquid smoke at concentration of 10%, tapioca flour, salt, eggs and ice. Variables measured were flexibility, shear force value, cooking loss, elasticity level, and preferences. The results of this study showed that the substitution of phosphate with 100% liquid smoke resulting high quality nuggets. Likewise, the breast part of the meat showed higher quality nuggets than thigh part. This is indicated by high elasticity, low shear force value, low cooking loss, and a high level of preference of the nuggets. It can be concluded that liquid smoke can be used as a binder in making nuggets of chicken post-rigor.

Keywords: phosphate, liquid smoke, nugget quality, post-rigor

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3 Acid Mine Drainage Remediation Using Silane and Phosphate Coatings

Authors: M. Chiliza, H. P. Mbukwane, P Masita, H. Rutto


Acid mine drainage (AMD) one of the main pollutants of water in many countries that have mining activities. AMD results from the oxidation of pyrite and other metal sulfides. When these metals gets exposed to moisture and oxygen, leaching takes place releasing sulphate and Iron. Acid drainage is often noted by 'yellow boy,' an orange-yellow substance that occurs when the pH of acidic mine-influenced water raises above pH 3, so that the previously dissolved iron precipitates out. The possibility of using environmentally friendly silane and phosphate based coatings on pyrite to remediate acid mine drainage and prevention at source was investigated. The results showed that both coatings reduced chemical oxidation of pyrite based on Fe and sulphate release. Furthermore, it was found that silane based coating performs better when coating synthesis take place in a basic hydrolysis than in an acidic state.

Keywords: pyrite, phosphate, acid mine drainage, silane

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2 Effect of BaO-Bi₂O₃-P₂O₅ Glass Additive on Structural and Dielectric Properties of BaTiO₃ Ceramics

Authors: El Mehdi Haily, Lahcen Bih, Mohammed Azrour, Bouchaib Manoun


The effects of xBi₂O₃-yBaO-zP₂O₅ (BBP) glass addition on the sintering, structural, and dielectric properties of BaTiO₃ ceramic (BT) are studied. The BT ceramic was synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method while the glasses BaO-Bi₂O₃-P₂O₅ (BBP) were elaborated by melting and quenching process. Different composites BT-xBBP were formed by mixing the BBP glasses with BT ceramic. For each glass composition, where the ratio (x:y:z) is maintained constant, we have developed three composites with different glass weight percentage (x = 2.5, 5, and 7.5 wt %). Addition of the glass helps in better sintering at lower temperatures with the presence of liquid phase at the respective sintering temperatures. The results showed that the sintering temperature decreased from more than 1300°C to 900°C. Density measurements of the composites are performed using the standard Archimedean method with water as medium liquid. It is found that their density and molar volume decrease and increase with glass content, respectively. Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize their structural approach. This technique has allowed the identification of different structural units of phosphate and the characteristic vibration modes of the BT. The electrical properties of the composite samples are carried out by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz under various temperatures from 300 to 473 K. The obtained results show that their dielectric properties depend both on the content of the glass in the composite and the Bi/P ratio in the glasses.

Keywords: Glasses, Raman spectroscopy, Composite, phosphate, dielectric properties

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1 Synthesis, Structure and Properties of NZP/NASICON Structured Materials

Authors: E. A. Asabina, V. I. Pet'kov, P. A. Mayorov, A. V. Markin, N. N. Smirnova, A. M. Kovalskii, A. A. Usenko


The purpose of this work was to synthesize and investigate phase formation, structure and thermophysical properties of the phosphates M0.5+xM'xZr2–x(PO4)3 (M – Cd, Sr, Pb; M' – Mg, Co, Mn). The compounds were synthesized by sol-gel method. The results showed formation of limited solid solutions of NZP/NASICON type. The crystal structures of triple phosphates of the compositions MMg0.5Zr1.5(PO4)3 were refined by the Rietveld method using XRD data. Heat capacity (8–660 K) of the phosphates Pb0.5+xMgxZr2-x(PO4)3 (x = 0, 0.5) was measured, and reversible polymorphic transitions were found at temperatures, close to the room temperature. The results of Rietveld structure refinement showed the polymorphism caused by disordering of lead cations in the cavities of NZP/NASICON structure. Thermal expansion (298−1073 K) of the phosphates MMg0.5Zr1.5(PO4)3 was studied by XRD method, and the compounds were found to belong to middle and low-expanding materials. Thermal diffusivity (298–573 K) of the ceramic samples of phosphates slightly decreased with temperature increasing. As was demonstrated, the studied phosphates are characterized by the better thermophysical characteristics than widespread fire-resistant materials, such as zirconia and etc.

Keywords: Synthesis, Structure, Thermophysical Properties, phosphate, NASICON, NZP

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